Henle Latin Grammar Rules 6-14

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Accents on two syllable words
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In words of two syllables, the accent is on the first. vīa, bēllum
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Accents on more than two syllable words
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In words of more than two syllables, if the second last syllable is long it is accented; otherwise, the accent is on the third syllable. viderunt; agmine
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Short syllables
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A syllable is short if it contains a vowel that is short by nature or that is followed by another vowel or diphthong. regere; gloria
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Long syllables
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A syllable is long if it contains a vowel that is long by nature or a vowel that is followed by two consonants other than a mute (c,g,p,t,d) or f followed by a liquid (r,l). studere; regendus
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Nouns
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Nouns have gender, number, case, and declension.
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The Five Declensions
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There are five declensions in Latin. They can be distinguished by the endings of the genitive singular. 1. -ae 2. -i 3. -is 4. -us 5. ei
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Declension
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Declension consists in adding the proper endings to the stem to show the different genders, numbers, and cases.
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Stem
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The stem is found by dropping the ending of the genitive singular.
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Single consonants
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A single consonant goes with the following vowel. mā/ter; nau/ta; nō/men
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Two + consonants
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Two or more consonants are divided after the first. por/ta; exer/citus; pul/chra
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Exception to consonant division
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But when a mute (c, g, p, b, t, d,) or f is followed by r or l, both consonants are divided after the first. la/crima; a/grum; pa/trem; va/fra; locu/ples
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More on Consonants
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x and z each count as one consonant (cs and ds); h and the u in qu do not count as consonants.
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Masculine nouns
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nouns meaning individual male persons are masculine.

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