Health Final Exam Study Guide (Semester 2)

Adolescence
The period between childhood and adulthood.

Puberty
The time when a person begins to develop certain traits of adults of his or her gender.

Cognition
The ability to reason and think out abstract solurtions.

Main Idea (Pg 496)
Adolenscents begin moving toward adulthood during puberty.

Main Idea (Pg 499)
Adolescents will develop independence, find their identity, and establish their personal values.

Physical maturity
The state at which the physical body and all itds organs are fully developed

Emotional maturity
The state of which the mental and emotional capabilities of an individual are fully developed.

Commitment
A promise or pledge.

Adoption
The legal process of taking a child of other parents as ones own.

self directed
Able to make correct decisions about behavior when adults are not present to enforce words.

unconditional love
Love without limits or quantifications.

Sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s)
Infections spread from one person to another through sexual contact.

Sexually transmittel infections (STI’s)
Another name for STD’s

Asymptomatic
Individuals show no symptoms, or the symptoms are mild and disappear after the onset of the infection.

HPV Vaccine
A vaccine that can prevent cervical cancer, pre cancerous genital lesions (or sores), and genital warts caused by genital HPV infection.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
A virus that attacks the immune system.

Aquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
A disease in which the immune system is weakened.

Sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s)
Infections spread from one person to another through sexual contact.

Sexually transmittel infections (STI’s)
Another name for STD’s

Asymptomatic
Individuals show no symptoms, or the symptoms are mild and disappear after the onset of the infection.

HPV Vaccine
A vaccine that can prevent cervical cancer, pre cancerous genital lesions (or sores), and genital warts caused by genital HPV infection.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
A virus that attacks the immune system.

Aquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
A disease in which the immune system is weakened.

Plasma
The fluid in which other partys of the blood are suspended.

Hemoglobin
The oxygen carring protein in blood

platelets
Types of cells in the blood that caause blood clots to form.

Capillaries
Small vessels that carry blood from arterioles and to small vessels called venules.

Lymph
The clear fluid that fills the spaces around the body cells.

Pathogen
A microscopic organism that causes disease.

Blood pressure
A measure of the amount of force that the blood places on the walls of the blood vessels, particularly large arteries, as it is pumped through the body.

Noncomunnicable disease
A disease that is not transmitted by another person, a vector, or the enviorment.

Cardiovascular disease
A disease that affects the heart or blood vessels.

Hypertension
High blood pressure

Atherosclerosis
A disease characterized by the accumulation of plaque on the artery walls.

Atheriosclerosis
Hardened arteries with reduced artery walls.

Angina Pectoris
Chest pain that results when the heart does not get enough oxygen.

Arrythmias
Irregular heartbeats

Stroke
An acute injury in which blood flow to the brain is interrupted.

Cartilage
A strong, flexible connective tissue.

Ossification
The process by which bone iss formed, renewed, and repaired.

Ligament
A band of fibrous , slightly elastic connectivetissue that attaches one bone to another.

Tendon
Fibrous cord that attaches muscle to the bone.

Smooth muscles
Muscles that act on the lining of the bodies passageways and hollow internal organs.

Skeletal muscles
Muscles attached to bone that cuasebody movements.

Flexor
The muscle that closes a joint.

Extensor
Muscle that opens a joint.

Cardiac muscle
A type of straited muscle that forms the wall of the heart.

Tendonitis
The inflammation of a tendon.

Hernia
Occurs when an organ or tissue protrudes through an area of a weak muscle.

Neurons
Nerve cells (trans mit messages to and frm the spinal cord and the brain)

Cerebrum
The largest and most complex part of the brain.

Brainstem
3-inch long stalk of nerve cells and fibers that connects the spinal cord to the rest of the brain.

Epilepsy
A disorder of the nervous system that is characterized by recurrent seizures- sudden episoeds of uncontrol electrical activity in the brain.

Cerebral palsy
A group of neurological disorders that are the result of damage to the brain before, during, and after birth or in early childhood.

Cerebellum
The second largest part of the brain

Metabolism
The proccess by which the body breaks down substances and gets energy from food.

Body mass index
A measure of body weight relative to height.

Overweight
Heavier than standard weight range of your height.

underweight
Below the standard weight range for your height.

Body image
The way you see your body.

Fad diets
Weight loss plans that tend to be popular for only a short time.

Weight Cycling
A repeated pattrern of loosing and remaining body weight.

Eating disorders
Exreme, harmful eating behaviors that csn cause serious illness or even death.

Anorexia Nervosa
An eating disorder in which an irrational fear of weight gain leads people to starve themselves.

Bulimia Nervosa
An eating disorder that involves cycles of overeating and purging, or attempts to rid tyhe body of food.

Binge Eating Disorder
An eating disorder in which overeat completely.

Vegeterian
A person who eats mostly or only plant based foods.

Dietary supplements
Products that supply one or more nutrients as a supplement to, not a substince for, healthyful foods.

Performance Enhancers
Substances that boost athletic ability.

Herbal supplements
Dietary supplements containing plant abstracts.

Meghadoses
Very large amounts of any supplement that can be dangerous.

Nutrition
The proccess by which your body takes in and uses food.

Nutrients
Substances in food that your body needs to grow, to repair itself, and to supply with energy.

Calorie
A unit of heat used to measure the energy your body uses and the energy it recieves from food.

Hunger
The natural physical drive to eat, prompted by the body’s need for food.

Appetite
The psychological desire for food.

Carbohydrates
Starches and sugars found in foods, which provide your body’s main source of energy.

Fiber
A tough complex carbohydrate that the body cannot digest.

Proteins
Nutrienrs the body uses to build and maintain it’s cells and tissues

Cholesterol
A waxy, fatlike substance

Vitamins
Compounds found in food that help regulate many body processes.

Osteoporosis
A condition in which the bones become fragile and break easily.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans
A set of recomendations about smart eating and physical activity for all Americans

MyPyramid
An interactive guide to healthful eating and active living.

Nutrient-Dense
Have a high ration of nutrients to calories.

Food Additives
Substances added to a food to produce a desired effect.

Foodbourne illness
Food poisoning

Pasterization
Treating a substance with heat to kill or sloww the growth of pathogens.

Cross-contamination
The spreading of pathogens from one food to another.

Food Allergy
A condition in which the body’s immune system reacts to substances in some foods.

Food Intolerance
A negative reaction to food that doesn’t involve the immune system.

Health
The combination of physical, mental/emotional, and social well being.

Spiritual health
A deep seated sense of meaning and purpose in life.

Wellness
An overall state of well being or total health.

Chronic Disease
An ongoing condition or illness (ex. heart disease, obesity, and cancer).

Heredity
All the traits that were biologically passed on to you from your parents.

Enviorment
The Sum of Your surroundings.

Peers
People of the same age who sharte similar interests

Culture
The collective beliefs, customs, and behaviors of a group.

Media
Various methods for communicating information.

Technology
Content that is delivered, such as radio, television, and the internet.

Risk behaviors
Actions that can potentially threaten your health or the health of others.

Cumulative risks
Related risks that increase in effect with each added risk.

Abstinence
A deliberate decision to avoid high risk behaviors, including sexual activity and use of tobacco, and other drugs

LIfe style factors
Personal habits or behaviors related to the way a person lives.

Health education
Providing accurate health information and teaching health skills to help people make healthy decisions

Healthy people
A nationwide health promotion improving the health of all people in the united states.

Health disparities
Differences in health outcomes among groups

Health literacy
A persons capacity to learn about and to use these resources to promote ones health and wellness.

Health skills
Specific tools and strategies to maintain, protect, and improve all aspects of your health

Interpersonal communication
The exchange of thoughts, feelings, and beliefs between 2 or more people

Refusal skills
Communication strategies that can help you say no when you are urged to tske part in behaviors that are unsafe or unhealthful.

Conflict resolution
Process of ending a conflict through cooperation and problem problem solving.

Stress
The reaction of the body and the mind to everyday challenges and demands.

Stress management skills
Skills that help you reduce and manage stress in your life.

Advocacy
Taking action to influence others to address a health related concern or to support a health related belief.

Values
The ideas, beliefs, and attitudes about what is important that help guide the way you live.

Decision making skills
Steps that enable you to make a healthyful decision.

goals
Those things you aim for that take planning and work.

Short term goal
goal that you camn reach in a short period of time

Long term goal
A goal that you plan to reach over an exended period of time.

Action plan
Multistep strategy to identify and achieve your goals.

Health consumer
Someone who purchases or uses health poducts or services.

Advertising
A written or spoken media message to interest consumers in purching a product or service.

Comparision shopping
Judging the benefits of different products by comparing several factors such as quality, features, and cost.

Warranty
A company’s or stores ritten agreemewnt to repair a product or refund your money if the product doesn’t funtion properly.

Customer advocates
People or groups whose sole purpose is to take on regional, and even international consumer issues.

Malpractice
Failure by a heealth professional to meet accepted standards.

Health fraud
The sale of worthless products or services that claim to prevent disease or cure other health problems.

Primery care physician
A medical doctor who provides physical checkups and general care.

Health care system
All the medical care available to a nations people, the way they recieve care, and the way they pay for it.

Specialists
Medical doctors who focus on particular kinds of patienrts or on particular medical conditions.

Medical history
Complete and comprehensive information about your immunizations and any health problems you have had to date.

Health insurance
Private and government programs that pay for part or all of a person’s medical costs.

Public health
all efforts to monitor, protect, and promote the health of thee population as a whole.

Air pollution
The contamination of the earth’s atmosphere by harmful substances

Air Quality Index (AQI)
An index for reporting daily air quality.

Greenhouse effect
The trapping of heat by gases in the earth’s atmosphere.

Global warning
An overal increase in the earth’s temperature.

noise pollution
Harmful, unwanted sound loud enough to damage hearing.

Decibel
A unit that measures the intensity of sound.

Biodegradable
Able to be broken down by microorganisms in the enviorment.

Hazardous wastes
Waste materials with properties that make them dangerus to human health or the enviorment.

Landfill
A specially engineered area where waste can be buried safely

Deforestation
Destruction of forests.

Urban sprawl
The spreading of city development (houses, shopping centers, businesses, and schools).

Wastewater
Used water from homes, communities, farms, and businesses.

Conservation
Avoiding waste through careful management of material resources.

Precycling
Reducing waste before it is generated.