Head and Neck Anatomy Session 6 7.14 Paralingual Space and Tongue Slides

Flashcard maker : Aiden Simmons
What does the carotid triangle contain?
The carotid sheath, CN X, XI, XII, various smaller arteries from the external carotid artery, and various veins draining into the internal jugular vein.
What does the digastric muscles serve to do?
-elevate the hyoid bone
-depress the mandible
What is the anterior belly of the digastric muscle efferently innervated by?
the motor fibers of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V3) by way of the mylohyoid nerve
What does the stylohyoid muscle serve to do?
Elevates and retracts the hyoid bone
What nerve serves the stylohyoid muscle and the posterior belly of the digastric muscle?
Efferently innervated by the motor fibers of the facial nerve
Innervation of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle?
CN VII
Innervation of the anterior belly of the digastric muscle?
V3
Why is their a dual innervation in the digastric bellies?
they were formed from mesenchyme originating from the first two pharyngeal arches.
What boundary does the digastric bellies mark?
the submandibular and sublingual triangles
What are the most important structures found in the submandibular triangle?
the submandibular gland and the facial artery and vein
What else is contained in the submandibular triangle? (nerves)
mylohyoid nerve and the hypoglossal nerve
What are the “major salivary glands”?
submandibular glands
What are the submandibular glands innervated by?
by the parasympathetic fibers that originated from the facial nerve and traveled to the submandibular ganglion via the chorda tympani nerve
What kind of salivary glands are the submandibular and sublingual glands?
They are mixed glands that produce serous and mucinous. Submandibular gland is mainly serous while the sublingual is mainly mucinous.
What type of salivary gland is the parotid gland?
serous
Where does the mylohyoid originate and insert?
Originates at the mylohyoid line of the mandible and inserts onto the midline raphe as well as the body of the hyoid bone.
What does the mylohyoid act to do?
elevate both the hyoid bone and the tongue. it also depresses the mandible.
What is the mylohyoid efferently innervated by?
The mylohyoid nerve which is a branch of the inferior alveolar nerve which is itself a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve.
What is the mylohyoid embryologically derived from?
the second pharyngeal arch
What does the mylohyoid line separate?
the paralingual space and the submandibular space
Where does the hyoglossus originate from and insert?
Originates from the hyoid bone and inserts into the substance of the tongue by intermingling with its intrinsic fibers.
What does the hyoglossus act to do?
to depress and retract the tongue
What is the hyoglossus efferently served by?
efferently served by the hypoglossal nerve
Why is the hyoglossus muscle considered an important landmark?
it is considered an extrinsic muscle of the tongue and is an important landmark at the posterior aspect of the paralingual space.
Where does the geniohyoid muscle originate and insert?
originates from the mental spines of the mandible and inserts into the body of the hyoid bone.
What does the geniohyoid muscle act to do?
acts to elevate the hyoid bone and to depress the mandible
What is the geniohyoid muscle efferently served by?
innervated by C1 ventral primary ramus fibers traveling with the hypoglossal nerve
What type of fibers do the thyrohyoid and geniohyoid muscles receive?
ansa cervicalis fibers that travel with the hypoglossal nerve
What are most extrinsic muscles of the tongue efferently served by and what is the exception?
the hypoglossal nerve and the exception is that platoglossus is innervated by the vagus nerve.
Where does the genioglossus muscle originate and insert?
it inserts into the tongue and originates from the mental spine of the mandible
what does the genioglossus act to do?
protrude and depress the tongue
What is the genioglossus efferently innervated by?
the hypoglossal nerve
What are the three muscles that originate from the styloid process and what are they efferently innervated by?
stylohyoid-facial nerve
stylopharngeus-glossopharyngeal nerve
styloglossus-hypoglossus nerve
What nerve is the submandibular ganglion attached to?
lingual nerve
What branch is the lingual nerve apart of and what does it do?
A branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve and it carries sensory information back to the brain from the oral cavity
What is the chorda tympani nerve a branch of and what does it carry?
a branch of the facial nerve carrying both autonomic preganglionic fibers to the submandibular ganglion as well as sensory information back to the brain from the tongue (“special afferent” information which is specifically taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue)
What nerve does the chorda tympani hitch a ride with and where does it exit the skull?
It hitches a ride with the lingual nerve after it exits the skull via petrotymanic fissure at the posterior aspect of the mandibular fossa.
What do the autonomic fibers from the facial nerve innervate?
They innervate the submandibular and sublingual glands passing through the submandibular ganglion.
What does the submandibular duct empty its contents into?
sublingual caruncle
What three things can be found above the hyoglossus muscle?
lingual nerve, hypoglossal nerve, and the submandibular duct
What can be found below the hyoglossus muscle?
lingual artery
What is the role of the epiglottis?
Its functional role is to “flap” posteriorly over the opening of the airway when food is being swallowed
What is the space between the tongue base and epiglottis?
vallecula
What forms the “floor of the mouth”?
mylohyoid muscle
What is found between the hyoglossus and mylohyoid muscles?
lingual nerve, hypoglossal nerve, and vena comitans
Where does the lingual nerve travel?
along the medial border of the mandible and acting as a “sling” deep to the submandibular duct as it travels lateral to medial
Where can infections and other pathologies set up shop within the head and neck?
submandibular space and paralingual space
Ludwig’s Angina
a bacterial infection of the floor of the mouth inferior to the tongue base.
What provides the general sensation to the anterior tongue?
lingual nerve from V3
What provides the general sensation to the posterior tongue?
glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
What carries the sense of taste from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?
chorda tympani from CN VII
What carries the sense of taste from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?
glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
What cranial nerve serves the base of the tongue with a small amount of scattered taste fibers?
Vagus nerve (CN X)
What gives the tongue movement?
vagus nerve and the hypoglossal nerve (CN X and XII)
What drains the base of the tongue?
vena comitans

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