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HEA 191 FINAL -Ch. 12

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How many adult Americans suffer from some type of cardiovascular disease? A) one out of five B) one out of four C) one out of three D) one out of two
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C) one out of three
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The absence of clinical indicators of cardiovascular disease and the presence of certain behavioral and health factor metrics is known as A) cardiovascular fitness. B) cardiorespiratory fitness. C) heart-related quality of life. D) ideal cardiovascular health.
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D) ideal cardiovascular health.
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The human heart is about the size of a(n) A) golf ball. B) adult’s fist. C) small plum. D) grapefruit.
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B) adult’s fist.
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Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) is A) a set of risk factors that affect both cardiovascular health and the body’s metabolic processes. B) a group of metabolic conditions occurring together that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. C) the cardiovascular and metabolic factors that together increase the risk for cognitive decline. D) a measurement of a given individual’s risk for coronary artery disease and/or type 2 diabetes.
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A) a set of risk factors that affect both cardiovascular health and the body’s metabolic processes.
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Which of the following can help prevent cardiovascular disease? A) living a sedentary life B) avoiding tobacco C) consuming a moderate level of trans fats D) raising LDL levels
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B) avoiding tobacco
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Which of the following blood cholesterol profiles is optimal? A) total cholesterol = 200; HDL cholesterol = 30 B) total cholesterol = 240; LDL cholesterol = 180 C) total cholesterol = 170; HDL cholesterol = 70 D) HDL cholesterol = 50; LDL cholesterol = 130
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C) total cholesterol = 170; HDL cholesterol = 70
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Which of the following characteristics would be consistent with a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in an adult female? A) blood pressure of 155/90 B) fasting blood glucose of 80 mg/dL C) HDL of 60 D) waist measurement of 30 inches
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A) blood pressure of 155/90
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The average healthy adult heart beats 70-80 beats per minute. A lower heart rate of 60 might indicate that A) the individual is very fit. B) a heart valve is malfunctioning. C) the individual is stressed. D) the individual is engaging in vigorous exercise.
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A) the individual is very fit.
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An adult with a damaged sinoatrial node A) must have a heart transplant to survive. B) must have a pacemaker implanted to control the heart rhythm. C) must take medication to control the heartbeat. D) does not usually have any significant health problems.
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B) must have a pacemaker implanted to control the heart rhythm.
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Which of the following is TRUE in regard to atherosclerosis? A) It is characterized by a buildup of substances within the arteries that form plaque. B) It is easily reversed with medication and exercise. C) It only starts to develop after the age of 50. D) Males are much more likely to develop it than are women.
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A) It is characterized by a buildup of substances within the arteries that form plaque.
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An individual would most likely suffer from angina pectoris when A) sleeping. B) walking up a flight of stairs. C) working at a computer. D) watching television.
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B) walking up a flight of stairs.
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All of the following are methods of reducing risk for CVD EXCEPT A) quitting smoking. B) achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. C) increasing triglycerides in your blood. D) increasing exercise.
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C) increasing triglycerides in your blood.
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A reduction in the oxygen supply to a part of the body or an organ such as the heart is known as A) angina pectoris. B) ischemia. C) atherosclerosis. D) myocardial infarction.
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B) ischemia.
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Metabolic syndrome is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT A) fat deposits in the abdomen. B) insulin resistance. C) elevated triglycerides. D) low blood pressure.
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D) low blood pressure.
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Which of the following represents the correct sequence of blood flow as it travels through the heart? A) right atrium, right ventricle, lungs, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta B) aorta, right ventricle, right atrium, lungs, left atrium, left ventricle C) left ventricle, left atrium, aorta, right ventricle, right atrium, lungs D) venae cavae, both atria, both ventricles, aorta
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A) right atrium, right ventricle, lungs, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta
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Which of the following would NOT be a contributing cause of congestive heart failure? A) rheumatic fever B) radiation or chemotherapy C) reaction to a tetanus vaccination D) pneumonia
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C) reaction to a tetanus vaccination
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All of the following occur as part of congestive heart failure EXCEPT A) shortness of breath. B) the flow of blood through the veins backs up. C) the heart becomes enlarged, making it less efficient. D) blood cannot accumulate in the legs, ankles, or lungs.
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D) blood cannot accumulate in the legs, ankles, or lungs.
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Which of the following represents the most serious type of heart arrhythmia? A) tachycardia B) bradycardia C) fibrillation D) sinus rhythm
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C) fibrillation
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Cardiovascular disease A) occurs in nearly 25 percent of African Americans. B) causes nearly 25 percent more deaths each year than it did a decade ago. C) is second only to cancer as a leading cause of death among Americans. D) has been the leading cause of death in the U.S. for nearly 100 years.
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D) has been the leading cause of death in the U.S. for nearly 100 years.
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Which of the following foods should be consumed daily as part of a heart-healthy diet? A) steak B) plant oils C) bacon D) fried foods
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B) plant oils
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Of the following lifestyle choices, the MOST helpful for achieving an improved HDL to LDL ratio is to A) reduce the amount of cholesterol in your diet. B) engage in regular exercise. C) increase your intake of dietary protein. D) increase your intake of simple carbohydrates.
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B) engage in regular exercise.
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Which of the following groups has the highest incidence of hypertension? A) men under the age of 55 B) women over 40 who have type 2 diabetes C) African Americans D) Asian Americans
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C) African Americans
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Nonmodifiable risk factors for CVD include all of the following EXCEPT A) heredity. B) gender. C) race. D) blood cholesterol levels.
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D) blood cholesterol levels.
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Which of the following body shapes represents a higher risk for heart disease? A) pear B) apple C) hourglass D) pencil
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B) apple
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The blood level of which type of protein rises during an inflammatory reaction? A) polypeptides B) amino acids C) collagen D) C-reactive protein
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D) C-reactive protein
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Which of the following is NOT a technique used to diagnose heart disease? A) electrocardiogram B) angioplasty C) ultrafast computed tomography D) positron emission tomography
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B) angioplasty
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Aspirin is sometimes recommended for treating cardiovascular disease because it A) reduces the risk of clot formation. B) increases the absorption of nutrients in cardiac muscle. C) increases the body’s excretion of sodium. D) is part of thrombolysis therapy.
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A) reduces the risk of clot formation.
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A biopsy reveals that a woman who has had breast cancer now has cancer in her lymph nodes. The process of cancer spreading from one organ or body area to others is A) metastasis. B) transference. C) transvergence. D) malignance.
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A) metastasis.
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Being completely “cured” of cancer means that an individual has A) only a 10 percent chance of recurrence. B) survived for five years. C) no subsequent cancer and can expect to live a long and productive life. D) only a 25 percent chance of recurrence.
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C) no subsequent cancer and can expect to live a long and productive life.
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Which of the following statements is TRUE with respect to the genetic risk of cancer? A) Oncogenes are suspected cancer-causing genes. B) Scientists think that the majority of cancer types are hereditary. C) Breast cancer does not appear to run in families. D) The genetic risk of developing cancer can be easily distinguished from environmental risks.
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A) Oncogenes are suspected cancer-causing genes.
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Which of the following behaviors would most likely increase the risk of developing cancer? A) training and participating in a 10K race B) increasing your BMI by using weight training to build muscle C) eating a diet high in empty calories D) taking a stress management class
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C) eating a diet high in empty calories
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A construction company used asbestos on many job sites over the years. Asbestos is a(n) A) widely used dye. B) radioactive material. C) environmental carcinogen. D) pesticide.
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C) environmental carcinogen.
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Which of the following is TRUE about radiation and cancer? A) Ionizing radiation has been proven safe. B) Ionizing radiation is the only form of radiation proven to cause cancer. C) Exposure to radon has not been shown to increase the risk of cancer. D) Ultraviolet radiation exposure does not increase cancer risk.
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B) Ionizing radiation is the only form of radiation proven to cause cancer.
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Which of the following is TRUE with respect to tumors? A) A benign tumor is always harmless, whereas a malignant tumor can be fatal. B) A malignant tumor is usually encapsulated and can metastasize. C) A benign tumor can invade surrounding tissue, producing mutant cells, but it will not metastasize. D) A malignant tumor can invade surrounding tissue, produce mutant cells, and metastasize.
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D) A malignant tumor can invade surrounding tissue, produce mutant cells, and metastasize.
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All of the following are well-documented risk factors for breast cancer EXCEPT A) early onset of menstruation and/or late menopause. B) consuming 3 to 4 alcoholic drinks per week. C) not having children or having your first child after the age of 30. D) having a family history of breast cancer.
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B) consuming 3 to 4 alcoholic drinks per week.
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Prostate cancer risk A) has no correlation to family history. B) is highest among Latino men. C) is not affected by diet. D) increases dramatically with age.
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D) increases dramatically with age.
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Gwen began to have sex at an early age. She may be at increased risk for A) leukemia. B) breast cancer. C) cervical cancer. D) inherited mutations.
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C) cervical cancer.
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All of the following are ways to reduce carcinogens in the environment EXCEPT A) buying ecofriendly cleaning and personal products. B) using weed killers in your garden. C) choosing organic foods when possible. D) using bleach-free paper products.
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B) using weed killers in your garden.
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Jeremy was told that his cancer could not be treated with radiotherapy and must be treated with chemotherapy. This is probably because the cancer is A) no longer localized. B) too small to target with radiation. C) in remission. D) localized.
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A) no longer localized.
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Patrick is going to begin chemotherapy to treat a type of lymphoma. Which of the following side effects is he likely to experience? A) lowered risk of infection B) rapid heartbeat C) nausea, fatigue, and hair loss D) memory loss
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C) nausea, fatigue, and hair loss
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Testicular cancer is A) a form of cancer that exhibits no visible signs. B) declining among males in the United States. C) one of the most curable forms of cancer. D) increasing the most among men over 65.
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C) one of the most curable forms of cancer.
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All of the following are warning signs of melanoma EXCEPT A) asymmetrical shape. B) edges that are uneven or scalloped. C) a uniform brown color. D) a diameter larger than a pea.
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C) a uniform brown color.
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One reason exercise might decrease breast cancer risk is that A) it increases appetite. B) it typically decreases body fat. C) it involves social support. D) it increases self-esteem.
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B) it typically decreases body fat.
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Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for colorectal cancer? A) obesity B) family history C) low intake of fruits and vegetables D) regular exercise
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D) regular exercise
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If caught early, the prognosis for colon cancer is good because A) treatments are so advanced. B) the disease progresses slowly. C) it can be cured with diet. D) treatment can be delayed.
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B) the disease progresses slowly.
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In the ABCD rule for the warning signs of melanoma, the B stands for A) bleeding. B) border irregularity. C) beyond localized. D) basal carcinoma.
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B) border irregularity.
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The BEST time for a man to perform a testicular self-exam is A) when he first wakes up in the morning. B) before he goes to sleep at night. C) after strenuous exercise. D) after a hot shower.
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D) after a hot shower.
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Which of the following strategies may lower the risk for ovarian cancer? A) not having children B) having annual pelvic exams C) having a mother with a history of breast cancer D) taking fertility drugs
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B) having annual pelvic exams
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Sexually transmitted diseases have the greatest impact on increasing the incidence of which type of cancer? A) cervical B) ovarian C) testicular D) prostate
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A) cervical
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Which of the following is a cancer that occurs in bones, muscles, and/or connective tissue? A) lymphoma B) carcinoma C) sarcoma D) leukemia
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C) sarcoma