HD FS 4 – Flashcard

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Which of the following is considered an expert who studies aging?
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gerontologist
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What is the age of the onset of late adulthood?
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65
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Which of the following best describes the meaning of “functional age”?
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physical and psychological well-being
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According to the terminology that demographers use, age 65-74 is called
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young old.
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According to the terminology that demographers use, people at age 75-84 are called
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old old.
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According to the terminology that demographers use, age 85 and older is called
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oldest old.
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Research indicates that the fastest-growing segment of the population is the
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oldest old.
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Which of the following is a term for prejudice and discrimination directed at older people?
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Ageism
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Aging that involves universal and irreversible changes that, due to genetic programming, occur as people get older is called
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primary aging.
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Changes in physical functioning that are due to illness, health habits, and other individual differences, but which are not due to increased age itself and are not inevitable are called
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secondary aging.
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A condition in which the bones become brittle, fragile, and thin, often brought about by a lack of calcium in the diet is called
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osteoporosis.
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The theory suggesting that overall processing speed declines in the peripheral nervous system with increasing age is called
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peripheral slowing hypothesis.
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The theory that processing in all parts of the nervous system, including the brain, is less efficient is called
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generalized slowing hypothesis.
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Which of the following is the term for cloudy or opaque areas on the lens of the eye that interfere with the passing of light?
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cataracts
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Which vision disease, if diagnosed early, can be treated with medication, lasers, and in some cases, a diet rich in antioxidant vitamins?
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age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
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Which of the following is an incurable disease that causes painful inflammation and swelling of one or more joints?
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arthritis
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What percentage of people over the age of 65 show some symptoms of a psychological disorder?
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15% to 25%
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Which of the following is the most common mental disorder of the elderly, covering several diseases, each of which includes serious memory loss accompanied by declines in other mental functioning?
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dementia
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What is the term for a progressive brain disorder that produces loss of memory and confusion?
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Alzheimer’s disease
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What percentage of people 85 and older have Alzheimer’s disease?
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50%
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In the final stage of Alzheimer’s disease, people
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lose voluntary control of their muscles and are bedridden.
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Approximately how many deaths are a result of Alzheimer’s disease annually in the United States?
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100,000
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When the production of the protein beta amyloid precursor protein, which normally produces neurons, goes awry and produces clumps of cells that trigger inflammation and deterioration of nerve cells, this is called
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Alzheimer’s disease.
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Contributors to developing Alzheimer’s disease
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predisposed genetic inheritance, high blood pressure or poor diet, viruses, infections, dysfunctions of the immune system, and hormone imbalance.
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People diagnosed with Alzheimer’s display what kinds of behaviors
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Emotional instability and rages, loss of memory for recent events, and eventually for events in long-term memory, loss of ability to feed, clothe, control bladder and bowel functions, and general inability to care for themselves.
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Drug therapy to treat the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease focuses on the loss of the neurotransmitter
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acetylcholine.
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What are the two major factors that determine whether or not an elderly person can engage in sexual activity?
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good physical and mental health, and previous sexual activity
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What is the term for the average age of death for members of a population?
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life expectancy
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Reasons why life expectancy has continued to rise for the world’s population
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Improved health and sanitary conditions, vaccinations and preventive measures against diseases, improved working conditions and environmental factors.
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Which type of memory capacity changes during old age, and especially slips around age 70?
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short-term memory
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Memories from one’s own life are called
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autobiographical memories.
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When pleasant memories are more likely to be recalled than unpleasant memories, this is called
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the Pollyanna principle.
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Memory changes in old age are explained by three factors.
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Information processing deficits that are affected by a person’s ability to inhibit irrelevant information environmental factors such as prescription drugs, life changes in adulthood such as less practiced memory and low motivation, biological factors such as brain and body deterioration
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Which of the following aspects of memory loss involving information processing deficits has received the most research support?
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Memory declines are due to changes in the ability to pay attention to and organize tasks involving memory skills.
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The ego-integrity-versus-despair stage of psychosocial development is characterized by a process of
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looking back over one’s life, evaluating it, and coming to terms with it.
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What percentage of elderly people finish their lives in nursing homes?
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5%
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People over 65 represent what percentage of single-person households?
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25%
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What percentage of people over the age of 65 live with family members?
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66%
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A specialized living environment where all residents are of retirement age and in need of some level of care.
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continuing-care community.
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An independent housing unit which is supported by medical providers as needed.
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assisted-living facility.
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What type of facility provides extensive care?
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skilled nursing
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What percentage of people age 75 to 84 live in nursing homes?
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4.4%
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Learned helplessness is a belief that
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one has no control over one’s environment.
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What percentage of people age 65 and older live in poverty?
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10%
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What percentage of women living on their own in late adulthood live on an income below the poverty line?
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25%
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Older people spend what percentage of their income on health care?
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20%
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What percentage of women outlive their husbands?
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70%
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The physical or psychological mistreatment or neglect of elderly individuals is called
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elder abuse.
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Approximately how many people over the age of 60 experience elder abuse each year?
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2 million
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The ego-integrity-versus-despair stage of psychosocial development is characterized by a process of
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looking back over one’s life, evaluating it, and coming to terms with it.
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The absence of a heartbeat and breathing is called
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functional death.
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A person may be resuscitated and suffer little damage if his/her heart has stopped beating and breathing has stopped for _______ minutes.
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5
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A diagnosis of death based on the cessation of all signs of brain activity, as measured by electrical brain waves, is called
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brain death.
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When electrical brain waves have ceased, this is called
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brain death.
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Some medical experts argue that a person who suffers irreversible brain damage, who is in a coma, and who will never experience anything approaching a human life
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can be considered dead.
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The definition of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is
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the unexplained death of a seemingly healthy baby.
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At what age do children develop a concept of death?
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5
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By what age do children accept death as universal and final?
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9
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At what age are fears about death the greatest?
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middle adulthood
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What is the most frequent cause of death in middle adulthood?
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heart attack or stroke
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What are the most likely causes of death in late adulthood?
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cancer, stroke, and heart disease
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The acceleration of decline in cognitive functioning related to impending death is called
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terminal decline.
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The suicide rate for men in late adulthood
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climbs steadily, especially for men over the age of 85.
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People who study death and dying are called
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thanatologists.
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Which individual has had the greatest influence in our understanding of the way people confront death?
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Kübler-Ross
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Psychiatrist Elisabeth Kübler-Ross developed a theory of death and dying that involves _____ steps?
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5
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According to Kübler-Ross, what is the first step people pass through as they move toward death?
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denial
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According to Kübler-Ross, what is the second step people pass through as they move toward death?
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anger
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According to Kübler-Ross, when people protest and have objections to either learning about their impending death, or the manner of their impending death, this is called
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denial
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According to Kübler-Ross, what is the third step people pass through as they move toward death?
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bargaining
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According to Kübler-Ross, what is the fourth step people pass through as they move toward death?
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depression
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According to Kübler-Ross, sadness based on events that have already occurred is called
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reactive depression.
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According to Kübler-Ross, when dying people feel sadness over future losses, know that death will bring an end to their relationships, know they will never see future generations, know death is inescapable, and experience a profound sadness over the unalterable conclusion of their life, this is called
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preparatory depression.
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According to Kübler-Ross, what is the final step of the five-step process of dying?
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acceptance
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According to Kübler-Ross, when dying people are fully aware that death is impending, are unemotional and uncommunicative, and have virtually no positive or negative feelings about the present or future, this is called
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acceptance.
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What do the letters “DNR” on a patient’s medical chart mean?
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“Do Not Resuscitate”
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The legal document designating what medical treatments people want or do not want if they cannot express their wishes is called a
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living will.
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When a person designates a specific person to act as their representative in making healthcare decisions, that designee is called a(n)
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health care proxy.
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In which of the following legal documents is the healthcare proxy authorized?
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durable power of attorney
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Who was the famous doctor in the 1990s who developed the “suicide machine”?
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Jack Kevorkian
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The practice of assisting people who are terminally ill to die more quickly is called
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euthanasia.
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Which state in the United States passed a “right to die law” in 1998?
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Oregon
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When a respirator or other medical equipment that is sustaining a patient’s life is removed, this is known as
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passive euthanasia.
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When medical staff act to end a person’s life before death would normally occur, this is called
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voluntary active euthanasia.
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Which of the following lies between passive euthanasia and voluntary active euthanasia?
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assisted suicide
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The care provided for the dying in institutions devoted to those who are terminally ill is called
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hospice care.
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The main purpose of hospice care is
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to provide a warm, supportive environment for the dying and help make life as full as possible.
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The average funeral in the United States costs
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$7,000.
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The acknowledgement of the objective fact that one has experienced a death is called
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bereavement.
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The emotional response to one’s loss is called
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grief.

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