HBS UNIT 1 REVIEW

Anterior-
Situated toward the front of the body

Posterior-
Situated at or toward the hind part of the body

Dorsal-
Being or located near, on, or toward the back or posterior part of the human body

Ventral-
Pertaining to the anterior or front side of the body; opposite of dorsal

Superficial-
Of, relating to, or located near the surface

Deep-
Away from the body surface; more internal

Proximal-
Situated next to or near the point of attachment or origin or a central point

Distal-
Situated away from the point of attachment or origin or a central point; located away from the center of the body

Identity-
The distinguishing character or personality of an individual

Superior-
Situated toward the head and further away from the feet than another and especially another similar part of an upright body especially of a human being

Inferior-
Situated below and closer to the feet than another and especially another similar part of an upright body especially of a human being

Lateral-
Of or relating to the side; especially of a body part

Medial-
Lying or extending in the middle; especially of a body part

Frontal-
forehead

Nasal-
nose

Orbital/Ocular-
eye

Octic-
ear

Buccal-
cheek

Cervical-
neck

Toracic-
thorax (chest)

Mammary-
breast

Abdominal-
abdominal

Umbilical-
naval

Pelvic-
pelvis

Manual-
hand

Inguinal-
groin

Pubic-
genital

Femoral-
thigh

Pedal-
foot

Cranial-
skull

Facial-
face

Cephalic-
head

Oral-
mouth

Mental
chin

Axillary-
armpit

Brachial-
arm

Antecubital-
front of elbow (soft part that bends)

Antebrachial-
forearm

Carpal-
wrist

Palmar-
palm

Pollex-
thumb

Phalangea/Digitall-
fingers/toes

Patellar-
kneecap

Cural-
leg (front)

Tarsal-
ankle

Hallux-
big toe

Acromial-
shoulder

Dorsal-
back

Olecranal-
back of elbow (hard part)

Lumbar-
loin

Gluteal-
buttock

Popliteal-
back of knee (soft part that bends)

Sural-
calf (back of leg)

Calcaneal-
heel

Plantar-
sole of foot

Series of Biological Stuff
Cells → Tissue → Organ → Organ System →Body

Body Systems (11)
Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory, Digestive, Cardiovascular, Immune, Endocrine, Urinary, Reproductive, Nervous, Epidermal

Urinary System
•Kidneys- filters & makes urine
•Ureters- transports urine
•Bladder- holds urine
•Urethra- releases urine

Nervous
•Brain- control center
•Spinal Cord- connects all nerves to brain
•Peripheral Nerves- carries signals to and from limbs
•Sensory Organs- collect sensory information (scent, taste, sight, etc)

Epethelial
Skin (protects the body from pathogens)

Reproductive
Ovaries (female), Testes (male)

Immune
•Thymus- promotes production of White Blood Cells
•Tonsils- traps pathogens in the oral cavity
•Appendix- stores good bacteria
•Spleen- filters blood
•Lymph Nodes- filters lymph fluid
•Skin- prevents pathogens from entering the body

Digestive
•Teeth/Tongue- breaks down and pushes food down the esophagus
•Pharynx- food/air tube
•Esophagus- food tube
•Stomach- breaks down food with gastric acids
•Small Intestine- absorbs nutrients
•Large Intestine- absorbs water
•Rectum- holds fecal matter
•Anus- expels fecal matter
•Gall Bladder- stores bile, releases into small intestine
•Liver- makes bile for the small intestine

Respiratory
•Nasal Cavity- opening to the outside
•Pharynx-air/food tube
•Larynx- voice box
•Trachea- air tube
•Epiglottis- prevents food from entering the trachea
•Bronchi- branch into lungs
•Alveoli- site of gas exchange in blood

Cardiovascular
•Atrium- receive blood returning to the heart
•Ventricles- pumps blood out to the body
•Arteries- carry blood away from the heart
•Arterioles- smaller arteries
•Veins-bring blood to and from heart, all around the body
•Venules- smaller veins
•Capillaries- hair like sites of blood exchange with tissue

Endocrine
•Hypothalamus- secretes hormones that make all the other glands do their jobs
•Pituitary- controls growth
•Pineal Gland- sleep/wake cycle
•Adrenal Gland- fight-flight adrenalin
•Thymus- develops the immune system
•Testes/ Ovaries- sex hormones
•Thyroid- metabolic hormones
•Pancreas- insulin

Body Tissues
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous

Epithelial
oForms the linings, coverings, and glandular tissue of the body, protects underlying structures, act as barriers, passage and excretion of substances
Consists of layers of cells (one kind of cells inside & a different kind outside)
Cells are packed tightly together to form continuous sheets

Connective
oProtects, supports, and binds together other body tissues
Made up of different types of cells in varying amounts of a nonliving substance around these cells called the matrix. This allows it to fill spaces of various shapes/sizes

Examples of Connective Tissue
•Bone (spongy and compact)
•Cartilage- lines bones, vertebral discs, and ends of ribs
•Adipose- fat
•Blood- liquid matrix
•Loose- fills spaces, attaches skin to tissue
•Dense- tendons, ligaments, vocal chords, arteries

Muscle
oSpecialized to contract and cause movement and generate heat.
Skeletal muscle- long, cylindrical, striated, multi-nuclei
Cardiac muscle- short, branched, striated, one-nuclei
Smooth muscle- short, spindle shaped, non-striated, central nuclei

Nervous
oComposed of neurons that receive and send electrical signals in the body
Respond to stimuli and transmits impulses and together with supporting cells make up the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.

Skeletal System Functions
1.Support
a.Bone- bears weight and is the supporting tissue of the body.
b.Cartilage- provides firm and flexible support (ears, nose, and trachea).
c.Ligaments- fibrous connective tissue that holds bones together.

2.Protection
a.Protects underlying organs (like yo ribs)

3.Movement
a.Tendons attach muscles to bones and move them

4.Storage
a.Some minerals in the blood are taken into bone and stored. Fat is also stored in bone cavities, which also provide great shock absorption.

5.Blood Cell Production
a.Bone marrow inside bone gives rise to blood cells and platelets.

Axial Skeleton
Skull, Vertebral Column, Thoracic Cage, Sternum

Skull
o2 Parietal bones – big ones on the upper sides of the head
o2 Temporal bones – sides of head
o1 Frontal bone- forehead
o1 Occipital bone- back of the head
oSphenoid bone- in front of the temporal bones (butterfly shaped)
oZygomatic bone- cheekbones.
oMaxilla- Upper jaw with teeth
oMandible- lower jaw with teeth

Vertebral Column (5 regions)
7 Cervical vertebrae
12 Thoracic vertebrae
5 Lumbar vertebrae
1 Sacral/sacrum bone
1 Coccyx

Thoracic Cage
oRibs (24, 12 pairs)
7 True Ribs
•Attach directly to the sternum
•The first 4 have their own independent connections

3 False Ribs
•Attach indirectly to the cartilage

2 Floating Ribs (also false, but they’re special)
•Do not attach to the sternum

Sternum (3 fused bones)
Manubrium
Body
Xiphoid Process

Appendicular Skeleton
Upper and Lower Limbs, Girdles

Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle (4 bones)
o2 scapula (shoulder blades)- flat triangular shape
The point of the blade is the acromion process; where the clavicle articulates

o2 clavicles (collar bones)
These attach to the sternum- the only connection of the scapula to the skeleton.

Upper Limbs
oArm
Humerus
•The olecranon process is the elbow point

oForearm (2 bones)
Radius (on the thumb side!!!) it is the one that rotates
Ulna (on the pinky side!!!)

Wrist
8 carpal bones

Hand
5 metacarpals & 5 phalanges

Pelvic Girdle
Coxae (hip bones), sacrum

Coxae (3 bones fused together)
Ilium
Ishium
Pubis

Thigh
Femur

Tibia
bigger one on the FRONT

Fibula
smaller one in the BACK

Ankle
7 Tarsals

Foot
5 metatarsals and 5 phalanges

Forensic Anthropology of Sex
•Determined by skull or pelvis

oFemale-
Skull: round eye sockets, v-shaped mandible, smoother frontal bone
Pelvis: rounded pelvis, wider pubic arch

oMale
Skull: square eye sockets, u-shaped mandible, pronounced frontal bone, heart shaped pelvis, angled-in coccyx

Forensic Anthropology of Race
•Determined best by skull
oCaucasoid
More “surprised” eye sockets, forehead aligns with nose and chin in a straight line
oNegroid
More square eye sockets, forehead more pronounced, mandible more pronounced
oMongoloid
More rectangular eye sockets, nose is more vertical, chin is receding

Forensic Anthropology of Age
•Determined by Humerus or Femur or Tibia
oCheck for fused bones

Forensic Anthropology of Height
•Determined best by Femur
oLength

DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA is composed of:
Nucleic Acids, Deoxyribose, Phosphate Backbone

Nucleotides
Thymine, Adenine, Guanine, Cytocine
A to T and C to G

Polymorphism
for every 1,000 nucleotides inherited; there is one site of variation

Restriction Enzyme
Restriction Endonucleases

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms
specific fragments of DNA cut by restriction enzymes. They are PALINDROMIC

Nomenclature of Restriction Enzymes
oFirst Italicized letter is the GENUS
oSecond and third italicized letters are the SPECIES
oAdditional letter indicates the STRAIN
oRoman numerals denote the SEQUENCE that they’ve been isolated at

Gel Electrophoresis
•used to identify the different fragment sizes and the patterns they generate
•DNA is negatively charged so it moves towards the positive side
•Larger fragments travels less distance than smaller fragments (rock vs. pebble)

Facial Muscles
Occipitofrontalis- Raises eyebrows
Orbicularis oculi- Closes eye
Orbicularis oris- Purses lips
Zygomaticus minor/major- Elevates & retracts lip and mouth
Buccinator- Compresses cheeks
Depressor anguli oris- Depress corner of mouth