(H) Modern World History Final Exam Study Guide Flashcards

What is militarism?
It is the glorification of the military.

What is propaganda?
It is the spreading of ideas to promote a certain cause or to damage an opposing cause.

Who was Francis Ferdinand?
He was the Archduke of Austria who’s assassination set off World War II.

What was the reason for the destructiveness of war in WWI?
The reason for the destructiveness in war in WWI was that there were new, more deadly weapons that were made.

What was the Brest-Litovsk Treaty?
It was the treaty that marked the end of Russia’s involvement in World War I.

What was the cause of international tensions during World War I?
International tensions were caused by M.A.I.N. (militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism).

What were the intention of the alliances during World War I?
The intention of the alliances during World War I was to make the sides more powerful, so they could possibly win the war.

What was the start of WWI?
The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand was the start of World War I.

What was the British declaration of war?
The British declaration of war was after Germany invaded Belgium.

What were Lenin’s promises for Russia?
Lenin’s promises for Russia were “Peace, Land, and Bread!”

What were the outcomes of the Treaty of Versailles?
The outcomes of the Treaty of Versailles were that the Allies gained land, but many countries such as Japan, Italy, Russia, and Germany held resentment toward them because they felt they didn’t get as much land as they should have. The League of Nations was also created.

What were the costs of WWI?
The total cost was 186.3 billion dollars.

Who was Vladimir Lenin?
Vladmir Lenin was the leader of the Bolshevik party, a revolutionary, he spread Marxist ideas, and he was exiled and then brought back to run the country by Germany.

What was a command economy?
It was an economy which government officials make all basic economic decisions.

Who was Nicholas II?
He was the leader of Russia, who relied on secret police and other enforcers to impose his will. He went to the war front and left the country to Czarina Alexandra to run, but this was disastrous. He failed to solve Russia, basic political, social, and economic problems. He abdicated in 1917 after the March Revolution.

What was a totalitarian state?
It was a government that regulates every aspect of its citizen’s rights.

Who was Rasputin?
Rasputin was a self-proclaimed “holy man” but he was an illiterate peasant who gave advice to Czarina Alexandra about how to run the country. Several attempts to kill him didn’t work, and he died by drowning (by nobles) on December 29th, 1916.

Who were the soviets?
They were a council of workers and soldiers set up by revolutionary leaders.

What was Cheka?
It was the communist secret police.

Who was Joseph Stalin?
Joseph Stalin was the leader of the Soviet Union who used ruthless measures to control the Soviet Union and its people.

What was the Great Purge?
It was when Stalin set up “show trials” where former communist leaders confessed to crimes and being tortured and sent to the Gulag. At least 4 million people were purged during Stalin’s years.

What was Lenin’s economic plan?
It was the N.E.P.

What were Stalin’s goals as a leader?
Stalin’s goals as a leader were to make Russia a stable country that could sustain itself and prosper.

What was the result of the Great Purge?
At least 4 million people were purged during the Stalin years.

What was Kristallnacht?
Kristallnacht (Crystal Night) was also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom (a series of coordinated attacks) against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and parts of Austria carried out by SA paramilitary and civilians. German authorities looked on without intervening. The attacks left the streets covered with broken glass from the windows of Jewish-owned stores, buildings, and synagogues.

What was the Gestapo?
The Gestapo was the secret police of Nazi Germany.

What was the Fascist Party?
The Fascist party was the type of government that ran Italy pre-world war II.

What was Mein Kampf?
Hitler’s book on what he was going to do with Germany.

What was the Third Reich?
The Third Reich was also known as Nazi Germany.

What was the attraction of socialism?
The attraction of socialism was that it was a way to make the country very, very stable without taking away all of the rights of the people.

What was the reason for Japan’s interest in Manchuria?
Japan was interested in Manchuria because it was very mineral rich.

What were the slogan of fascism that was glorified?
The slogan of fascism that was glorified was “war is to the male what childbearing is to the female.”

What were youth in Italy taught?
Youth in Italy were taught to love Fascism.

What were the common factors in fascism and communism?
The common factors in Fascism and Communism were that they both had total control over the people, and they both had total economic control over the people.

Why was fascism appealing?
Fascism was appealing because it seemed to avoid the messiness of socialism and communism.

What were the promises by Hitler pre-WW2?
The promises by Hitler pre-WW2 were to make Germany great again, solve unemplyment by making more public service jobs, abolish the treaty of Versailles.

What was the response by the League of Nations to Italy and Japan’s aggressiveness?
The response by the League of Nations to Italy and Japan’s aggressiveness were that they did not approve, but they could not do anything to stop it.

What was the reason Hitler signed the non-aggression pact with Russia?
The reason Hitler signed the non-aggression pact with Russia was that he wanted to end fighting a two-front war.

What was the position of the US during World War II?
We were supplying parts and artillery to the Allied Powers (Britain), but then we got involved after the U-Boat attacks.

Why was war declared in World War II by Britain and France?
They declared war because Poland was invaded.

What was Blitzkrieg?
“Iightning war,” or war conducted with great speed and force; specifically : a violent surprise offensive by massed air forces and mechanized ground forces in close coordination.

What was the Holocaust?
The Holocaust was Hitler’s form of killing all of the people who he deemed not the same as him. Millions of people were killed in this great massacre.

What were kamikazes?
Kamikazes were Japanese pilots in World War II trained to make a suicidal attack.

What was V-E Day?
It was the Victory in Europe Day when the Allies formally accepted Nazi Germany stepping down. (May 7th, 1945)

What were Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
They were the places where the atomic bombs were dropped by the US in Japan.

What was the Warsaw Pact?
It was the alliance of the Eastern European nations to almost balance the NATO (which the Allied nations had been a part of)

What was perestroika?
It was the policy of economic and governmental reform instituted by Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union during the mid-1980s.

What was glasnost?
Glasnost was a policy that called for increased openness and transparency in government institutions and activities in the Soviet Union.

What was terrorism?
It is the deliberate use of random violence to achieve political goals.

Who was Nikita Khrushchev?
He was the leader of the Soviet Union who pushed the idea of de-stalinization, he freed political prisoners, eased censorship, and the Cuban missiles were implanted.

Who was Leonid Brezhnev?
He was the leader of the Soviet Union who suppressed dissidents, he built the military up to be very large, he returned to Stalin’s ways, became a part of the Space Race, and he put the policy of detente with the US in place.

Who was Mikhail Gorbachev?
He was the leader of the Soviet Union who sought an end to costly Cold War tensions. He renounced the Brezhnev Doctrine, signed arms control treaties with the US, and pulled troops from Afghanistan.

What were the reasons for US & USSR competition in the Cold War?
They wanted to prove that they were the biggest and best countries in the world.

What was the United Nations?
It was an organization to settle disputes and intervene in matter of human rights issues.

What was the reason for the Berlin Wall?
The Berlin Wall was built to keep the East Germans (in Berlin) from leaving and going to West Berlin (West Germany).

What was the reason for the end of the Cold War, and who was apart of this decision?
The reason to end to Cold War was the end of communism in 1991 with Gorbachev’s resignation.

What was the economy of East Germany?
It was very poor.

What were the problems with communism?
The problem with communism was that it had too much of a hold over the people, the economy sometimes didn’t prosper well, and since the people revolted, communism failed.

What were Yeltsin’s solutions?
Yeltsin’s solutions were (did not find the answer yet).

What were the Soviet bloc countries?
The Soviet Bloc countries were the present day countries of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhastan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirghiz, Tajikistan.

What was the effect of the Cold War in Europe?
The effect of the Cold War in Europe was that it heightened tensions and relationships between all of the countries.

What were the problems after the fall of communism?
The countries didn’t know what to do, so they were failing for a short time until they got up on their feet.

What was the reason for civil war in Yugoslavia?
There were so many different ethnicities that they basically just clashed together.

What was the cause of the Korean Conflict?
North Korea invaded South Korea in hopes of making one big unified nation.

What was the domino theory?
If one country would fall to communism, then another and another would fall.

What the Khmer Rouge?
It was Pol Pot’s cambodian guerilla forces.

What was the fall of Saigon?
The Fall of Saigon was when the North Vietnamese troops finally tok over the south and Vietnam became one unified communist country.

What was the relationship between the US & Vietnam in the 80’s?
There basically no relations between the US & Vietnam in the 80’s.

What was the Salt March?
The Salt March was Gandhi’s peaceful protests to show that the people could collect their own salt for their own means rather than being taxed by Britian.

What was the head of the Muslim League in the 30’s?
Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

What was ethnic tension in India?
There was ethnic tension in India between the Muslims, the Hindus, and the Sikhs.

What was the creation of Bangladesh?
Bangladesh ceded from Pakistan in the 1970’s after a war to gain its independence.

What was Kashmir?
Kashmir is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent.

Who were the untouchables?
They were the “dirty people” in society in India.

What was the partition?
It was the separation of India based upon the beliefs of the people. This lead to the creation of Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India became itself!

What was the Arab League?
It is the organization of Arab States in the Middle East, and in North and Northwest Africa. It has 22 members today.

What was the creation of Israel?
(Ask Mrs. Opalenick)

Who were the Kurds?
Kurds are an Iranic people native to West Asia, mostly inhabiting a region known as Kurdistan, which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey.

What type of governments were the Middle East governments?
They were authoritarian governments.

What were the modernizations in the Middle East?
There were many modernizations in the Middle East, such as the development of water going through the cities, technology being implanted.

What was the PLO?
The PLO, or Palestine Liberation Organization, is a political and paramilitary organization which was created in 1964. It is recognized as the “sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people” by the United Nations and over 100 states with which it holds diplomatic relations, and has enjoyed observer status at the United Nations since 1974.

What was Hamas/Fatah?
The two Palestinian parties whom have been fighting for a long time in the Palestinian Civil War.