GTY 154 Exam 4

Research methods provide
A) guides on how to publish scientific reports.
B) ways to collect, analyze, and report information.
C) results that cannot be verified.
D) a set of concepts organized in a meaningful way.
B) ways to collect, analyze, and report information.

2. According to sociologists, a theory
A) applies to individuals but not to whole societies.
B) applies to societies but not to individuals.
C) is a conceptual model of some aspect of life .
D) explains all social phenomena.
C) is a conceptual model of some aspect of life .

Which of the following is not a method that researchers use to gather data on gerontology?
A) in-depth interviews
B) uncontrolled studies in laboratories
C) field research
D) survey questionnaires
B) uncontrolled studies in laboratories

4. In the 17th century, researchers began to base their studies on scientific methodology because they were trained in
A) philosophy.
B) history.
C) natural science and medicine.
D) classics.
C) natural science and medicine.

5. By the 18th century, researchers began to see aging as
A) an account based on their own experiences, fears, and biases.
B) something other than a disease.
C) a disease.
D) a science that studied human facts and events.“
B) something other than a disease.

6. Historians credit ________ with the first use of the term gerontology in 1905.
A) Louis Pasteur
B) Quetelet
C) Plato
D) Elie Metchnikoff
D) Elie Metchnikoff

7. Senescence, written by G. Stanley Hall in 1922,
A) was one of the first scientific studies of aging in the U.S.
B) used survey data to understand attitudes towards death.
C) focused on the problems of old age.
D) all of the above
A) was one of the first scientific studies of aging in the U.S.

8. Research on aging in the 1960s
A) moved beyond a study of problems to include studies of normal aging.
B) did not focus on the aspects of normal aging.
C) was not concerned with the problems of aging.
D) did not include studies of positive development in later life.
A) moved beyond a study of problems to include studies of normal aging.

The status of gerontology as a discipline depends on
A) the production of a distinguished body of knowledge.
B) a traditional view of aging.
C) a varied view of aging.
D) a distinct body of knowledge.
D) a distinct body of knowledge.

10. The three areas that make up the core of aging studies are
A) biomedicine; sociological studies; and socioeconomic studies.
B) biomedicine; psychological studies; and socio-environmental studies.
C) biomedicine; psychosocial studies; and socioeconomic-environmental studies.
D) biomedicine; socioeconomic studies; and psychological studies.
C) biomedicine; psychosocial studies; and socioeconomic-environmental studies.

11. Biomedicine studies refers to
A) the study of changes in the body that come with age.
B) prescribing medicine to older people.
C) studies of disease.
D) studies of longevity.
A) the study of changes in the body that come with age.

12. Geriatrics is defined as
A) a medical specialty that deals with young people.
B) sociological specialty that deals with older people.
C) a medical specialty that deals with older people.
D) a psychological knowledge of aging.
A) a medical specialty that deals with young people.

13. Psychosocial studies look at the changes that take place
A) inside the individual and between individuals and groups.
B) between individuals and economic institutions.
C) the changes that take place between individuals and their environments.
D) within the DNA of an aging person.
A) inside the individual and between individuals and groups.

14. Socioeconomic-environmental studies examine the effects of aging on
A) sociologists.
B) the body.
C) creativity.
D) social institutions.
D) social institutions.

15. Social gerontology makes up a part of the total body of gerontological knowledge and
A) is not included in the total body of gerontological knowledge
B) includes the psychosocial, the socioeconomic-environmental, and practice-related studies of aging.
C) views aging from the perspective of the economic system
B) includes the psychosocial, the socioeconomic-environmental, and practice-related studies of aging.

16. Gerontologists create theories to
A) give themselves something to do.
B) dispute trends.
C) explain a set of facts.
D) provide definitive models about aging.
C) explain a set of facts.

What are the two levels of theories that scientists use?
A) micro-level theories and macro-level theories
B) exchange theories and subculture theory
C) modernization theory and interactionist theory
D) exchange theory and modernization theory
A) micro-level theories and macro-level theories

18. Macro-level theories
A) focus on small-scale events.
B) describe people and their relationships.
C) encompasses studies of how individuals change as they age.
D) focus on large-scale events.
D) focus on large-scale events.

19. Micro-level theories
A) look at social systems and whole societies.
B) focus on large-scale events.
C) focus on small-scale events.
D) encompass studies of how societies treat their older people.
C) focus on small-scale events.

20. One example of a macro-level theory is
A) modernization theory.
B) exchange theory.
C) subculture theory.
D) interactionist theory.
A) modernization theory

21. Which perspective is not included in micro- and macro-level theories?
A) the interpretive perspective
B) the functionalist perspective
C) the exchange perspective
D) the conflict perspective
C) the exchange perspective

The interpretive perspective
A) most often focuses on the macro-level of social life.
B) most often focuses on the micro-level of social life.
C) sees the person as a passive member of society.
D) should not include an awareness of culture and history.
B) most often focuses on the micro-level of social life.

23. According to Mead, symbolic interaction
A) is an example of a macro-level theory.
B) studies how symbols shape social relations.
C) doesn’t focus on behavior.
D) assumes that people behave inconsistently over time.
B) studies how symbols shape social relations.

24. The interpretive perspective
A) includes the levels between the individual and the larger society.
B) looks at the impact of social policy on people.
C) discusses power and conflict between social groups.
D) can give a good understanding of how people interpret their social world.
D) can give a good understanding of how people interpret their social world.

25. Gerontologists have used the interpretive perspective to study how people adapt to
A) social policies.
B) large social institutions.
C) changes in health.
D) bureaucracy.
C) changes in health.

26. ________ studies a phenomenon — sickness, retirement, health — from the subject’s point of view.
A) The functionalist perspective
B) The age-stratification theory
C) Phenomenology
D) Conflict theory
C) Phenomenology

27. Critics of the interpretive perspective say that it
A) overlooks the links between the individual and larger social institutions.
B) does not discuss conflicts between individuals.
C) does not look at the impact of interaction on groups.
D) does not discuss power distribution between individuals.
A) overlooks the links between the individual and larger social institutions.

28. Functionalism
A) views society as a system composed of integral parts.
B) focuses on conflict.
C) can explain large-scale political change but not the way very small groups maintain their structure.
D) sees society as an organism that tries to stay in equilibrium.
A) views society as a system composed of integral parts

29. One example of the functionalist perspective is
A) age stratification theory.
B) dependency theory.
C) exchange theory.
D) subculture theory.
A) age stratification theory.

Age stratification theory links
A) group behavior to social life.
B) individuals to social life.
C) individual aging to social institutions.
D) group behavior to social institutions.
C) individual aging to social institutions.

31. Age stratification theory does not discuss
A) aging.
B) societal aging.
C) social dysfunction.
D) cohort flow.
C) social dysfunction.

Age stratification theory views individual aging as a(n)
A) life-long process.
B) stable process.
C) solitary experience.
D) unchanging process.
A) life-long process.

Societies have a set of age grades that stratifies its members. Age grades in the U.S. do not include
A) middle age.
B) childhood.
C) little adult.
D) adolescence.
C) little adult.

Each age cohort moves through life as if on a(n)
A) elevator.
B) escalator.
C) conveyor belt.
D) merry-go-round.
B) escalator.

Bengtson and colleagues (1997) say that age stratification theory provides new ways to explore differences related to time, period, and
A) income.
B) level of education.
C) gender.
D) cohort.
D) cohort.

36. The life course approach looks at
A) transitions.
B) transitions and trajectories.
C) trajectories.
D) tensions between groups in society.
B) transitions and trajectories

Conflict perspective
A) is used by gerontologists to look at how government policies influence old age.
B) grows out of the work of Max Weber.
C) looks at the tensions that exist between the individual and society.
D) examines the ways in which individuals shape the behavior of groups in society.
C) looks at the tensions that exist between the individual and society.

One example of the conflict perspective is the
A) subculture theory.
B) political economy theory.
C) age stratification theory.
D) modernization theory.
B) political economy theory.

According to the political economy theory
A) political relations between nations shape the social institutions inside a society.
B) basic equality exists between economically developed and less developed societies.
C) social and economic institutions in society affect an individual’s aging.
D) less-developed nations exploit the developed nations.
A) political relations between nations shape the social institutions inside a society.

Cumulative disadvantage theory is a type of
A) conflict theory.
B) age stratification theory.
C) functionalist theory.
D) interpretive perspective.
A) conflict theory.

Cumulative disadvantage theory focuses on
A) the impact of the state and the economy on people.
B) the lifelong effects of inequality.
C) the changes that take place in an individual over time.
D) individual aging, societal aging, and conflict flow.
B) the lifelong effects of inequality.

42. Researchers criticize the conflict perspective because it
A) does not advance our understanding of aging.
B) underemphasizes the poverty and problems of older people.
C) pays too much attention to the responses older people make to societal pressures.
D) pays too little attention to the responses older people make to social pressure.
D) pays too little attention to the responses older people make to social pressure

43. ________ offers one new theoretical framework for studying aging.
A) Conflict theory
B) Age stratification theory
C) Narrative gerontology
D) Functionalist perspective
C) Narrative gerontology

44. Researchers use ________ to explore issues such as retirement, long-term care, and community volunteerism.
A) political economy theory
B) cultural gerontology
C) narrative gerontology
D) moral economy theory
D) moral economy theory

Gerontologists use many different methods to study aging. Research methods
A) cannot vary from discipline to discipline.
B) are based on a philosophical paradigm.
C) include laboratory work, intelligence tests, studies, and surveys.
D) never produce reliable or valid results.
C) include laboratory work, intelligence tests, studies, and surveys.

________ want to understand the changes that take place in individuals over time.
A) Social gerontologists
B) Biologists
C) Critical gerontologists
D) Proponents of conflict theory
A) Social gerontologists

Gerontologists place changes in older people into one of three categories. Which of the following is not a category of change?
A) age effect
B) cohort effect
C) gender effect
D) period effect
C) gender effect

48. Gerontologists use a number of research designs to look at the APC problem. Which of the following is not used to examine this problem?
A) cross-sectional studies
B) time-lag studies
C) longitudinal studies
D) vertical studies
D) vertical studies

49. Brach and colleagues (2004) used data from a ________ to compare the physical functioning of older people who exercised with those who were inactive.
A) questionnaire study
B) cross-sectional study
C) longitudinal study
D) time-lag design
B) cross-sectional study

50. According to the text, paradigms are
A) frameworks used to organize our understanding of natural and social phenomenon.
B) specific ways of seeing the world.
C) ways of applying the methods of natural science to the study of aging.
D) models of scientific irrationality.
A) frameworks used to organize our understanding of natural and social phenomenon.

51. Gerontology has a long history of using a natural science paradigm to conduct studies. This is known as
A) positivist gerontology.
B) critical gerontology.
C) literary interpretation.
D) participant observation.
A) positivist gerontology

52. Critical gerontologists often use ________ to conduct their research.
A) quantitative methods
B) qualitative methods
C) the scientific method
D) statistical analysis
B) qualitative methods

53. How do the interests of critical gerontology and positivist gerontology differ?
A) Positivist gerontology studies produce studies that encourage communication, while critical gerontology studies encourage domination over aging.
B) Positivist gerontology wants prediction and control over aging, while critical gerontology aims to empower older people.
C) Positivist gerontology seeks to empower older people, while critical gerontology control aging.
D) Positivist gerontology aims to enhance the freedom of older people, while critical gerontology aims to manage the older population.
B) Positivist gerontology wants prediction and control over aging, while critical gerontology aims to empower older people.

54. ________ allow researchers to gather a great deal of information on a wide range of issues.
A) Qualitative methods
B) Age stratification theories
C) Quantitative methods
D) Critical gerontology perspectives
C) Quantitative methods

55. ________ studies how individuals understand and give meaning to their lives.
A) Quantitative methods
B) Longitudinal studies
C) Moral economy
D) Qualitative methods
D) Qualitative methods

56. According to the text, the study of aging has grown to include
A) biomedicine.
B) the humanities.
C) social science.
D) sports medicine.
B) the humanities.

57. The Internet offers a storehouse of information on aging, but provides no guide to the quality of the information. Therefore, a gerontologist must be
A) information literate.
B) biased.
C) a naive reader.
D) noncritical while evaluating data.
A) information literate.

58. Research studies on human subjects face ________ challenges
A) financial
B) economic
C) ethical
D) scientific
C) ethical

59) How will gerontolgical research change in the future?
A) Scientists will create new theories and methods for studying aging.
B) Researchers will try to develop more abstract theories of aging.
C) Qualitative methods will be eliminated as a method of gerontological research.
D) Gerontologists will apply only the methods of natural science to the study of aging.
A) Scientists will create new theories and methods for studying aging.

60. Advice, affection, companionship, helping older family members with transportation, and nursing care are examples of
A) family-obligated roles
B) socially determined caregiving behavior
C) compulsory support
D) informal support
D) informal support

61. Bengtson (2001) estimates that over ________% of informal support received by older adults comes from family.
A) 90
B) 80
C) 70
D) 60
B) 80

62. The task specificity model says that
A) older people are capable of limited tasks specified by their age, health, and income.
B) different groups (spouse, child, neighbor) have a specific role to play in the older person’s support system.
C) doctors, nurses, and social workers have specific roles to play in an older person’s support system.
D) as task become too difficult for family caregivers, the support for an older person begins to get handed over to professionals and social agencies.
B) different groups (spouse, child, neighbor) have a specific role to play in the older person’s support system.

63. The ________ model states that an older person’s supporters come first from their inner family circle and moves outward to get support from less intimate people as they need more help.
A) task specificity
B) concentric compensatory
C) informal support
D) hierarchical compensatory
D) hierarchical compensatory

64. ________ refers to unpaid help who take on the responsibility for caring for another person.
A) Informal support
B) The primary caregiver
C) Formal support
D) Respite provider
B) The primary caregiver

65. ________ refers to paid help from professionals such as doctors, nurses, and social workers.
A) Informal support
B) Formal support
C) Caregiver
D) Weak ties
B) Formal support

66. Studies show that ________ most often served as primary caregivers.
A) children
B) spouses
C) doctors
D) social workers
B) spouses

67. Majerovitz (2007) studied family caregivers and found that the more impaired the family caregiver, the greater the risk of
A) loneliness.
B) suicide.
C) caregiver burden.
D) spousal abuse.
C) caregiver burden.

68. Johnson and Schaner (2005) report that ________% of older men and women age 55 and over spend time caring for a spouse.
A) 10
B) 20
C) 40
D) 80
C) 40

69. People age 75 and over, compared to spouses 55-64, spend ________ as many hours on spousal care.
A) twice
B) three times
C) four times
D) five times
A) twice

70. Which of the following is not a dimension of caregiver burden?
A) developmental burden
B) social burden
C) financial burden
D) emotional burden
C) financial burden

71. Spousal care ________ with a person’s age, but care from a child to their relatives ________ with age.
A) declines; declines
B) increases; increases
C) declines; increases
D) increases; declines
C) declines; increases

72. Caron and colleagues (2006) found that the amount of care, the caregiver’s ability, and the formal supports available all influence a family’s decision to
A) move a relative to a long-term care institution.
B) place a relative in the hospital.
C) monitor a parent.
D) obtain support from health care professionals.
A) move a relative to a long-term care institution.

73. Which of the following best describes the role of adult children as caregivers?
A) They serve as primary caregivers, most often displacing a parent’s spouse.
B) They provide secondary care that acts as backup and give respite to spousal caregivers.
C) They provide tertiary care after the spousal caregiver and formal caregivers such as doctors and nurses.
D) Frequent moves and the fast pace of modern life means adult children rarely serve as any form of caregiver.
B) They provide secondary care that acts as backup and give respite to spousal caregivers.

Older parents may deemphasize the support their children give in order not to see themselves as a burden. Bengtson and Kuypers (1971) refer to this as
A) developmental stake.
B) caregiver burden.
C) functional specificity.
D) compensation.
A) developmental stake.

Which of the following best describes the role of siblings as caregivers?
A) Siblings more often socialize with each other than provide health care support.
B) Siblings, along with adult children, serve as the primary source of routine support.
C) Most siblings report they are not in a physical or financial position to provide caregiving to a relative.
D) Siblings are tertiary caregivers, providing support to spouses and adult children during times of emergencies.
A) Siblings more often socialize with each other than provide health care support.

76. Studies of neighbors as caregivers show that
A) they are unreliable and untrained to offer effective care.
B) they are the last resource an older person will turn to before institutionalization.
C) older people without families often rely on friends and neighbors for support.
D) an older person with a network of neighbor caregivers can often replace the need to go into a nursing home.
C) older people without families often rely on friends and neighbors for support.

77. Childless older people, compared to people with children, set up more supportive ties with their
A) siblings.
B) doctors.
C) neighbors.
D) friends.
C) neighbors.

A full and satisfying support network, according to Blieszner (2001), includes
A) children.
B) spouses.
C) doctors.
D) a variety of relationships.
D) a variety of relationships.

79. In addition to family support, older African Americans also rely on ________ for support.
A) the welfare system
B) voluntary caregivers
C) charity organizations
D) the church
D) the church

Hispanic families, like African Americans, show
A) a detachment from the older members of the family, often leaving the older person isolated and lonely.
B) greater expectations from sick older family members than they can give.
C) a strong interdependence of older and younger family members.
D) support for older members, but the older members regard formal services as their major source of support.
C) a strong interdependence of older and younger family members.

81. Which of the following statements best describes male/female caregiving patterns?
A) Women form empathic relations and respond to the needs of others, while men tend to get less involved in their parent’s emotional needs.
B) Socialization teaches women how to properly conduct caregiving while men are untrained for the role.
C) Women form realistic limits on their own expectations, while men set unrealistic expectations for themselves and others.
D) Women form pragmatic relations with their parents while men establish untenable caregiving relations.
A) Women form empathic relations and respond to the needs of others, while men tend to get less involved in their parent’s emotional needs.

82. Harris reports that sons make up ________% of primary caregivers to elderly parents and husbands make up ________%.
A) 10; 50
B) 50; 10
C) 2; 52
D) 10; 13
D) 10; 13

83. Studies find that male caregivers set limits on personal care ________ female caregivers.
A) more often than
B) as often as
C) less often than
D) None of the above because the difference between male and female caregivers has not been studied.
A) more often than

84. Male caregivers favor ________ help, while women more often give ________ help.
A) personal; managerial
B) managerial; personal
C) managerial; administrative
D) emotional; managerial
B) managerial; personal

Gerontologists call the stress due to caregiving
A) caregiver stress disorder.
B) caregiver fatigue syndrome.
C) caregiver strain.
D) caregiver burden.
D) caregiver burden.

Research shows that wives, daughters, and other female family members give most of the ________ to older family members.
A) informal support
B) formal support
C) financial support
D) social supports
A) informal support

Which of the following is not a characteristic of successful caregiving?
A) a desire to give care
B) the development of new skills and abilities to provide care
C) caregivers who allow threats to their own well-being
D) the ability to provide good care
C) caregivers who allow threats to their own well-being

Researchers have proposed ways to ease caregiver burden. These include all except
A) family counseling.
B) support groups.
C) restricted social contacts outside the home.
D) respite services.
C) restricted social contacts outside the home.

89. Brody says that the needs of the old for care have far exceeded the capacity of the family to fulfill. Which of the following is not a cause that supports Brody’s claim?
A) Families have a bean-pole or vertical structure.
B) Modern society fragmented the family and scattered potential sources of informal support.
C) People age 85 and over require support from children who often need care themselves.
D) Kin networks have become top-heavy with an average couple having more parents than children.
B) Modern society fragmented the family and scattered potential sources of informal support.

90. Caregiving demands today peak in
A) old age.
B) retirement.
C) middle age.
D) later middle age.
D) later middle age.

91. Changes in family structure in the future will ________ the amount of informal support available and ________ the need for formal supports.
A) decrease; increase
B) decrease; decrease
C) increase; decrease
D) increase; increase
A) decrease; increase

92. Researchers found that ________ should play the central part in social and health care support for older people.
A) spouses
B) children
C) formal supports
D) family members
C) formal supports

93. The process of caring for an older person is known as
A) eldercare.
B) seniorcare.
C) personal care.
D) extended care.
A) eldercare.

Some companies offer services for caregivers. These include low cost options like flex time, seminars on eldercare, and more information about services. These programs
A) are too simple to deal with the complex issue of eldercare.
B) sometimes help but companies can and should do far more to alleviate caregiver stress.
C) help lower stress and lead to more job satisfaction.
D) benefit only caregivers who look after relatives with physical injuries, but tend to fail those with cognitive disorders like Alzheimer’s disease.
C) help lower stress and lead to more job satisfaction.

95. In an AARP study (Dinger, 2007), ________% of the companies surveyed said that caregiving had an effect on worker performance.
A) 10
B) 52
C) 56
D) 64
C) 56

96. Older people also give help to their families in the form of home services, monetary assistance, and care services. Researchers found that over a lifetime, parents give ________ support to their families.
A) more
B) less
C) the same amount
D) a lot less
A) more

97. Studies report that ________ of people age 55 and over say they care for children.
A) 1/5
B) 2/5
C) 1/4
D) 1/2
B) 2/5

Older people have a role to play in the structure of the family. Many older people keep in touch with family members and form a hub of family connections. They are called
A) caregivers.
B) kinkeepers.
C) networkers.
D) bonders.
B) kinkeepers.

Researchers describe five of the most common causes of elder abuse. Which of the following is not a common cause?
A) the independency of the older person
B) caregiver stress
C) learned violence in the family
D) impairment of the abuser by drugs, alcohol, mental retardation, etc.
A) the independency of the older person

Which of the following is not one of Pillemer and Finkelhor’s three responses to elder abuse?
A) Responses to abuse need to focus on parental and spousal abuse.
B) Professionals who work with older people need to know more about the prevalence of abuse and potential abusers.
C) There should be stronger laws to deter elder abuse and punish abusers.
D) Older people need to know more about spouse abuse.
C) There should be stronger laws to deter elder abuse and punish abusers.

103. Studies show that the type of elder abuse depends on the physical and mental condition, the environment, and the relationship of the
A) abuser.
B) abused.
C) relatives and friend of the abused.
D) abuser and the abused.
D) abuser and the abused.

104. Successful strategies such as help from the medical profession, support groups, and safe apartments and shelters can decrease the rate of
A) elder divorce.
B) acute illness.
C) elder abuse.
D) hospitalization.
C) elder abuse.

105. Mason (2003) describes a 12-week program that helps elder abusers change their behavior. This program is called
A) SEAM.
B) AARP.
C) ELDER.
D) ECHO.
A) SEAM.

107. Four social changes explain the sudden interest in elder abuse and neglect. These changes include all except
A) the growth in the number of older people.
B) decreased political power of older people.
C) the women’s movement.
D) the state’s willingness to intervene in family affairs.
B) decreased political power of older people.

108. Which one is not a product of human interaction or components of society?
A. Culture
B. Social Organization
C. Social Structure
D. Agency
E. Identity
F. Inequality
G. Grounded Theory
G. Grounded Theory

109. Culture is distinguished from nature, and one society from another by
A. Language, Value and Norms
B. Social Organization, Social Structure and Grounded Theory
C. Social Structure, Social order and Social Class
D. Agency, Identity and Inequality
A. Language, Value and Norms

110. Social Organization is the arrangement of the parts that constitute society, the organization of social positions and distribution of people within those positions
A. True
B. False
A. True

111. Which one is not a component of an institution?
A. A particular patterns of activity reproduced across time and space
B. Practices that are regularly and continuously repeated
C. Basic living arrangements that human beings work out in the interactions with one another
D. The continuity is achieved across generations
E. When two or more people regularly interacting on the basis of shared expectations of others’ behavior; interrelated statuses and roles
E. When two or more people regularly interacting on the basis of shared expectations of others’ behavior; interrelated statuses and roles

112. Status is a product of human interaction. Which one is a defined as a Status?
A. A particular patterns of activity reproduced across time and space
B. Practices that are regularly and continuously repeated
C. Basic living and interactions with one another
D. Socially defined niches, positions
E. When two or more people regularly interacting on the basis of shared expectations of others’ behavior and interrelated roles
D. Socially defined niches, positions

113. Which one is not defined by the Social Structure?
A. refers to the pattern within culture and organization through which social action takes place
B. Arrangements of roles, organizations, institutions, and cultural symbols that is stable over time, often unnoticed, and a changing almost invisibly
C. Structure both enables and constrains what is possible in social life. If a building is a society, the foundation, supporting columns and beams would be the structure which both constrains and enables the various kinds and arrangements of spaces and rooms (roles, organizations, and institutions).
D. Design (schema) and resources (material and human) through which social action takes place, becomes patterned, and institutionalized. It incorporates both culture and the resources of social organization.
E. Consider human beings as producers, as instruments, and as products, to be the drivers, the vehicle and the recipients of acts of others
E. Consider human beings as producers, as instruments, and as products, to be the drivers, the vehicle and the recipients of acts of others

114. Which one is not defined by the Agency?
A. The realized capacity of people to act upon their world and not only to know about or give personal or intersubjective significance to it.
B. The power of people to act purposively and reflectively, in more or less complex relationships with one another, to reiterate and remake the world in which they live, in circumstances where they may consider different courses of action possible and desirable, though not necessarily from the same point of view.
C. Consider human beings as producers, as instruments, and as products, to be the drivers, the vehicle and the recipients of acts of others
D. Arrangements of roles, organizations, institutions, and cultural symbols that is stable over time, often unnoticed, and a changing almost invisibly
D. Arrangements of roles, organizations, institutions, and cultural symbols that is stable over time, often unnoticed, and a changing almost invisibly

115. Which one is not defined by the Identity?
A. Combines the intimate or personal world with the collective space of cultural forms and social relations.
B. Imaginings, consciousness, reflections of self-produced, improvised from cultural materials and social transactions.
C. Caught between past, present and future, constant negotiation
D. Rather than a unified, single, original or genetic subject, composite of many, often contradictory self-understandings and performances, often not confined to the body but spread over the material and social environment, few of which are durable
E. The realized capacity of people to act upon their world and not only to know about or give personal or intersubjective significance to it.
E. The realized capacity of people to act upon their world and not only to know about or give personal or intersubjective significance to it.

116. Which one is not defined by the Social Stratification?
A. The division of people socio-economically into layers or strata.
B. we draw attention into the unequal positions occupied by individuals in society
C. A human group that defines itself and/or is defined by other groups as different by virtue of innate and immutable physical characteristics.
D. In the larger traditional societies and in industrialized countries today there is stratification in terms of wealth, property, and access to material goods and cultural products
C. A human group that defines itself and/or is defined by other groups as different by virtue of innate and immutable physical characteristics.

117. When cultural practices and outlooks of a given community of people that set them apart from others and members of groups see themselves as culturally distinct from other groups in a society, and are seen by those others to be so in return….it indicate
A. Race
B. Ethnicity
C. Social stratification
D. Values
E. Norms
B. Ethnicity

The fundamental difference is that race and ethnicity is
A. Socially imposed and hierarchical
B. Innate and immutable physical characteristics
C. Design and resource through which social action take place
D. Imagination, consciousness, cultural materials and social transactions
A. Socially imposed and hierarchical

119. Which one is not correct when we defined Race?
A. It is associated with biology and ethnicity with culture and language
B. You can only have one race, while you can claim multiple ethnic affiliations
C. You can identify ethnically as French and Egyptian, but you have to be essentially black, white or brown
D. We have no control over race; it is how an individual is perceived by others
E. Combines the intimate or personal world with the collective space of cultural forms and social relations
E. Combines the intimate or personal world with the collective space of cultural forms and social relations

120. A set of ideas about what constitutes valid knowledge of a domain. It is also known as the theory of knowledge, especially with regard to its methods, validity, and scope. In addition, it is the investigation of what distinguishes justified belief from opinion.
A. Concepts
B. Theory
C. Paradigm
D. Epistemology
E. Consciousness
F. Imagination
D. Epistemology

121. Theory is defined as one or more hypotheses about causal mechanisms and processes which is logically-connected system of general propositions and establish a relationship by which a particular social phenomenon is explained.
A. True
B. False
A. True

122. Early developments (before 17th Century) in aging research based on personal experience
A. True
B. False
A. True

123. Social Gerontology includes integration of all three core areas of aging studies, except
A. Psycho-Social
B. Socio-Economic and Environmental
C. Practice related studies of aging
D. Theology research
D. Theology research

124. The way individuals define and create the social world is called interpretive perspective. Theories that belongs to interpretive perspectives, except:
A. Social Construction
B. Social Exchange
C. Feminist Theories
D. Ethnomethodology
E. Social Phenomenology
C. Feminist Theories

125. Functionalist defined by the social order based on cooperation and consensus. A number of theories belong to that category. Which one is not include that category?
A. Structural-functionalism
B. Disengagement
C. Symbolic interactionism
D. Activity
E. Continuity
C. Symbolic interactionism

126. Conflict theory defined by society based on conflict between social groups. One of the important theory under this category is:
A. Modernization
B. Age Stratification
C. Moral economy
D. Life course perspective
E. Continuity
C. Moral economy

127. Micro-level theories describe, except
A. People and their relationship
B. Focus on small-scale events such as interactions between staff and patient in nursing home
C. Change in personality with age and the choice of the leisure activities
D. how individuals change as they age
E. Historical change in the family size and structure
E. Historical change in the family size and structure

127. Macro-level theories describe, except
A. Social institutions (such as family), social system (such as healthcare, housing), and society as a whole.
B. It examine the way that social institutions shape experiences and behavior
C. These theories focus on the large scale events such as historical change in the family size and structure
D. How industrial or agricultural societies treat their older people
E. Study of adjustment to retirement or widowhood
E. Study of adjustment to retirement or widowhood

128. Interpretive perspective most often focuses on the micro-level of social life. The way how people relate to one another, how they define situation, and how they create social order. Theory within this perspective include: Social Constructionism; Social Exchange; The Symbolic – Interactionist Perspective; Social Phenomenology; and Ethnomethodology
A. True
B. False
A. True

129. Symbolic interaction theory analyzes society by addressing the subjective meanings that people impose on objects, events, and behaviors. Symbolic Interactionism study how symbols such as clothing, body language, and written words shape social relation. But the critics of this theory claim that symbolic interactionism neglects the macro level of social interpretation—the “big picture.”
A. True
B. False
A. True

130. Marriage brings together two individuals, each from different life-worlds, and puts them into such close proximity to each other that the life-world of each is brought into communication with the other. Out of these two different realities emerges one marital reality, which then becomes the primary social context from which that individual engages in social interactions and functions in society. Marriage provides a new social reality for people, which is achieved mainly through conversations with their spouse in private. Their new social reality is also strengthened through the couple’s interaction with others outside of the marriage. Over time a new marital reality will emerge that will contribute to the formation of new social worlds within which each spouse would function. This is an example of
A. Social Exchange
B. Symbolic interactionism
C. Social Phenomenology
D. Ethnomethodology
E. Social Constructionism
C. Social Phenomenology

131. According to Derry (1999) and McMahon (1997) a theory emphasizes the importance of culture and context in understanding what occurs in society and constructing knowledge based on this understanding. This is well known as
A. Social Exchange
B. Symbolic interactionism
C. Social Phenomenology
D. Ethnomethodology
E. Social Constructionism
E. Social Constructionism

132. Central to the social exchange theory is the idea that an interaction that elicits approval from another person is more likely to be repeated than an interaction that elicits disapproval. We can thus predict whether a particular interaction will be repeated by calculating the degree of reward (approval) or punishment (disapproval) resulting from the interaction. If the reward for an interaction exceeds the punishment, then the interaction is likely to occur or continue.
A. True
B. False
true

133. Social exchange theory originated from many disciplines, such as in Structural Anthropology (Levi-Straus), Behavioral Psychology (B.F. Skinner, Albert Bandura), Utilitarian Economics (D. Ricardo, Adam Smith, J. S. Mill), Sociology (George Homans, Peter Blau), and Social Psychology (Thibaut & Kelly)
A. True
B. False

134. Ethnomethodology is the study of the methods or practices that people use to accomplish their everyday lives. The founder of this sociological approach, Harold Garfinkel, was particularly interested in how social actors provide accounts of situations. Ethnomethodologists are not so much concerned with the actual content of these accounts, but rather with the practice of accounting as a topic of analysis.
A. True
B. False
true

135. The government, or state, provides education for the children of the family, which in turn pays taxes on which the state depends to keep itself running. The family is dependent upon the school to help children grow up to have good jobs so that they can raise and support their own families. In the process, the children become law-abiding, taxpaying citizens, who in turn support the state. If all goes well, the parts of society produce order, stability, and productivity. If all does not go well, the parts of society then must adapt to recapture a new order, stability, and productivity. This an example of
A. Functionalism
B. Social Constructionism
C. Social Exchange
D. Social Phenomenology
E. Ethnomethodology
F. Logic Model
A. Functionalism

136. Modernization theory emerged in the 1950s as an explanation of how the industrial societies of North America and Western Europe developed. The theory argues that societies develop in fairly predictable stages though which they become increasingly complex. Development depends
primarily on the importation of technology as well as a number of other political and social changes believed to come about as a result. For example, modernization involves increased levels of schooling and the development of mass media, both of which foster democratic political institutions. Transportation and communication become increasingly sophisticated and accessible, populations become more urban and mobile, and the extended family declines in importance as a result. Organizations become bureaucratic as the division of labor grows more complex and religion declines in public influence. Lastly, cash-driven markets take over as the primary mechanism through which goods and services are exchanged.
A. True
B. False
true

137. Conflict perspective is one of the major theoretical approaches to sociological thought. It originated with Karl Marx and his critique of capitalism and has since developed along a number of lines. In general, the conflict perspective assumes that social life is shaped by groups and individuals who struggle or compete with one another over various resources and rewards, resulting in particular distributions of power, wealth, and prestige in societies and social systems. These shape the patterns of everyday life as well as things such as racial, ethnic, and class inequality and relations among nations and regions of the world.
A. True
B. False
true

138. Logic Model identified Outcome and impact could be short, medium and long term.
A. True
B. False
true

138. According to the logic model short term results are learning which include:
A. Awareness, Knowledge and Attitude
B. Decision making, Practice and behavior
C. Social environmental and economic conditions
A. Awareness, Knowledge and Attitude

139. Which one is not the convenient when we use Logic Model?
A. Organizing a program evaluation
B. Explaining a program evaluation
C. Reflecting on and/or analyzing a program evaluation
D. An organized way of defining your program goals, services, and measurable outcomes
E. Theorizing personality disorder.
E. Theorizing personality disorder.

140. A logic model is a systematic and visual way to present and share your understanding of the relationships among the resources you have to operate your program, the activities you plan, and the changes or results you hope to achieve.
A. True
B. False
true

141. Cross-sectional studies are observational in nature and are known as descriptive research, not causal or relational. Researchers record the information that is present in a population, but they do not manipulate variables. This type of research can be used to describe characteristics that exist in a population, but not to determine cause-and-effect relationships between different variables. These methods are often used to make inferences about possible relationships or to gather preliminary data to support further research and experimentation.
A. True
B. False
true

142. Longitudinal research is a type of research method used to discover relationships between variables that are not related to various background variables. Study is designed to allow observations over a period of time. For example: Studies the same individuals or age cohorts over time (Health and Retirement Study, began 1992, still ongoing) . In some cases, longitudinal studies can last several decades.
A. True
B. False
true

143. A time-lag study examines the responses of different participants of similar age at different points in time. Time-lag is one of the three methods used to study developmental and generational change. The other two methods are a cross-sectional study (which examines participants of different ages at one point in time) and a longitudinal study (which examines the same participants as they age). This entry first examines the types of differences these methods assess; then, it describes the possible confounds and the procedures to follow to perform a time-lag study. Last, this entry briefly discusses the future of time-lag studies. These methods assess three types of differences: age differences (a result of development), generational differences (a result of generational succession), and time period (a result of historical events that affect all generations equally).
A. True
B. False
true

144. The terms social network and social support describe the structure, processes, and functions of social relationships. Attempts to explain how social networks that provide social support improve health are “rooted in” various theoretical perspectives (such as symbolic interactionism, social exchange social cognitive, stress and coping).
A. True
B. False
true

145. Social support is one of the important functions of social relationships. Social support is commonly categorized into four types of behaviors. Which one is not belong to that category?
A. Emotional
B. Instrumental
C. Informational
D. Appraisal
E. Developmental
E. Developmental

145. Social support is one of the important functions of social relationships. Emotion is one of the major constructs in social support system which is defined as:
A. Expression of empathy, love, trust and caring
B. Tangible aid and services
C. Advice, suggestion and information
D. Information that is useful for self-evaluation.
A. Expression of empathy, love, trust and caring

146. Social Network refers to linkages between people that may or may not provide social support and that may serve other functions (i.e. social comparison, companionship, social influence). Which is not a component of whole social network?
A. Density
B. Homogeneity
C. Geographic Dispersion
D. Directionality
E. Royalty
E. Royalty

146. Social Network relationship is characterized by four constructs. Which one is not belongs to that constructs?
A. Formality
B. Intensity
C. Complexity
D. Reciprocity
E. Homogeneity
E. Homogeneity

146. Social Network relationship is characterized by four constructs. Which one is defined intensity?
A. Extent to which social relations serve many functions
B. Extent to which social relationships exits in the context of organizational or institutional role.
C. Extent to which resources and support are both given and received
D. Extent to which social relationships offer emotional closeness
D. Extent to which social relationships offer emotional closeness

147. There are four Model of informal care for family life and social support. Which one is not belong to that four model.
A. Task specificity model
B. Hierarchical compensatory model
C. Functional specificity of relationships model
D. Convoy model of support
E. Built environment model
E. Built environment model

148. According to Social network factsheet in May 2013, 74% of women were users of social networking sites, compared with 62% of men. The top social network is Facebook. However, what is the percentage person uses twitter?
A. 71%
B. 17%
C. 19%
D. 21%
E. 22%
C. 19%

149. Family members provide more than 80% of the long-term care for the 20-25% of U.S. elders who are functionally disabled. According to National Care Planning Council (NCPC) roughly, 11.1 million Americans of all ages are receiving formal or informal care at any given time. What will the predicted number of aging population 65 and over ?
A. 71.5 Millions
B. 117 Millions
C. 51.5 Billions
D. 100 millions
E. 200 millions
A. 71.5 Millions

150. More women than men are caregivers: an estimated 66% of caregivers are female. One-third (34%) take care of two or more people, and the average age of a female caregiver is 48.0 Male caregivers are less likely to provide personal care, but 24% helped a loved one get dressed compared to 28% of female caregivers. 16% of male caregivers help with bathing versus 30% of females. 40% of male caregivers use paid assistance for a loved one’s personal care.
Approximately 14.5 million caregivers are men out of the 43.4% who care for an older family member.
A. True
B. False
true

151.The majority of caregivers (72%) live within twenty minutes of the care recipient. 13% live within an hour of the care recipient, a decline from 19% in 2004. Long-distance caregivers had the highest annual expenses ($8,728) compared to co-resident caregivers ($5,885) or those who cared for a loved one nearby ($4,570). However, a Gallup poll shows caregivers who do not live with their care receiver live majority of them live within 10 miles distance. What is the percentage caregivers those who live more than 26 miles or more?
A. 11%
B. 12%
C. 14%
D. 21%
E. 28%
D. 21%

156. In one U.S. study shows 20% of caregivers expressed fears that they would become violent with the people for whom they cared for. What is most common type of abuse has been reported by U. S. caregivers of people with dementia
A. Verbal
B. Physical
C. Neglect
D. Sexual
E. Financial
A. Verbal

157. According to the data of 2010 (by NORS) most prevalence type of abuse complaints in U. S. nursing home is;
A. Physical
B. Sexual
C. Psychological
D. Financial
E. Gross Neglect
F. Resident to resident abuse
C. Psychological

160. What is name of the study that examines the responses of different participants of similar age at different points in time? This is one of the three methods used to study developmental and generational change.
A. Cross sectional design
B. Longitudinal design
C. Time-Lag design
D. Qualitative design
E. Case Study design
A. Cross sectional design

161. Any attempt to separate age, period, and cohort effects must distinguish between three levels of analysis. They are measuring differences, inferring effects, and imputing causes. However longitudinal differences defined as:
A. Those between early and later measurements on the same cohort
B. Those between younger and older cohorts at the one point in time
C. Those between the older cohorts at the earlier measurement and the younger cohort at the later measurement who have become the same age as the older cohort was at the earlier measurement.
A. Those between early and later measurements on the same cohort

161. Any attempt to separate age, period, and cohort effects must distinguish between three levels of analysis. The inference of effects is based on the fact that each difference is composed of two of the three possible effects: age, period, and cohort. Which two effects is compose by the cross-sectional difference
A. Age + Cohort
B. Age + Period
C. Period – Cohort
A. Age + Cohort

166. A type of heterogeneity, which is a property generally ascribed to a landscape or to a population. It refers to the uneven distribution of various concentrations of each species within an area. This type of heterogeneity is known as
A. Spatial heterogeneity
B. Stochastic process
C. Genetic heterogeneity
D. Environment heterogeneity
E. Differential exposure to stressors
A. Spatial heterogeneity

167. CAD and Sociological Theory based on two perspectives: social reproduction theory and the structuring of opportunity or allocation based theories. However what is main focus social reproduction theory?
A. Relation between individuals and social forces
B. External characteristic such as roles or statuses
C. Problem of person-role matching or assignment
A. Relation between individuals and social forces