Grade 5: History Alive! Chapter 5

Flashcard maker : Robert Carter
Conquistadors
Spanish Explorers who planted the Spanish flag throughout the Caribbean, Central & South America (Christopher Columbus was an example)
Northwest Passage
Explorers from England, France, and Holland wanted to find a shortcut from Europe to Asia through North America-never found
Christopher Columbus
Sailed for Spain, but was he was from Italy. He was a sailor motivated to find the Northwest Passage and riches. He sailed in 1492 with three ships, Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria. He landed in San Salvador. Thinking he had reached the East Indies, he named the native people Indians. He mad three more trips around Cuba and South/Central America. He had reached the New World. His impacts were map making, claiming land, and mistreating natives.
Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand
Rulers of Spain who gave Columbus money to find gold and slaves
John Cabot
A young shop keeper(merchant) from Italy who wanted to explore the world. He wanted spices, silks, and riches from the East Indies so he set out to look for the Northwest Passage. He sailed for the king of England, Henry VII. He reached the eastern coast of Canada and claimed land for England. He thought he had found Asia. He sailed back to North America the next year and explored the Chesapeake Bay. His ship sank and he never returned to England. His impacts were claiming land and map making.
Juan Ponce de Leon
An explorer who explored and conquered Puerto Rico for gold. He was appointed Governor of the island. He traveled in search of the Fountain of Youth. In 1513, he sailed from Puerto Rico to what is now Florida. He arrived on the Easter of Flowers, Pascua Florida, so he later named the land Florida. He never found the Fountain of Youth. He returned to Florida to set up settlements but was struck by an arrow during an Indian attack. He died before he realized that Florida wasn’t an island, but part of a vast continent. This explorer was motivated to find the Northwest Passage and riches. His impacts, however, were claiming land, killing/mistreating natives, and settlements.
Hernan Cortes
This Spanish explorer sailed to Mexico and conquered the Aztecs. He wanted adventure, gold, and silver. Thinking the explorer was a god that would attack them, the Aztecs offered him gold. This made him more determined to conquer the Aztec people. He took over the Mexican capital and held the emperor hostage. The Aztec warriors successfully attacked, and he and his men were forced to flee, laden with gold. After their defeat, the Spanish circled the city. The Aztecs, weakened by disease and starvation, could not fight back and were defeated. This explorer’s impacts include killing/mistreating native peoples and spreading disease.
Jacques Cartier
This explorer sailed for France. He was sent by Francis I to find the Northwest Passage and riches. He entered a large gulf through a strait (in present day Canada) and claimed the surrounding lands for France. He saw a waterway but could not explore (low on food) till a year later. He reached the waterway on the Feast of St. Lawrence and named it the St. Lawrence River. He followed it for 1000 miles, until he could go no further. The king sent this explorer a third time to set up settlements. After two hard winters, he gave up. He gave France its first claim in North America. His impacts were claiming land, making maps, and settlements.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
This explorer from Spain explored southeastern US looking for gold. He wanted to find the Seven Cities of Gold in Cibola (modern day New Mexico). He treated Native Americans cruelly. In 1542, this explorer and his men returned to New Spain in disgrace. He was charged with bad leadership and treating the natives cruelly. His impacts were map making and mistreating/killing the native people.
Henry Hudson
This explorer sailed for Holland and England. He set out to find the Northwest Passage. He set out to reach China by sailing near the Arctic Circle. His crew rebelled because of the ice and cold. He changed course west across the Atlantic. He reached Maine and sailed south to the Chesapeake Bay. Returning north, he entered a large body of water. He sailed up the waterway, the modern day Hudson River. This voyage gave Holland a claim in North America. A year later, he returned for England. He passed through the strait into a large body of water, modern day Hudson Bay. The waters froze trapping his ship. His crew rebelled and sent him, his son, and seven others adrift with no food. He was never seen again. This explorer gave England its first claim in Canada. His impacts were claiming land and mapmaking.
Robert de La Salle
This French nobleman wanted to set up a French empire of trading posts, forts, and settlements. The Indians had told him about a great river that flowed south to the Gulf of Mexico. King Louis XIV liked the idea, but refused to pay for the voyage. The Governor of Montreal and a wealthy friend supported him. When this explorer reached the mouth of the Mississippi, he named it Louisiana (for King Louis). He brought 200 settlers back with him in 1684. The ship missed the mouth of the Mississippi. They landed 400 miles to the west and soon were starving. Convinced he was crazy, his own men murdered him. This explorer claimed Mississippi River Valley for France. His impacts were settlements, claiming land, and map making.
contagious disease
Disease that is spread from one person to another person
East Indies
Southeast Asia including India, Indonesia, and Malaysia.
colony
A settlement ruled by another country.

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