government 1

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Social contract
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Thomas Hobbes was an advocate of this theory. Under the social contract theory, the people have surrendered the right of self governance to the state and given the state the power required to maintain order. It was the belief of Hobbes that the people did not have the right to break the agreement. Therefore, under the Hobbes view of the Social Contract theory, the government was not subject to the will of the people. Locke and Rousseau further developed the Social Contract theory to what we know today. It is based on the people having the right to change the government if the government fails to perform its side of the contract. In fact, Rousseau stressed that the people had the obligation to change the government if the government failed in its obligations.
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unitary system
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the national government has all of the power. It may share some power through creation of other levels of government, but the power remains in the central government
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federal system
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sovereignty is divided between the central government and the states (provinces). Each unit of government has authority in areas in which the other does not have authority. However, as we shall see the \”elastic clause\” of the constitution and the grant system of the federal government has expanded the power of the federal government beyond that enumerated in the constitution.
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oligarchy
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Any system of government in which all of the power is held by a few individuals
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Political Party
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Individuals who formally band together because of their similar ideas and nominate candidates for office
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Limited Government
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the power of the government is not absolute. The Magna Carta that King John of England was forced to sign in 1215 was the first document to introduce limited government. In the U.S. Constitution there are limits on the actions of government. There are statements that list specifically the powers that the government has and does not have. The first 10 Amendments to the Constitution are called the Bill of Rights because they set the limits on government concerning
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elastic clause
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To operate the government, the last of the enumerated powers was stated in the constitution. expressed in the other clauses of Article I.
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unicameral
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A government with a single legislative body t. This was the situation under the Articles of Confederation.
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Bicameral
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A government with two legislative bodies government such as we have at the federal level and in most of the fifty states.
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supremacy
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In Article VI of the Constitution, it states that laws enacted by Congress and treaties enter in to by the United States, \”shall be the supreme Law of the Land.\”
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checks and balances
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Each branch exercises some control over the others. Congress can pass laws, but the President can veto them. If it has sufficient votes in each house of Congress the veto can be overridden. The court system can rule on the constitutionality of a law and the lawfulness or unlawfulness on the administration of the laws, but only after someone files a lawsuit.
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Judicial Review
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the courts can rule that a law is unconstitutional because the justices of the court perceive it to be inconsistent with the Constitution.
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state rights
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people who believe that the rights of the states should supercede the federal laws because the original colonies were individual states after the Revolution.
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nationalists
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federal government and the laws enacted by Congress, signed by the President and when challenged upheld by the courts are the supreme laws of the land.
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inherent powers
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The things that the government must do in order to carry out its responsibilities such as immigration control and diplomatic relations.
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Implied powers
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The power required to carry out the powers expressly defined in the Constitution.

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