Gov Chapter 6 & 7 Review

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Chief Executive
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the president is responsible to see that government programs are carried out and that the laws passed by Congress are implemented
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Commander in Chief
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Ultimate authority over the military and military actions
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Foreign Policy
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a nations plans and procedures for dealing with other countries
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Diplomacy
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the art of negotiating with foreign governements
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Chief of State
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role of symbolic figurehead of the US
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Natural Born Citizen
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a person born of at least one American citizen or born on U.S. soil
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Sucession
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the process of succeeding or coming after someone
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Chief Administrator
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manager of the 15 executive departments and the federal agencies that carry out government policy
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Executive Orders
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a formal rule or regulation instructing executive branch officials on how to carry out their jobs
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Executive Privilege
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allows the president to refuse to release information to Congress or a court, meant to shield information that is vital to the safety of the nation
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Reprieve
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postpones the carrying out of a sentence
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Pardon
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releases a convicted criminal from having to fulfill a sentence
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Amnesty
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grants a group of offenders a general pardon for offenses committed
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Commute
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reduction in a person’s sentence
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Executive Agreements
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agreements between a president and the head of a foreign government
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Administration
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all of the people who work for the executive branch
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Executive Office of the President EOP
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all of the top administrative officials of the president’s administration
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White House Office
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the presidents key personal and political staff
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Chief of Staff
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manages the day to day operations of the White House Office
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National Security Council NSC
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top military, foreign affairs, and intelligence officials, coordinate the nations national security policy
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Council of Economic Advisers CEA
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provides the president with expert economic advice, examine the economy to see how trends and events may affect the presidents economic policy
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Office of Management and Budget OMB
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help develop the federal budget and oversee its execution by executive branch agencies, gathers information and sets policies to manage the purchase of goods, services, and property the entire government
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Executive Departments
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agencies of the federal government responsible for carrying out laws, administering programs, and making regulations in their particular area of responsibility
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Diplomatic Recognition
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power to formally recognize the legitimacy of a foreign governement
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Independent Agencies
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government agencies that operate separately from executive departments
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Independent Executive Agencies
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government agencies established to oversee and manage a specific aspect of the federal government
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Independent Regulatory Commissions
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government agencies established to regulate some aspect of the economy
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Government Corporations
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government agencies that are organized and run like business but are owned in whole or part by the federal government
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Bipartisan
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inclusion of members from both major political parties in an independent regulatory commission
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Bureaucracy
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any organization, either in government or the private sector, having the following features: a clear formal structure, a division of labor, and a set of rules and procedures by which it operates
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Bureaucrats
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the administrators and skilled, expert workers who carry out many specific tasks of the federal bureaucracy
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Civil Service
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made up of the civilians who carry out the work of the federal government
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Spoils System
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the practice of awarding government jobs as political rewards to people who supported the presidents policies or the presidents election campaign
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Income Tax
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a tax on a person or corporations income
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Progressive Tax
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a tax whose rates increase as income rises
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Payroll Tax
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money withheld from a persons paycheck by his or her employer
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Regressive Tax
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tax that has a greater impact on lower income workers
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Proportional Tax
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flat tax. a tax that is applied at the same rate against all income
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Bond
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a person agrees to pay back money with interest at a later date in time
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Federal Debt
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the total amount of money that the government has borrowed and not yet repaid
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Mandatory Spending
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spending requires by laws and not subject to the annual budget process
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Discretionary Spending
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spending that is subject to the annual budget process
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Fiscal Policy
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decisions about the federal budget and tax policy
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Monetary Policy
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increasing the amount of money in circulation or altering interest rates
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What are the roles of the president?
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Official Roles- chief executive, chief administrator, commander in chief, and foreign policy leader Unofficial Roles- chief of state, greets foreign officials, attends diplomatic functions, serves as leader of the party, primary rep. of all the people
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What are the formal characteristics of the presidency?
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35 years old lived in the country for 14 years be a natural born citizen two four year terms 22nd amendment-sets two terms or max of 10 years *Election to Office process*
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What are the informal characteristics of the presidency?
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Presidential Backgrounds – white, men, well-educated, middle to upper class -Christianity -3/4 military background Personal Qualities -Leadership qualities -Persuasive and inspiring
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What are the executive powers of the president?
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Appointment and Removal Powers Executive Orders Executive Privilege
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What are the diplomatic and military powers of the president?
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Diplomatic -make treaties -executive agreements -diplomatic recognition Military -declare war -president serves as commander in chief
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How does the president exercise legislative and judicial powers?
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Legislative -deliver state of union address -veto Judicial -reprieve -pardon -amnesty -commute
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What are some of the informal powers of the president?
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access to the media and position as party leader
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How are the president’s powers checked by the other braches?
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Formal Checks -Judicial review -Senate can block appointments -Congress can override a presidential veto Informal Checks -media is “watchdog” -public approval
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In what ways has the presidential power changed over the years?
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Constitution created Congress to lead Checks and Balances Separation of Powers
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What is the Executive Office of the President and what are its duties?
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EOP NSC CEA OMB helps formulate the presidents policies and almost all appointees need the Senate to confirm their appointments
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How has the role of the VP changed over time?
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Preside over Senate Electoral Votes Serve as Pres. if the pres. cannot early years the VP did only the above and were not relied upon for much but in modern times, they have their own offices and staff and presidents rely upon them to do certain special functions or assignments that the president directs
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What is the cabinet, and how does it work with the president?
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the heads of the 15 executive departments(16 with the VP) they carry out laws, administer programs, and make regulations in their area of responsibility
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What is the federal bureaucracy?
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2 million people, contains all the agencies and departments of the executive branch including the VP, the executive office, the executive department, and the indecent agencies
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What is the civil service and how has it changed over the years?
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critics argued the spoils system lead to inexperience and corruption , today civil servants take a civil service exam and based on scores and experience are placed in positions
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What is the purpose of the executive departments?
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major units of administrators and police making in the executive branch sometimes called the Cabinet, each department oversees a broad area of government responsibility like defense
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What are the primary functions of executive departments today?
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department of health and human services, department of defense, and department of homeland security
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What are independent agencies?
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government agencies that operate separately from executive departments
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What are some issues regarding power and accountability in the federal bureaucracy?
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administrative procedure act, freedom of information act, iron triangle
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How does the federal government pay for its operations?
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income taxes, progressive taxes, regressive taxes, payroll taxes, estate taxes, gift taxes, borrowing money
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What are the two types of government spending?
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mandatory spending(60%, non negotiable) and discretionary spending(30%)
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How do fiscal and monetary policy affect the nation’s economy?
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fiscal- government could cut taxes or spend more money monetary- government can change interest rates
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How does the federal budget process work?
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president and congress work together to create a budget, OMB helps president prepare the budget and CBO passes it and it will later be enacted
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gift tax
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tax on money and property that is given from one person to another
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estate tax
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tax on money and property that is passed on to heirs of someone who has died

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