Reflection Essay on GLY Topic 12

question

This new volcano has grown from the submarine caldera of Krakatau
answer

Anark Krakatau
question

An eruption of the ancestor to the 19th century Krakatau may have been responsible for global climate impacts noted aout 535 AD
answer

True
question

The largest eruption of Krakatau were measured as pressure spikes on the gasometer of this city
answer

Batavia
question

An even larger volcano, Ancient Krakatau, may have occupied the site of Krakatau before it also destroyed itself
answer

True
question

Dutch controller Willem Beyerinck and his family were almost killed by tsunami and pyroclastic flows
answer

True
question

Krakatau occupies these important straits, one of the busiest channels of commercial navigation since commerce began on the sea
answer

Sunda Straits
question

When was the deadly eruption of Krakatau
answer

1883
question

What famous ocean explorer visited Krakatau more than once before its catastrophic eruption
answer

Captain James Cook
question

After the eruption of Krakatau, all that was left of the volcano were small islands surronding a
answer

submarine caldera
question

The sound created by this eruption of this volcano was the loudest noise ever heard in historical times
answer

Krakatau
question

The Krakatau pyroclastic flows over water were cushioned by a layer of
answer

steam
question

The majority of deaths during the eruption of Krakatau were caused by
answer

tsunami
question

Batavia (now Jakarta) and Krakatau was under the administration of what country at the time of Krakatau’s cataclysmic eruption
answer

Netherlands
question

Krakatau volcanism is caused by subduction into this nearby trench
answer

Sunda
question

Why is the eruption of Krakatau considered the first natural disaster of the modern era?
answer

it was the first to be followed by a global news distribution network
question

Most of the European witnesses to the pre-, syn-, and post-eruption events of Krakatau were
answer

aboard offshore ships
question

Dense concentrations floating pumice are called
answer

pumice rafts
question

Pyroclastic surges traveled dozens of miles over water from Krakatau, some crossing the Sunda Straits
answer

True
question

Krakatau was the only volcano in Indonesia
answer

False
question

Krakatau is in what country
answer

Indonesia
question

Unlike the 1900 Galveston hurricane, most Hurricane Ike damage was wind damage and not storm surge damage
answer

false
question

A sea wall does not protect the landward portion of Galveston Island from water rising in the Galveston Harbor and West Bay
answer

true
question

Hurricane Ike was what category hurricane when it made landfall?
answer

2
question

Hurricane Ike was the strongest hurricane to hit Galveston since the 1900 hurricane
answer

true
question

The Galveston sea wall extends the entire length of the barrier island
answer

false
question

What northern Gulf of Mexico city is more at risk to hurricane damage than Galveston?
answer

New Orleans
question

Most barrier islands are vulnerable to extensive storm surge damage with a nearby landfall of a hurricane
answer

yes
question

A barrier island in a natural state would migrate toward shore with rising sea level
answer

true
question

All Galveston area structures built on stilts were unharmed by Hurricane Ike
answer

false
question

Prior to the 1900 hurricane, the city of Galveston was the mot populous city in Texas
answer

true
question

After the 1900 hurricane, Galveston built this to help protect the city from future storm surge
answer

a sea wall
question

Prior to the 1900 hurricane, the city of Galveston stood an average of how much above sea level
answer

4.5 feet
question

The Chief Meteorologist in Galveston on the eve of the 1900 hurricane was
answer

Isaac Cline
question

Which natural disaster resulted in the greatest loss of life?
answer

the Galveston hurricane of 1900
question

North of Galveston Island and across Galveston Harbor is the low lying
answer

Bolivar Peninsula
question

The 1900 Weather Bureau’s \”Law of Storms\” predicted that all tropical cyclones moving east to west across the Atlantic would:
answer

recurve to the north and east along the Atlantic coast
question

Galveston was once one to the busiest ports in the United States
answer

true
question

After the 1900 Galveston hurricane what Texas city replaced it as the largest city and port?
answer

Houston
question

Cuban meteorologists of 1900 had a better understanding of the behavior of hurricanes than did their American peers
answer

true
question

North of 40 degrees latitude and south of 35 degrees latitude there is a deficit of incoming short wave radiation relative to outgoing infrared radiation
answer

true
question

the strongest winds of a hurricane occur
answer

in the eye wall
question

The Atlantic hurricane season is from
answer

May 15 – November 30
question

Which of the following determines the height of the storm surge
answer

all of these
question

What percentage of the U.S. population lives in coastal counties?
answer

almost 40
question

the minimum sustained winds in a hurricane are
answer

74 mph
question

major hurricanes are what categories in the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale?
answer

3-5
question

Inland flooding along the path of land-falling hurricane is greater with a fast moving system than with a slow moving one
answer

false
question

the deadliest hurricanes/cyclones in history were in this basin
answer

Indian Ocean
question

Atlantic hurricane names are all male names
answer

false
question

Data transmitted from tsunami detection buoys are used to
answer

Modify tsunami propagation models
question

In which ocean basin is tsunami monitoring less important than the others?
answer

Atlantic Ocean
question

Tsunami detection buoys are connected to a seafloor device that measures
answer

Pressure fluctuations on the sea bottom
question

The shoreline always drops below low tide level before a tsunami comes ashore
answer

False
question

The first tsunami detection buoy was deployed in what year?
answer

1995
question

An October 2010 earthquake and tsunami on the Sumatra coast resulted in no loss of life because of newly installed tsunami warning systems
answer

False
question

Increasing vegetation along the shoreline and near shore can mitigate tsunami energy as it comes ashore
answer

True
question

Tetrapods and hexapods are _______ and ________ pronged concrete structures used to mitigate tsunami energy
answer

four, six
question

The operational center of the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center is in what city?
answer

Honolulu, Hawaii
question

An additional tsunami warning center for some North Pacific tsunami is centered in
answer

Palmer, Alaska
question

Forecasts of tsunami heights are more accurate than tsunami arrival times
answer

False
question

This Pacific rim country has probably engineered and deployed the most systems for the mitigation of tsunami
answer

Japan
question

There were no tsunami detection buoys deployed in the Indian Ocean when the 2004 Sumatra tsunami hit
answer

True
question

The first tsunami crest is always the largest one
answer

False
question

The acronym for the deep-ocean tsunami detection system is
answer

DART
question

The 2004 Sumatra tsunami was caused by a
answer

Subduction zone megathrust
question

About how long did it take for the 2004 Sumatra tsunami to first reach shore?
answer

20 minutes
question

The Earth’s rupture that caused the 2004 Sumatra tsunami and earthquake was
answer

Longest ever recorded
question

The maximum height of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami was about
answer

100 feet
question

Which of the following disasters did not occur during the same tectonic boundary?
answer

1700 Orphan tsunami
question

Which one of the following countries had no casualties attributed to the 2004 Sumatra tsunami
answer

South Africa
question

A large number of vacationing Europeans were killed in this country as a result of the Sumatra tsunami
answer

Thailand
question

Which tsunami resulted in the greatest loss of life
answer

The 2004 Sumatra tsunami
question

The greatest loss of life from the 2004 Sumatra tsunami occurred where
answer

Northern Sumatra
question

Satellite data detected the 2004 Sumatra tsunami and warned coastal communities
answer

False
question

In what remote areas of the South Atlantic were Krakatau tsunami observed?
answer

Cape Horn and South Georgia
question

Written eyewitness accounts indicate that there was only one Krakatau tsunami
answer

False
question

All the cities and villages were destroyed on this funnel-shaped bay to the north of Krakatau
answer

Lampong Bay
question

About how long did it take for the tsunami of Krakatau take to hit the surrounding shores between Java and Sumatra
answer

30 minutes
question

No coastline in the world is more at risk than that of
answer

Sumatra and Java
question

Which of the following shorelines is less likely to experience a tsunami
answer

Gulf of Mexico
question

The eruption of Tambora created larger tsunami than that of Krakatau
answer

False
question

None of those aboard ships in the Sunda Strait survived the Krakatau tsunami
answer

False
question

The Krakatau tsunami were strong enough to destroy lighthouses
answer

True
question

The Krakatau tsunami were created by
answer

Pyroclastic flows into the ocean and caldera collapse
question

The Krakatau tsunami reached a maximum of how high above normal sea level?
answer

More than 100 feet
question

The farthest that the Krakatau tsunami could be detected in the Atlantic was
answer

The English Channel
question

Geography restricted the spread of the Krakatau tsunami east into the
answer

Java Sea
question

Today the capital of Indonesia is called Jakarta. What was the name of Jakarta when Krakatu erupted
answer

Batavia
question

What twp \”Case Studies\” involved earthquakes that caused large tsunami?
answer

Santorini and Krakatau volcanic eruptions
question

The tsunami of Krakatau traveled father around the world than the pressure wave from its most powerful eruption
answer

False
question

The tsunami from Krakatau were felt more strongly in which of the following regions
answer

Eastern Sumatra and Western Java
question

The greatest loss of life from Krakatau tsunami was along the shoreline bordering
answer

The Sunda Strait
question

Which volcano formed a caldera that created a tsunami
answer

Santorini
question

The immediate tsunami death toll on the shorelines near Krakatau was estimated as
answer

30,000 to 40,000
question

Once a tsunami crosses the entire Pacific it seldom has a height of more than 5 meters
answer

True
question

Studies now indicate a recurrence interval for large Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes of
answer

400-500 years
question

Trees in the Pacific Northwest add ______ rings per year, and are dormant between the months of _________.
answer

two, August and May
question

There are no subduction zones offshore Japan that might create a tsunami generating earthquake
answer

False
question

The best tree ring estimate of the 1700 Cascadian earthquake was from
answer

a Sitka Spruce root
question

Shoreline evidence for past tsunami along Cascadia includes
answer

All of these
question

A published anthology of Japanese earthquakes recorded from 416 AD to 1872 AD includes about how many earthquakes
answer

greater than 45,000
question

During a subduction zone earthquake, the leading edge of the overriding plate is released to ________ while near the shoreline that land ___________:
answer

Springs up, sinks or subsides
question

Most Japanese tsunami originate from earthquakes
answer

Just offshore Japan
question

The data range of the Cascadian earthquake provided by tree ring evidence overlaps the __________ date of the Orphan tsunami, suggesting it was the parent of the tsunami:
answer

January 26th
question

The Pacific Northwest is also under risk from volcano hazards
answer

True
question

Tree ring dating shows that the sunken ghost forests died when
answer

After the 1699 growing season and before the 1700 growing season
question

Cascadia refers to what region of the united states?
answer

The Pacific Northwest that is east of the Juan de Fuca plate
question

Historical records from South America include no reference to a large earthquake along the South Amercican coast during 1700 AD
answer

True
question

A tsunami with no known point of origin is known as:
answer

An orphan tsunami
question

Computer modeling of the Cascadia tsunami requires that it was what magnitude for it to have caused the Japanese Orphan tsunami?
answer

8.7-9.2
question

The height range of the Japanese Orphan tsunami was about how much
answer

2-5 meters
question

What type of plate boundary is offshore the Washington, Oregon, and northern California?
answer

a subduction zone
question

The Cascadian earthquake that caused the Orphan Tsunami occurred after permanent settlement of the region by people of European descent
answer

False
question

The 1700 Orphan tsunami in Japan had a similar height as another created when and where
answer

Chile, 1960
question

Fortunately, there are no significant Cascadia coastal population centers that might be impacted of another tsunami of the magnitude of Orphan Tsunami
answer

False
question

The vertical distance between a wave crest and trough is called
answer

Wave height
question

The vast majority of tsunami are created by
answer

large earthquakes at subduction zone plate boundaries
question

Wave frequency is usually expressed as
answer

wave crests/time interval
question

Sometimes the first portion of a tsunami to wash ashore is the trough of the wave
answer

True
question

The height of water behind a tsunami coming ashore rapidly declines because of the short wavelength of tsunami
answer

False
question

The maximum speed of tsunami propagation through the deep ocean basins is closet to
answer

750 km/hour
question

A database of 1691 models of tsunami propagation are held by this group to help forecast tsunami arrival times
answer

NOAA Center for Tsunami research
question

The majority of all recorded tsunami occurred in this ocean bath
answer

Pacific
question

What is the usual height of a large tsunami in the open ocean (beyond the continental shelf)?
answer

less than one meter
question

Fortunately, most subduction zone plate boundary earthquakes are far from shorelines, allowing many hours for safe evacuation
answer

False
question

The largest loss of life ever experienced by a tsunami was caused by the
answer

2004 Sumatra tsunami
question

Flank collapses of these Pacific islands have created large ancient tsunami
answer

Hawaiian Islands
question

Wave steepness is a function of wave height divided by
answer

Wavelength
question

Tsunami generally have multiple crests but the first crest is always the highest
answer

False
question

Tsunami speed decreases as water depth shallows
answer

True
question

Waves transmit ____________ and not ____________ through the ocean
answer

energy, mass
question

The deadliest known tsunami in the Mediterranean was caused by
answer

the volcanic eruption of Santorini
question

Earthquakes with epicenters on land do not cause tsunami
answer

True
question

The wavelength of tsunami are generally in what range
answer

more than 100 km
question

Tsunami is of _________ derivation and means _________
answer

Japanese, harbor wave
question

Tsunami are considered \”shallow-water\” waves because
answer

the entire water column moves as a tsunami passes
question

Tsunami slow down so much in shallow water that almost all people can outrun them as they wash ashore
answer

False
question

This island in the Atlantic s considered by some scientists as a threat to potentially create a large tsunami by the collapse of the island flank into the ocean
answer

La Palma
question

There is geologic evidence that an asteroid impact once caused a tsunami in the Gulf of Mexico
answer

True
question

The base of wave-driven waves is the depth where
answer

Water no longer moves in response to a passing wave
question

United States Geological Survey
answer

which government agency if responsible for monitoring volcanoes deemed a risk to the public:
question

true
answer

volcanic hazard maps are necessary before a volcanic risk assessment can be completed
question

false
answer

the atlantic has a greater concentration of active volcanoes than the pacific
question

forest management
answer

which of the following is not of form of volcanic risk mitigation
question

all three named location
answer

the United States Geological Survey maintains a volcanic observatory(s) for:
question

all of these
answer

which of the following is a factor in evaluating volcanic risk
question

false
answer

researchers have found the behavior of individual volcanoes is less constant than the behavior between volcanoes
question

true
answer

earthquake swarms are often, but not always, precursors to an eruption
question

true
answer

the history of volcanic activity for a specific volcano is important to assessment of its volcanic risk
question

changes in the composition of rocks
answer

which of the following is not monitored to detect the possibility of new activity by a volcano?
question

Carbon Dioxide is odorless and denser than air, causing it to hug the ground:
answer

true
question

An even larger quantity of gas than in Lake Nyos occurs in this lake of the African Rift Valley between Rwanda and Zaire:
answer

Lake Kiva
question

The massive and rapid release of gas from Lake Nyos was caused by:
answer

a disruption to the stratification of the lake.
question

Lake Nyos is occupied what type of volcanic feature?
answer

Marr
question

Lake Nyos and Monoun expelled large quantities of this gas, killing large numbers of people:
answer

carbon dioxide
question

Lake Nyos is in this African country:
answer

Cameroon
question

Gradual mediation of limnic lakes can be achieved by:
answer

venting deep gas through a pipe
question

Limnic explosions are rare and generally confined to:
answer

tropical lakes in volcanic regions
question

The carbon dioxide in the limnic lake bottoms of Lakes Nyos and Monoun were implaced by:
answer

groundwater saturated from a magmatic source beneath the lake.
question

Local myths, folklore, and oral traditions are potential indicators of lakes capable of limnic explosions:
answer

true
question

Nevado del Ruiz had no previous history of causing lahars
answer

False
question

What kind of volcano is Nevado del Ruiz?
answer

Stratovolcano
question

Volcanoes of what volcanic explosive index can generate lahars?
answer

any
question

Lahars are seldom a danger when tens of kilometers from a volcano
answer

False
question

What volcanic hazard from Nevado del Ruiz was responsible for the loss of life in the village of Armero
answer

A lahar
question

There had been no recent volcanic or seismic activity on Nevado del Ruiz in the months prior to the deadly November 13, 1985 eruption:
answer

False
question

Most of those who died in Armero, Columbia, did so from
answer

Crushing injuries and burial
question

Unfortunately, a volcanic hazards map was not finished prior to the Nevado del Ruiz disaster:
answer

False
question

The Columbian government had no knowledge of the danger of Nevado del Ruiz to surrounding communities:
answer

False
question

How does the loss of life from the Nevado del Ruiz lahar rank in terms of twentieth century volcanic distasters
answer

Second only to St. Pierre, Martinique
question

Local officials in Armero were partially at fault for a lack of evacuation
answer

True
question

The City of Armero was built on
answer

The floodplain of a river draining from Nevado del Ruiz
question

What was the source of water to the Nevado del Ruiz lahar?
answer

An ice cap
question

Do you believe that most large stratovolcanoes in the temperate to high latitudes have permanent snow and/or ice caps?
answer

Yes
question

Nevado del Ruiz is located in the ________ mountains in the country of ________.
answer

Andes, Columbia
question

Which of the following was to blame for the great loss of life in Armero
answer

All of these
question

Why did people settle in the Lagunilla River Valley and Armero?
answer

All of these
question

Swift and efficient disaster response greatly reduced the loss of life in Armero, Columbia, in the days after the disaster
answer

False
question

Why wasn’t the volcanic eruption of Nevado del Ruiz detected on the day of Armero’s destruction?
answer

They knew it had erupted
question

What relationship does volcanism in the Andes have to plate tectonics?
answer

The Andes are above a subduction zone
question

The nuez ardente hit St. Pierre on May 8th, 1902, occurred at approximately what time of day
answer

8 am
question

The greatest twentieth century loss of life from a volcanic eruption was the eruption of
answer

Mt. Pelee
question

A subduction zone occurs to the ________ of Martinique where the ________ tectonic plate is subducted
answer

east, South American
question

All the islands of the Lesser Antilles are volcanic
answer

True
question

Most ships at anchor in the bay of St. Pierre also were destroyed by the eruption of Mt. Pelze
answer

True
question

Only one St. Pierre survivor lived long enough to tell of his ordeal. Where was he found?
answer

In his jail cell
question

There were no eruptions on Martinique during historic times, until the year St. Pierre was destroyed
answer

False
question

Because of its sturdy construction which of the following St. Pierre buildings survived the eruption intact?
answer

none of these survived intact
question

Martinique is a department of what country?
answer

France
question

When the shallow still in the Etand Sec eroded away a ________ was sent down the Rivizre Blanche to the sea
answer

lahar
question

In what year did an eruption of Mt. Pelze destroy the city of St. Pierre?
answer

1902
question

Prior to the eruption, the formation of a lake in the crater of Mt. Pelze was caused by
answer

rising magma pushed up groudwater
question

Today the principal crops of Martinique are
answer

sugar cane and bananas
question

Volcanic eruptions can be accompanied by electrical discharges in their ash clouds
answer

True
question

The entire island of Martinique is built almost entirely of
answer

coalesced pyroclastic flows
question

The process that buried the Gurrin rum and sugar factory also caused what to happen in St. Pierre?
answer

A small tsunami
question

Submarine cables were cut not long before the catastrophic eruption of Mt. Pelze and probably has nothing to do with the subsurface movement of magma
answer

False
question

Some weak nuze ardentes occurred prior to the deadly Mt. Pelze eruption but were not cause for most of the St. Pierre population to evacuate
answer

True
question

Martinique is on this tectonic plate
answer

Caribbean
question

Today St. Pierre, Martinique, is uninhabited
answer

False
question

What destroyed the plantation and guerin sugar and rum factory on the Riviere Balnche?
answer

A lahar
question

The village of Prcheur, on the coast, was cutoff from the rest of Martinique by
answer

Lahars and pyroclastic flows
question

What kind of volcano is Mt. Pelee?
answer

Stratovolcano
question

The French use the term Peleean cloud for cloud for the type of glowing, destructive, hot avalanche of gas and ash inundated St. Pierre
answer

Nuee Ardente
question

The mayor and governor advised the population to evacuate St. Pierre
answer

False
question

The Etang Sec on Mt. Pelee was where the deadly pyroclastic flows originated from. What geologic feature was the Etang Sec?
answer

a caldera from an older eruption
question

Martinique is an island in the
answer

Windward Islands of the Lesser Antilles
question

Sporadic eruptions of Mt. Pelee continued for decades after the destruction of St. Pierre
answer

True
question

The Needle of Pelee was a tall and slender
answer

volcanic dome formed by very viscous lava pushed up though the vent
question

The walls of most buildings in St. Pierre are composed of what type of material
answer

volcanic rocks
question

This new volcano has grown from the submarine caldera of Krakatau
answer

Anark Krakatau
question

An eruption of the ancestor to the 19th century Krakatau may have been responsible for global climate impacts noted aout 535 AD
answer

True
question

The largest eruption of Krakatau were measured as pressure spikes on the gasometer of this city
answer

Batavia
question

An even larger volcano, Ancient Krakatau, may have occupied the site of Krakatau before it also destroyed itself
answer

True
question

Dutch controller Willem Beyerinck and his family were almost killed by tsunami and pyroclastic flows
answer

True
question

Krakatau occupies these important straits, one of the busiest channels of commercial navigation since commerce began on the sea
answer

Sunda Straits
question

When was the deadly eruption of Krakatau
answer

1883
question

What famous ocean explorer visited Krakatau more than once before its catastrophic eruption
answer

Captain James Cook
question

After the eruption of Krakatau, all that was left of the volcano were small islands surronding a
answer

submarine caldera
question

The sound created by this eruption of this volcano was the loudest noise ever heard in historical times
answer

Krakatau
question

The Krakatau pyroclastic flows over water were cushioned by a layer of
answer

steam
question

The majority of deaths during the eruption of Krakatau were caused by
answer

tsunami
question

Batavia (now Jakarta) and Krakatau was under the administration of what country at the time of Krakatau’s cataclysmic eruption
answer

Netherlands
question

Krakatau volcanism is caused by subduction into this nearby trench
answer

Sunda
question

Why is the eruption of Krakatau considered the first natural disaster of the modern era?
answer

it was the first to be followed by a global news distribution network
question

Most of the European witnesses to the pre-, syn-, and post-eruption events of Krakatau were
answer

aboard offshore ships
question

Dense concentrations floating pumice are called
answer

pumice rafts
question

Pyroclastic surges traveled dozens of miles over water from Krakatau, some crossing the Sunda Straits
answer

True
question

Krakatau was the only volcano in Indonesia
answer

False
question

Krakatau is in what country
answer

Indonesia

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