Globalization and Diversity: Geography of a Changing World (Ch. 1)

Flashcard maker : Lewis Edwards
Question Answer
Globalization the increasing interconnectedness of people and places through converging processes of economic, political, and cultural change
Transitional Firms Do global business through international subsidiaries, disrupt local ecosystems in their incessant search for natural resources and manufacturing sites
Sweatshops Crude factories in which workers sew clothing, assemble sneakers, and perform other labor-intensive tasks for extremely low wages
Rate of National Increase (RNI) Depicts the annual growth rate for a country or region as a percentage
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) Synthetical hypothetical number that measures the fertility of a statistically fictitious yet average group of women moving through their childbearing years
Population Pyramid Plots the percentage of all different age groups along a vertical axis that divides the population into male and female
Demographic Transition Model A four-stage conceptualization that tracks changes in birthrates and death rates through time as a population urbanizes
Net Migration Rate A statistic that depicts whether more people are entering or leaving a country
Urbanized Population The percentage of a country's population living in cities
Culture Learned, not innate, and is shared behavior held in common by a group of people, empowering them with what could be called a "way of life"
Cultural Imperialism Active promotion of one cultural system at the expense of another
Cultural Syncretism or Hybridization The blending of forces to form a new, synergist form of culture
Lingua Franca When people from different cultural groups cannot communicate directly in their native languages, they often agree on a third language to serve as a common tongue
Universalizing Religions Attempt to appeal to all peoples, regardless of location or culture; these religions usually have a proselytizing or missionary program that actively seeks new converts
Ethnic Religions Religion that remains identified closely with a specific ethnic, tribal, or national group
Secularization When people consider themselves either nonreligious or outright atheistic
Nation-State A relatively homogenous cultural group with its own fully independent political territory
Centrifugal Forces Cultural and political forces acting to weaken or divide an existing state; they pull away from the center
Centripetal Forces Forces that promote political unity and reinforce the state structure that counteract dissipating forces
Asymmetrical Warfare A term that aptly describes the differences between a superpower's military technology and strategy and the lower-level technology and guerrilla tactics used by Al Qaeda and the Taliban
Colonialism The formal establishment of rule over a foreign population
Decolonialization The process of a colony's gaining (or regaining) control over its territory and establishing a separate, independent government
Core-Periphery Model A scheme where the US, Canada, Western Europe, and Japan constituted the global economic core of the north, whereas most of the areas to the south made up a less-developed global periphery
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) The value of all final goods and services produced within the borders
Gross National Income (GNI) When net income from abroad is combined with the nation's GDP
Gross National Income per capita When the country's GNI is divided by its population
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) An adjustment that takes into account the strength or weakness of local currencies
Human Development Index (HDI) Combines data on life expectancy, literacy, educational attainment, gender equity, and income

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