Global thematic essay themes

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Theme: Change Neolithic Revoltion
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= nomads (hunters and gatherers) become permanent settlers learning to grow crops and domesticate animals A. happens in the four river valleys first: Nile= Egypt Tigris/ Euphrates= Mesopotamia Hwang He= China Indus River= India B. leads to civilization
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Theme: Change crusades
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(1095-1200)= European Christians travel to Holy Land to fight against muslims A. leads to increased trade, cultural diffusion
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Theme: Change Protestant Reformation
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= starts when Martin Luther (1517) posts 95 theses on church door A. protested against the sale of indulgences (ways for rich to gain salvation= get into heaven) B. leads to split of christianity into Roman Catholic Church and Protestants decreased in religious unity challenged religious teachings C. counter-reformation follow= attempt to strengthen the roman catholic church
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Theme: Change meiji restoration
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(1868-1912)= commodore Matthew perry’s voyages (1854) begin to open up japan lead to end if Tokugawa shogunate (1868) Adopted western technology, education and military system modernization, westernization, industrialization, reform need for more recourses and raw materials leads to japanese imperialism
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Theme: Change “westernize”
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as countries industrialize, urbanize, modernize, “westernize”, they become less traditional
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Theme: Change industrial revolution
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= begins in England in 1750s shifted production of goods by hand to machine; used new sources of power/technology leads to urbanization= growth of big cities
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Theme: Change mao zedong
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leads communist revolution in china over jiang jieshi’s Nationalist Party (1949) brings peasants together
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Theme: Change scientific revolution
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= used scientific method to question traditional scientific beliefs geocentric theory questions and replaced with heliocentric theory
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theme: turning points russian revolution
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(1917)= communists overthrow Czar Nicholas II (rejection of Czarist syster) vladimir lenin= peace bread and land; founds first communist government; New Economic policy
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theme: turning points french revolution
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(1789)= overthrows the Old Regime; gets rid of the estates system (unfair taxation, no say in government, strict social class system) result of the enlightenment; declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen reign of terror stimulated growth of nationalism
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theme: turning points Mikhail Gorbachev
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(1986-1990)= his reforms led to the fall of the soviet union glasnost= “openness”= greater freedom of expression perestroika= economic restructuring= moves soviet union away from socialism allowing some capitalism (free market/laissez-faire) lets satellite nations know that he would not stop them from leaving the iron curtain and declaring their independence
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theme: turning points age of exploration
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(1480-1650)= europeans use new science/technology to establish colonies in america, south america, Africa will lead to mercantilism= increased wealth by controlling trade of colonies
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theme: turning points latin american independence movements
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(1798-1821)= struggles for political independence influenced by american and french revolutions simon bolivar, toussaint L’Ouverture, jose de san martin
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theme: geography and environment neolithic revolution
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river valleys…> fertile soil….> civilizations
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theme: geography and environment china
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isolation…> belief in middle kingdom; china as most important civilization; ethnocentrism
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theme: geography and environment japan
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isolation….> protection from outside invasion (prior to WWII) cultural unity/distrust of foreign influence ends in 1854 with arrival of commodore Matthew perry irregular coastline…> good harbors for trade sea as a valuable resource (food) entrepreneurs risk capital ($) in order to make a profit lack of natural recourses has led japan to develop technology in order to trade for necessary materials
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theme: geography and environment communism
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= marxism karl marx= writes the communist manifesto as a result of the industrial revolution in England. saw the negative effect of industrialization (long hours, low wages, child labor); had a theory of what would happen in industrialized societies workers (proletariats) unite and overthrow capitalists workers set up a temporary dictatorship government sets up a social system= command economy= government owns and operates major means of production; complete opposite of laissez-faire capitalism communism= pure classless society= no nee for government; government would not need to exist led to revolutions in russia (1917), china (1949) led by Mao Zedong= revolution of peasant (farmers), cuba (1959) led by fidel castro, Nicaragua (Sandinistas)
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theme: geography and environment joseph stalin’s five year plans
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= started in 1927, controlled all aspects of the economy; attempted to increase agricultural output= SOCIALISM collectivization= took farms from peasants and turned into collective farms in ukraine opposition to collectivization was strong..> mass famine
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theme: geography and environment mao zedongs great leap foward
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(1948) = attempt on increase industrial/agricultural output failed miserably…> millions die of starvation
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theme: geography and environment commercial revolution
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= Europe moving out of feudalism towards a new economy with goods being traded worldwide emergence of guilds, trade fairs, hanseatic league, banking
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theme: geography and environment Mikhail Gorbachev
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(1985)= economic reform of perestroika (restructuring) allowing limited capitalism into russia’s socialist system
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theme: geography and environment deng xiaoping
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(1980s)= Chinese leader whose four modernizations allowed limited capitalism into Chinese socialist economic system
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theme: geography and environment encomienda system=
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system in spain’s latin american colonies; land divides into estates and native south americans forced to work as slaves
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theme: geography and environment economics
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= study of distribution/ use of resources; how resources are used to determine goods and services a society provides
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theme: geography and environment inflation
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= rising price means $is worth less
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theme: geography and environment tariff
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= tax on imported goods; customs duty
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theme: geography and environment Napoleon
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(1799-1815)= seized power at end of french revolution bringing political stability to france congress of vienna(1815)= meeting to deal with Europe after napoleon is defeated; leaders look to turn Europe beck to the way it was prior to the french revolution (age of Metternich; fails to stop liberal/nationalist revolutions
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theme: science and technology printing press
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(1500s) = leads to the spread of ideas in Europe; helps bring Europe out of the middle ages and into the renaissance literary rates increase (vernacular) increased secularism (power of church begins to decline)
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theme: geography and environment green revolution
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(1970s)= varied used of technology to increase food production and output
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theme: conflict World War I
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(1914-1918)= war between allied and central powers long term causes: nationalism militarism= building up of armed forces in preparation for war alliance system= triple entente (france, England, russia) vs. triple alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy) imperialism immediate cause= “powder keg”= balkan pininsula= assassination of archduke Franz Ferdinand new tactics/weapons: trench warfare machine guns submarines ends with signing of treaty of versailles punishes Germany severely Austria-Hungarian empire broken up league of nations formed to promote/keep peace worldwide
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theme: conflict cold war
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(1946-1991)= long term global conflict between the US and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) iron curtain= term used to describe boundary between western Europe and soviet dominated eastern Europe; satellites cut of from west North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1948) vs. Warsaw Pact= mutual defense pacts; collective security containment= foreign policy aimed at stopping the spread of communism
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theme: conflict india and pakistan
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after india gains independence from England’s, hindu vs. muslim conflict leads to the division/partition of india into two nations: india and pakistan
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theme: conflict cultural revolution
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(1966)= Mao’s attempt to reinvigorate communism; purge party and society of anything “old”, Red Guards (students) remove those not loyal to the state Little Red Book= quotations from Chairman Mao; Mao’s teachings
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Theme: Nationalism nationalism
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belief that each ethnic, racial, religious, or language group should have its own nation; has often led to the unification/consolidation of several states into one nation (Italy, Germany) has often caused the break-up of multi-national empires (Austria-Hungarian empire, ottoman empire) i.e. each national group wants its independence
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Theme: Nationalism latin american independence movements
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(1798-1830)= colonies fight for independence against european powers (mostly spain and france) simon bolivar, jose san martin, l’ouverture followed the enlightened ideals of the american and french revolution
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Theme: Nationalism mohandas (mahatma) gandhi
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= leader of fight for indian independence from England; response to british imperialism/colonialism non-violent passive resistance; civil disobedience salt march= protest against unfair tax on salt boycott= do not buy british manufactured goods home-spun= wanted indians to spin their own cloth so they would stop buying british manufactured goods after WWII, india gains independence, hindu vs. muslim conflict leads to the division/partition of india into two countries: india and pakistan
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Theme: Nationalism age of decolonization
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Post WWII (1945-1980s) the imperialized/colonized nations of asia and africa will fight for and eventually gain their independence
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Theme: Nationalism Dr. Sun Yat-Sen
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= founder of the nationalist party in china (Early 1900’s)
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Theme: Nationalism zionism
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(1890’s-1948) movement dedicated to building/founding a jewish state in palestine; Theodore Herzl Balfour Declaration (1917)= british government vowed to help jew of Europe found a jewish state in palestine after WWI
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Theme: Nationalism Camillo Cavour, Guisseppe Garibaldi
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unified Italy
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Theme: Nationalism roman empire (Pax Romana)
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several hundred years of political stability law of the twelve table= early legal code extensive system of roads poets= Horace/Virgil
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Theme: Nationalism mongol empire (Pax Mongolia)
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several hundred years of political stability increased trade along the silk road (trade routes across china)
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Theme: Nationalism Elizabethan Era
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(1558-1603)= England Sir Francis Drake, England defeats the spanish armada, William Shakespeare
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Theme: Nationalism ancient greece
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Athens= direct democracy; pericles philosophers= socrates, plato, aristotle
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Theme: justice and human rights genocide
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systematic attempt to annihilate an ethnic, religious or national group Germany (1933-1945)= holocaust= Adolf Hitler and Nazi party attempt to destroy jews and other groups of Europe Cambodia (1975-1979)= Pol Pot; Khmer Rouge, “the killing fields” Rwanda (1994)= 800,000 Tutsis murdered by Hutus Bosnia (1990s)= ethnic cleansing of muslims by serbs Ottoman empire (1915-1923)= Armenians massacred by Turks
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Theme: justice and human rights Transatlantic Slave trade
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= captured africans transported across atlantic (Middle Passage) to be used as slaves in North/South america and West Indies disrupted african cultures and communities (economically and politically); delayed growth of population
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Theme: justice and human rights irish potato famine
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(1845-1850)= under british control, irish farmland used for crops (wheat/oats) to be sent to England; irish used potatoes as main food source 1845= disease destroyed potato crop; british continue to ship other crops out of Ireland…> 1 million Irish die of starvation/disease millions of irish immigrate to US/Canada
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Theme: justice and human rights apartheid
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(1948-1994)= system in south africa that discriminated against and took rights away from black south africans; system of white minority rule blacks could not vote or travel freely; were restricted to living on townships (homelands); needed passes to move around Nelson Mandela= imprisoned for 27 years for protesting against apartheid; released in 1991; elected first black president in 1994
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Theme: Imperialism (aka Colonialism) colonialism
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domination by one country of the political/social/economic life of another country/region reasons for imperialism= white man’s burden + search for raw materials/natural resources+ need for markets to sell goods imperial powers able to dominate because of better weapons/technology
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Theme: Imperialism (aka Colonialism) sepoy mutiny
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(1857)=india= hindus and muslims unite to fight back against british rule results in british crown taking direct control over india from East India Co. leads to growing indian nationalism and fight for independence
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Theme: Imperialism (aka Colonialism) berlin conference
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(1884)=Scramble for Africa= rules for game for imperialism of Africa drawn up by 1914, only two independent african nations (Ethiopia and liberia) french= central/west Africa; Belgium=congo
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Theme: Imperialism (aka Colonialism) boxer rebellion
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(1899)= china= beginnings of Chinese nationalism; uprising against foreign influence; put down by european/american military powers
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Theme: Imperialism (aka Colonialism) opium wars
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(1842-1858)= Chinese attempts to fight off British/American smuggling of opium into china defeat led to “unequal treaties” china forced to open more ports up for trade british take Hong Kong foreigners gain extraterritoriality rights europeans gain more spheres of influence in china
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Theme: Imperialism (aka Colonialism) Japan: an imperial power
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during and after the Meiji restoration, japan becomes an imperial power Sino-japanese war and Russo-Japanese War and later China (manchuria) to gain natural recources
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Theme: Imperialism (aka Colonialism) Mau Mau Movement
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kenya (1950s)= attempt to end british control in Kenya
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Theme: modern global connections Unites Nations
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= created after WWII to maintain peace and security; resolve world conflicts peacefully security council= five permanent members with veto power
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Theme: modern global connections Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
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= controls 50% of world’s supply of oil; sets supply to control price saudi arabia, Venezuela, Nigeria, and other parts of the middle east
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Theme: modern global connections Balkan Peninsula
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= ethnic tensions and conflicts throughout the 1990s

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