Glencoe World History Chapter 19 Terminology

Flashcard maker : Marguerite Castillo
Industrial Revolution
The transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation.
Queen Victoria
Queen of Great Britain and Ireland and empress of India from 1837 to 1901.
Charles Dickens
English writer whose novels depicted and criticized social injustice. Wrote Oliver Twist.
Literary realist
A person who often refers to the trend beginning with certain works of nineteenth-century French literature and extending to late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century authors in various countries, making depictions of contemporary life and society \”as they were.\”
Main industries
Cotton/textile, coal, transportation.
Factories
The quantity of these increased due to the Industrial Revolution.
Prince Klemens von Metternich
Austrian minister, believed in the policies of legitimacy and intervention (the military to crush revolts against legitimacy). Leader of the Congress of Vienna.
industrial capitalism
An economic system in which business leaders use profits to expand their companies.
Otto von Bismarck
German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united.
Realpolitik
Politics based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations.
Romanticism
An intellectual movement that emerged at the end of the 18th century in reaction to the ideas of the Enlightenment; it stressed feelings, emotion, and imagination as sources of knowing.
Charles Darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection.
James Watt
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry.
Socialism
A system in which society, usually in the form of a government, owns and controls the means of production.
Conservatism
A political philosophy based on tradition and social stability, favoring obedience to political authority and organized religion.
Principal of Intervention
An idea that great powers have the right to send armies into countries where they are revolutions to restore legitimate governments.
Crimean War
A war in Crimea between Russia and a group of nations including England and France and Turkey and Sardinia.
Realism
A mid-19th century movement that rejected romanticism and it sought to portray lower and middle class life as it actually was.
Iron ore
This term is used when the rock is sufficiently rich in iron minerals to be mined economically.
Factory Act of 1833
British law created in response to child labor that limited the factory workday for some children and put minimum age requirements on employment for others.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order and establish a plan for a new balance of power after the defeat of Napoleon.
Richard Trevithick
English engineer who built the first railway locomotive.
Liberalism
An economic theory advocating free competition and a self-regulating market and the gold standard.
Plebiscite
A vote by the electorate determining public opinion on a question of national importance.
Robert Fulton
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship.
Compromise of 1867
The agreement between the Hapsburg Emperor and the Hungarians to give Hungary considerable administrative rights to self-govern in 1867.
Transformed the Hapsburg Empire into a dual monarchy.
Gustave Flaubert
French writer of novels and short stories. Wrote Madame Bovary.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state.
Red shirts
Garibaldi’s army of 1000 red-shirted volunteers.
Cottage industry
Small-scale industry that can be carried on at home by family members using their own equipment.
Concert of Europe
A series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions.
Gustave Courbet
French painter noted for his realistic depiction of everyday scenes.
Henry Cort
Inventor of the puddling system in which coke was used to burn away impurities in pig iron to produce an iron of high quality.
Ottoman Empire
A Turkish sultanate of southwestern Asia and northeastern Africa and southeastern Europe. Created by the Ottoman Turks in the 13th century and lasted until the end of World War I; although initially small it expanded until it superseded the Byzantine Empire.
Victor Emmanuel II
He was king of Sardinia, Piedmont and Savory until 1861 when he was crowned the first king of a united Italy.

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