GERN 280- Controversy 5

question

Who provides most care for frail older adults?
answer

80%= families and private individuals
question

Is the image of lonely and abandoned old people correct?
answer

NO- INACCURATE
question

What percentage of women 65+ are married?
answer

42%
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What percentage of men 65+ are married?
answer

72%
question

What are most American families for elders like?
answer

-most have adult children or at least a sibling -75% are grandparents
question

What percentage of elders are grandparents?
answer

75%
question

Describe the exchange theory of aging
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parents care for children and spouses care for one another because they are motivated by moral obligation and the knowledge they can count on reciprocal help in times of difficulty
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What theory suggests the idea that interaction in social groups is based on reciprocal balance?
answer

Exchange theory of aging
question

Who provides the majority of care for aged relatives?
answer

Women- balance burden of care, employment and their own families
question

Define Sandwich Generation.
answer

describes impact such caregiving responsibilities on middle-aged women
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Define Respite Care
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temporary care for dependent older people to allow the caregiver some time off
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Who is often considered the hidden victim?
answer

family caregivers- stress and increase their own risk of illness and death
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How can burden of caregiving effect elders?
answer

family members may burn out because of exhaustion which can lead to elder abuse and neglect
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What 2 types of help can a caregiver receive?
answer

1. social support 2. formal support
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What is considered social support?
answer

informal family and friends
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What is considered formal support?
answer

home health agencies, mutual aid groups, national and state organizations
question

What percentage of children live 30 minutes from their child?
answer

2/3
question

What percentage of children are expected to live in proximity?
answer

over 1/2
question

What percentage of children have daily contact with their elder parent?
answer

40%
question

What percentage of children talk on the phone at least once a week with their parent?
answer

3/4
question

Has there been an increase or a decrease in the sharing or households? (1960-1984)
answer

decrease (40%-22%)
question

Has there been an increase or decrease in multigenerational households? What caused this?
answer

increase- economic recession- trend is likely to continue
question

What is explained in the “world-we-have-lost” myth?
answer

multigenerational living arrangements were never common -the idea of living under one roof is a myth
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Describe a nuclear family.
answer

only parents and children
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Do a majority of people live with others today?
answer

yes- 1/2 with spouse 14% with other relatives and other living situations
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What statistic refers to the amount of elders that become isolated? Explain.
answer

1 in 20 -the only reason they may be isolated is if they have lived that way their entire life
question

Explain this urban legend: “only 4% of older people live in nursing homes”
answer

-4% only applies to single point in time -life span basis=40% or more will spend some time in a long-term care facility before they die
question

What does the term intimacy at a distance refer to?
answer

the ability of families to remain in close contact through internet and social media
question

What country has a unique Maintenance of Parents Act?
answer

Singapore
question

Describe the Maintenance of Parents Act
answer

1. family rather than govt should care for older people 2. children should provide the financial means to support 3. older people want more direct care from their families
question

True or False. Long-term care has remained largely a family responsibility in the US
answer

TRUE
question

What has made health care and income of elders a societal responsibility?
answer

social welfare programs such as Social Security and Medicare
question

What type of coverage does the US health care system provide for acute diseases among the old?
answer

near-universal coverage
question

How much money is spent on long term care in nursing homes from Medicaid?
answer

1/2
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What percentage of nursing home residents us Medicaid as their primary payer?
answer

2/3
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What do 2/3 of nursing home residents rely on as their primary payer?
answer

Medicaid
question

What shift has occured in the use of Medicaid funds?
answer

-created for health care for poor -today a primary use of nursing home coverage for middle-class older adults
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What demographic makes up 3/4 of Medicaid recipients?
answer

low-income parents with children
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How much of the dollar do families receiving Medicare get?
answer

1/4
question

What is an estimated cost of nursing home living for one year?
answer

$75,000
question

How long does it take for those using private-pay in nursing homes to enter poverty levels?
answer

3 months- 70%
question

What a year of private pay what percentage are considered impoverish?
answer

90%
question

Do those who dont qualify for Medicaid have enough money to afford long term care?
answer

NO- either provide home based care or do what is necessary to become eligible for Medicaid
question

Explain the term spend down
answer

purposefully use up assets to become impoverish and then eligible for Medicaid
question

What is a MAJOR problem with Medicaid financing?
answer

introduces inequities across families, age groups, and social classes
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What has become the public program of last resort to pay for nursing home costs?
answer

Medicaid
question

What is considered to be the fastest growing component of state budgets?
answer

Medicaid
question

Explain the urban legend: “home care is cheaper than nursing home”
answer

home care may be preferable to many, but it is certainly not cheaper- especially looking at full time care
question

When do most people decide to go into nursing homes?
answer

act of desperation, need of older adult has exceeded abilities of family care giver- no other alternative
question

What is divestment planning?
answer

appearing to be poor by taking advantage of legal loopholes to avoid the “Medicaid trap”
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How can you avoid the Medicaid trap?
answer

divestment planning- spend down can have harsh requirements
question

List 5 key strategies in divestment planning.
answer

1. transfer assets at least 30 months ahead of time 2. transfer assets between husband and wife 3. seek protection through a court order 4. keep assets in a form exempt from Medicaid 5. set up a trust account
question

What populations of attorneys is currently growing?
answer

elder law attorneys
question

Why do many insist that Medicaid planning is socially irresponsible?
answer

because it is protecting the inheritance wealth of affluent families at the expense of taxpayers
question

What do critics describe as cheating the government and using public money?
answer

when Medicaid spend down is used as a form of Estate planning
question

Who typcially buys long-term care insurance?
answer

55+
question

True or False. There has been a decline in privately paid long-term care services.
answer

FALSE- increase- especially in assisted living and home and community based long term care
question

Do most privately owned long term care insurance companies pay for nursing homes?
answer

YES- some only for one year, others for lifetime, others have a maximum coverage
question

What percentage of the elder population is covered by long term care insurance?
answer

less than 4%
question

What are 2 reasons why long term care insurance is not more popularly used?
answer

1. many assume Medicaid will cover these costs- not true 2. too expensive later in life
question

What makes comparing long term care insurance options difficult?
answer

-many exclusions and limitations

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