Geography Chapter 4 Objectives

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what is the difference between heat and temperature
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temperature is the average kinetic energy in the molecules of a substance while heat is the collision of those kinetic energy molecules based on the temperature
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heat
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energy that transfers from one object or substance to another because of a difference in temperature
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temperature
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the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance
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the more vigorous the jiggling of kinetic molecules the greater the
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internal temperature of the molecules and the higher the temperature
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kinetic molecules move fastest on what kind of day
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a hot day
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electromagnetic radiation
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energy given off by the sun
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electromagnetic waves can be what lengths
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any lengths
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what are some examples of forms of electromagnetic radiation
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visible light, microwaves, xrays, and radio waves
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sun spots
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when high levels of nuclear fusion cause a high amount of electromagnetic radiation to come off the sun
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how much long wave radiation reaches the earth on average
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332 w/m2
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short wave radiation does not reach the earth’s surface because
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it is filtered out in the spheres
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what is the ratio of the sun to the earth
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5778 k to 287 k
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does blue light or red light have a smaller wavelength
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blue light
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what is the wavelength of blue light
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.4 micrometers
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albido
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the reflectivity of a surface
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a person wearing a white shirt has what type of albido
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higher because light is reflected off of white surfaces
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a person wearing a black shirt has what type of albido
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lower because dark surfaces absorb light rather than reflect it
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what is the size of the band of visible light on the electromagnetic spectrum
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narrow
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visible light
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wavelengths of radiation to which the human eyes is sensitive
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what color represents the longest wavelength the human eye can see
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red
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which color is the shortest wavelength humans can see
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violet
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how much of the total energy of the sun arrives as visible light
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47 percent
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ultraviolet radiation
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wavelengths of radiation just shorter than the human eye can sense
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what is a prominent natural source of ultraviolet rays
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the sun
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solar radiation reaching where contains a considerable amount of the total energy coming from the sun
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the top of the atmosphere
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much of ultraviolet radiation from the sun is absorbed by which layer of the atmosphere
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the ozone layer
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why do the shortest ultraviolet rays not reach the surface of the earth, where they could do considerable damage to living organisms
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because they are absorbed by the ozone layer
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infrared radiation
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wavelengths of radiation just longer than the human eye can sense
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radiation emitted by earth is entirely
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thermal infrared
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thermal infrared
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long wavelengths emitted by the sun
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solar radiation is almost completely in the form of
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visible light, ultraviolet and short infrared radiation
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as a group visible light, ultraviolet and short infrared radiation are called what
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shortwave radiation
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what is another term for radiation emitted by the earth
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terrestrial radiation
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radiation emitted by the earth is almost completely in the form of
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longwave radiation from thermal infrared
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what separates short wave and long wave radiation on the spectrum
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the boundary at 4 micrometers
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insolation
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incoming solar radiation
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the total insolation received at the top of the atmosphere is believed to be what when averaged over a year
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constant, although it may vary slightly with fluctuations in the suns temperature
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what are the two things that happen to insolation when it enters the atmosphere
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some of it is reflected and lost back in space and the rest passes through the atmosphere and is transformed either before or after reaching earths surface
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what is another word for radiation
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emission
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we need greenhouse gases or the world would
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freeze
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radiation
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the process by which electromagnetic energy is emitted from an object
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hotter objects are more intense radiators than
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cooler objects
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why does the sun emit about two billion times more energy than earth
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because it is much hotter than earth and hotter things emit more energy
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the hotter the object the
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shorter the wavelengths
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the cooler the object the
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longer the wavelengths
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the sun radiates more what than the earth
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short wave radiation
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blackbody radiator
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a body that emits the maximum possible amount of radiation at all wavelengths
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temperature is not the only control of radiation because
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objects at the same temperature can vary in their radiating efficiency
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what two things are considered blackbodies
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the sun and the earth because they radiate with almost 100 percent efficiency for their respective temperatures
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what is not considered a blackbody
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the atmosphere
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absorption
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electromagnetic waves striking an object is assimilated by that object
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when electromagnetic waves strike a material the electrons in atoms and molecules may be forced into
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vibration by the frequency of the incoming electromagnetic waves
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short wave lengths arrive with higher what than long waves
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frequency
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the increased vibrations caused by short wavelengths entering material causes
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an increase in the internal energy of the absorbing material that leads to an increase in temperature
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An object that is a good radiator is also a good
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Absorber
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What are some examples of poor absorbers
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Snow and ice
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What are some examples of excellent absorbers
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Rock and soil and minerals
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Dark colored materials absorb efficiently in which part of the spectrum
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Visible light
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Which chemicals are good absorbers of longwave radiation
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Carbon dioxide and water vapor
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Which chemical is not a good absorber of long wave radiation
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Nitrogen
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Reflection
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When incoming solar radiation is not absorbed so an object repels them
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An object that is a good reflector is not a good
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Absorber
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What is an example of a good absorber not being a good reflector
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Unmelted snow on a sunny day because it’s white surface reflects the heat from the sun rather than absorbing it
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Albedo
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The overall reflectivity of an object or surface
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The higher the albedo the greater amount of
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Radiation reflected
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Dark surfaces have a low
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Albedo
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Light surfaces have a high
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Albedo
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Transmission
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When electromagnetic waves pass completely through a medium
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What is a bad transmitter on earth
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Earth materials such as soil and rock where light is absorbed at the surface but not penetrated
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What is a good transmitter on earth
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Water
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The transmission ability of a medium generally depends on
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The wavelength of radiation
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Glass has a high transmission for
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Shortwave radiation
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Why is a car left in the sun very hot inside
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Shortwave radiation transmits through the glass and is absorbed by the material of the seats therefore increasing the temperature
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How is scattering different than reflection
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Scattering is random while reflection happens at the same angle
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what are the two most important greenhouse gases
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water vapor and carbon dioxide
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greenhouse effect
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when short wave radiation is transmitted through the atmosphere to earths surface it is absorbed and the longwave radiation emitted by earths surface is inhibited from transmitting back through the atmosphere by greenhouse gases so it is radiated back toward the surface
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the atmosphere is what to short wave radiation
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transparent
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how do we measure greenhouse gases
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satellites
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what is the difference between conduction and convention
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In convection molecules physically move away from the heat source and they do not in conduction
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conduction
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the transfer of heat from one molecule to another without changes in their relative positions
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what are examples of things that use conduction of energy
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earths solid surfaces
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if one object is cooler than another object and they collide, the hotter object transfers kinetic energy to the cooler object. what is this called
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conduction
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what is an example of conduction
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it takes a metal brand a long time to heat up but once it heats up it takes a long time to cool back down
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convection
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Energy is transferred from one point to another by the circulation of fluid
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What is an example of connection in a house
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A radiator has circular movement of warm and cool air
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Convection in the atmosphere is common during which season
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Summer
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Advection
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The horizontal movement of energy transfer
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What is the pattern of air movement within a convection cell
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Warm air rises to low pressure, cool air comes in from the sides, and the air above sinks down to replace it
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Advection in the atmosphere
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Wind transfers cool or warm water horizontally from place to place
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Expansion from adiabatic cooling
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As air rises and expands the molecules spread through a greater volume of space. The work done reduces kinetic energy and thus reduces the temperature
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Compression from adiabatic warming
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The decent of air causes compression due to increased pressure. The work done by the molecules increases their kinetic energy and thus increases their temperature
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When air descends it’s temperature
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increases
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when air ascends it’s temperature
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decreases
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latent heat
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when the physical state of water in the atmosphere changes
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what are the two most common phase changes of latent heat
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evaporation and condensation
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condensation
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when water vapor is converted to liquid water
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how many calories does it take to convert from a solid to a gas
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680
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how many calories does it take to convert from a solid to a liquid
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80 calories
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which phase of the physical state of water takes the most energy
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phasing to a water vapor
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approximately what percentage of incoming solar radiation is reflected and scattered away from earth
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31 percent
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approximately what percentage of incoming solar radiation is transmitted through the atmosphere and is absorbed by the surface
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45 percent
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how is the troposphere warmed by the sun
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the troposphere is in constant motion because the atmosphere is warmed from below
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angle of incidence
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the suns rays hit the earth at an angle of 90 degrees when the sun is directly overhead and an angle of less than 90 degrees when it is lower in the sky
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at sunrise or sunset the angle of incidence is what
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0 degrees
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what are the reasons for unequal warming of the earth
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the angle at which solar radiation strikes earth, the influence of the atmosphere on the radiation transmitted to the surface, and seasonal variations in day length
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how does the specific heat of a substance influence its rate of warming
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the specific heat of water is five time greater than the specific heat of land, so it must absorb five times the amount of energy to show the same temperature increase as land
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water has a higher what than land
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specific heat
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specific heat
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the amount of energy required to increase the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree celsius
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why does land warm faster and to a greater extent than water
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specific heat, transmission, mobility, and evaporative cooling
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why does transmission make water cooler than land
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because sun rays penetrate water more deeply than they do land
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how does mobility make water cooler than land
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water is turbulent so cool and warm water are mixed together whereas land is immobile so heat is not as widely dispersed
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land warms via
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conduction
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water warms via
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convection
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how is convection used in the ocean
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warm and cool water being mixed via turbulance
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how does evaporative cooling make water cooler than land
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because there is an unlimited availability of water on the ocean surface, evaporation is much more prevalent than on the land surface and the latent heat needed for this evaporation is drawn from the water, taking away its kinetic energy and decreasing the temperature
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land does what more rapidly than water
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cools down and heats up
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what are the two dominant mechanisms of energy transfer around the world
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atmospheric and oceanic circulation
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what is the relative temperature of the ocean current flowing along the west coast of a continent in the mid altitudes
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cool temperature
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what is the relative temperature of the ocean current flowing along the east coast of a continent in the mid altitudes
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warm temperature
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subtropical gyres
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enormous loops elongated east-west and centered 30 degrees of latitude
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subtropical gyres flow which direction in the southern hemisphere
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counter clockwise
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subtropical gyres flow which direction in the northern hemisphere
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clockwise
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ocean circulation is the primary distribution of
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heat
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upwelling
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cold deep ocean water that rises to the surface where wind patterns deflect surface water away from the coast
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environmental lapse rate
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the observed trend in vertical temperature change in the atmosphere
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what is the average lapse rate in the troposphere
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65 degrees celsius per 1000 meters

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