Geography Chapter 4 Objectives

Flashcard maker : Anna Collins
what is the difference between heat and temperature
temperature is the average kinetic energy in the molecules of a substance while heat is the collision of those kinetic energy molecules based on the temperature
heat
energy that transfers from one object or substance to another because of a difference in temperature
temperature
the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance
the more vigorous the jiggling of kinetic molecules the greater the
internal temperature of the molecules and the higher the temperature
kinetic molecules move fastest on what kind of day
a hot day
electromagnetic radiation
energy given off by the sun
electromagnetic waves can be what lengths
any lengths
what are some examples of forms of electromagnetic radiation
visible light, microwaves, xrays, and radio waves
sun spots
when high levels of nuclear fusion cause a high amount of electromagnetic radiation to come off the sun
how much long wave radiation reaches the earth on average
332 w/m2
short wave radiation does not reach the earth’s surface because
it is filtered out in the spheres
what is the ratio of the sun to the earth
5778 k to 287 k
does blue light or red light have a smaller wavelength
blue light
what is the wavelength of blue light
.4 micrometers
albido
the reflectivity of a surface
a person wearing a white shirt has what type of albido
higher because light is reflected off of white surfaces
a person wearing a black shirt has what type of albido
lower because dark surfaces absorb light rather than reflect it
what is the size of the band of visible light on the electromagnetic spectrum
narrow
visible light
wavelengths of radiation to which the human eyes is sensitive
what color represents the longest wavelength the human eye can see
red
which color is the shortest wavelength humans can see
violet
how much of the total energy of the sun arrives as visible light
47 percent
ultraviolet radiation
wavelengths of radiation just shorter than the human eye can sense
what is a prominent natural source of ultraviolet rays
the sun
solar radiation reaching where contains a considerable amount of the total energy coming from the sun
the top of the atmosphere
much of ultraviolet radiation from the sun is absorbed by which layer of the atmosphere
the ozone layer
why do the shortest ultraviolet rays not reach the surface of the earth, where they could do considerable damage to living organisms
because they are absorbed by the ozone layer
infrared radiation
wavelengths of radiation just longer than the human eye can sense
radiation emitted by earth is entirely
thermal infrared
thermal infrared
long wavelengths emitted by the sun
solar radiation is almost completely in the form of
visible light, ultraviolet and short infrared radiation
as a group visible light, ultraviolet and short infrared radiation are called what
shortwave radiation
what is another term for radiation emitted by the earth
terrestrial radiation
radiation emitted by the earth is almost completely in the form of
longwave radiation from thermal infrared
what separates short wave and long wave radiation on the spectrum
the boundary at 4 micrometers
insolation
incoming solar radiation
the total insolation received at the top of the atmosphere is believed to be what when averaged over a year
constant, although it may vary slightly with fluctuations in the suns temperature
what are the two things that happen to insolation when it enters the atmosphere
some of it is reflected and lost back in space and the rest passes through the atmosphere and is transformed either before or after reaching earths surface
what is another word for radiation
emission
we need greenhouse gases or the world would
freeze
radiation
the process by which electromagnetic energy is emitted from an object
hotter objects are more intense radiators than
cooler objects
why does the sun emit about two billion times more energy than earth
because it is much hotter than earth and hotter things emit more energy
the hotter the object the
shorter the wavelengths
the cooler the object the
longer the wavelengths
the sun radiates more what than the earth
short wave radiation
blackbody radiator
a body that emits the maximum possible amount of radiation at all wavelengths
temperature is not the only control of radiation because
objects at the same temperature can vary in their radiating efficiency
what two things are considered blackbodies
the sun and the earth because they radiate with almost 100 percent efficiency for their respective temperatures
what is not considered a blackbody
the atmosphere
absorption
electromagnetic waves striking an object is assimilated by that object
when electromagnetic waves strike a material the electrons in atoms and molecules may be forced into
vibration by the frequency of the incoming electromagnetic waves
short wave lengths arrive with higher what than long waves
frequency
the increased vibrations caused by short wavelengths entering material causes
an increase in the internal energy of the absorbing material that leads to an increase in temperature
An object that is a good radiator is also a good
Absorber
What are some examples of poor absorbers
Snow and ice
What are some examples of excellent absorbers
Rock and soil and minerals
Dark colored materials absorb efficiently in which part of the spectrum
Visible light
Which chemicals are good absorbers of longwave radiation
Carbon dioxide and water vapor
Which chemical is not a good absorber of long wave radiation
Nitrogen
Reflection
When incoming solar radiation is not absorbed so an object repels them
An object that is a good reflector is not a good
Absorber
What is an example of a good absorber not being a good reflector
Unmelted snow on a sunny day because it’s white surface reflects the heat from the sun rather than absorbing it
Albedo
The overall reflectivity of an object or surface
The higher the albedo the greater amount of
Radiation reflected
Dark surfaces have a low
Albedo
Light surfaces have a high
Albedo
Transmission
When electromagnetic waves pass completely through a medium
What is a bad transmitter on earth
Earth materials such as soil and rock where light is absorbed at the surface but not penetrated
What is a good transmitter on earth
Water
The transmission ability of a medium generally depends on
The wavelength of radiation
Glass has a high transmission for
Shortwave radiation
Why is a car left in the sun very hot inside
Shortwave radiation transmits through the glass and is absorbed by the material of the seats therefore increasing the temperature
How is scattering different than reflection
Scattering is random while reflection happens at the same angle
what are the two most important greenhouse gases
water vapor and carbon dioxide
greenhouse effect
when short wave radiation is transmitted through the atmosphere to earths surface it is absorbed and the longwave radiation emitted by earths surface is inhibited from transmitting back through the atmosphere by greenhouse gases so it is radiated back toward the surface
the atmosphere is what to short wave radiation
transparent
how do we measure greenhouse gases
satellites
what is the difference between conduction and convention
In convection molecules physically move away from the heat source and they do not in conduction
conduction
the transfer of heat from one molecule to another without changes in their relative positions
what are examples of things that use conduction of energy
earths solid surfaces
if one object is cooler than another object and they collide, the hotter object transfers kinetic energy to the cooler object. what is this called
conduction
what is an example of conduction
it takes a metal brand a long time to heat up but once it heats up it takes a long time to cool back down
convection
Energy is transferred from one point to another by the circulation of fluid
What is an example of connection in a house
A radiator has circular movement of warm and cool air
Convection in the atmosphere is common during which season
Summer
Advection
The horizontal movement of energy transfer
What is the pattern of air movement within a convection cell
Warm air rises to low pressure, cool air comes in from the sides, and the air above sinks down to replace it
Advection in the atmosphere
Wind transfers cool or warm water horizontally from place to place
Expansion from adiabatic cooling
As air rises and expands the molecules spread through a greater volume of space. The work done reduces kinetic energy and thus reduces the temperature
Compression from adiabatic warming
The decent of air causes compression due to increased pressure. The work done by the molecules increases their kinetic energy and thus increases their temperature
When air descends it’s temperature
increases
when air ascends it’s temperature
decreases
latent heat
when the physical state of water in the atmosphere changes
what are the two most common phase changes of latent heat
evaporation and condensation
condensation
when water vapor is converted to liquid water
how many calories does it take to convert from a solid to a gas
680
how many calories does it take to convert from a solid to a liquid
80 calories
which phase of the physical state of water takes the most energy
phasing to a water vapor
approximately what percentage of incoming solar radiation is reflected and scattered away from earth
31 percent
approximately what percentage of incoming solar radiation is transmitted through the atmosphere and is absorbed by the surface
45 percent
how is the troposphere warmed by the sun
the troposphere is in constant motion because the atmosphere is warmed from below
angle of incidence
the suns rays hit the earth at an angle of 90 degrees when the sun is directly overhead and an angle of less than 90 degrees when it is lower in the sky
at sunrise or sunset the angle of incidence is what
0 degrees
what are the reasons for unequal warming of the earth
the angle at which solar radiation strikes earth, the influence of the atmosphere on the radiation transmitted to the surface, and seasonal variations in day length
how does the specific heat of a substance influence its rate of warming
the specific heat of water is five time greater than the specific heat of land, so it must absorb five times the amount of energy to show the same temperature increase as land
water has a higher what than land
specific heat
specific heat
the amount of energy required to increase the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree celsius
why does land warm faster and to a greater extent than water
specific heat, transmission, mobility, and evaporative cooling
why does transmission make water cooler than land
because sun rays penetrate water more deeply than they do land
how does mobility make water cooler than land
water is turbulent so cool and warm water are mixed together whereas land is immobile so heat is not as widely dispersed
land warms via
conduction
water warms via
convection
how is convection used in the ocean
warm and cool water being mixed via turbulance
how does evaporative cooling make water cooler than land
because there is an unlimited availability of water on the ocean surface, evaporation is much more prevalent than on the land surface and the latent heat needed for this evaporation is drawn from the water, taking away its kinetic energy and decreasing the temperature
land does what more rapidly than water
cools down and heats up
what are the two dominant mechanisms of energy transfer around the world
atmospheric and oceanic circulation
what is the relative temperature of the ocean current flowing along the west coast of a continent in the mid altitudes
cool temperature
what is the relative temperature of the ocean current flowing along the east coast of a continent in the mid altitudes
warm temperature
subtropical gyres
enormous loops elongated east-west and centered 30 degrees of latitude
subtropical gyres flow which direction in the southern hemisphere
counter clockwise
subtropical gyres flow which direction in the northern hemisphere
clockwise
ocean circulation is the primary distribution of
heat
upwelling
cold deep ocean water that rises to the surface where wind patterns deflect surface water away from the coast
environmental lapse rate
the observed trend in vertical temperature change in the atmosphere
what is the average lapse rate in the troposphere
65 degrees celsius per 1000 meters

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