Geography – Chapter 1

What tools do geographers use to understand the world?
1.) Geographic maps/charts
2.) GPS
3.) Sonar
4.) GIS
5.) Satellites

10 Geographic Concepts
1.) Geographic Tools
2.) Climates
3.) Ecosystems
4.) Urbanization
5.) Migration
6.) Cultures
7.) Economic Systems
8.) Economic Activities
9.) Natural Resources
10.) Natural Hazards

What are two ways geographers describe the location of a place?
1.) Absolute location
2.) Relative location

Geographic concept
ideas used as tools to understand, organize, and interpret geography

What does the character of a place consist of?
1.) Physical Characteristics
2.) Human Characteristics

What are three types of regions?
1.) Formal region
2.) Functional region
3.) Perceptual region

Movement of a place
The place’s characteristics, how it follows/affects people, goods, ideas, and its movements between them.

Negative effects of human-environment interaction
1.) Deforestization
2.) Pollution
3.) Oil Spills

Absolute Location
The position of a place on the globe

Functional Region
A central place and the surrounding places affected by it

Geography
The study of where people, places, and things are located and how they relate to each other

Perception
A viewpoint that is influenced by one’s own culture and experience

Relative Location
The location of a place compared to other places

Perceptual Region
People’s feelings and attitudes about an area

GIS
A geographic tool that uses computer technology to collect, manipulate analyze, and display data about the earth’s surface.

Formal Region
An area in which a certain characteristic if found everywhere

Hemispheres
The two halves in which the equator divides

Volcanoes
Molten rock breaks through the earth’s surface

Earthquacks
Large, sudden rock movements that occur along a fault

Spreading Zone
When two plates pull away from each other

Volcanic Formation/Subduction
An oceanic plate meets a continental plate

Mountain Range Creation
Two continental plates collide

Core
The center of the eart

Mantle
The thick layer of rock that is around the earth’s core

Crust
A thin rocky surface

Lithosphere
Soil, rocks, landforms, and other surface features

Atmosphere
The layer of air, water, and other substances about the surface of the earth.

Hydrosphere
The water in oceans, lakes, rivers,and under the ground

Biosphere
The world of plants, animals, and other living things that occupy the land and waters of the planet.

Continents
The large landmasses in the earth’s oceans

Relief
1.) Differences in elevation
2.) How land forms are classified

Plate tectonics
A theory that the earth’s outer shell is not one piece of rock.

Continental Drift Theory
The idea that all continents were once a single landmass but are now separate.

Ring of Frie
A circle of volcanic mountains around the Pacific Ocean.

Mechanical Weathering
Occurs when rock is actually broken or weakened physically

Chemical Weathering
The process in which a rock’s chemical makeup is altered by changing the minerals that form the rock or combining them with new chemical elements

Frost Wedging
Water freezing in the cracks of rocks, causing expansion to break the rock or crack it.

Root Growth
Plants growing in the cracks of rock, causing the rock to break.

Leaching
Chemical properties of Soil CHanging

Seepage of Carbonic Acid
When acidic water (a combination of water and carbon dioxide) seep into the crack of rocks dissolving them.

Acid Rain
Chemicals in the air and rain combine and eat away at stone

Erosion
movement of earth’s weathered materials

Water (Erosion)
Carries sediments which cut away at rocks

Sediments
small particles of soil such as sand and gravel

Wind (Erosion)
Can pick up and move sand, as well as create loess

Loess
Deposits of mineral-rich dust and silt

Glaciers (Erosion)
Creation of Moraines

Moraines
Melted glaciers that have receded and left behind bridge like piles of rocks and debris

5 Themes of Geography
1.) Location
2.) Place
3.) Region
4.) Movement
5.) Human-environment Interaction