Geography – Chapter 1

What tools do geographers use to understand the world?
1.) Geographic maps/charts
2.) GPS
3.) Sonar
4.) GIS
5.) Satellites
10 Geographic Concepts
1.) Geographic Tools
2.) Climates
3.) Ecosystems
4.) Urbanization
5.) Migration
6.) Cultures
7.) Economic Systems
8.) Economic Activities
9.) Natural Resources
10.) Natural Hazards
What are two ways geographers describe the location of a place?
1.) Absolute location
2.) Relative location
Geographic concept
ideas used as tools to understand, organize, and interpret geography
What does the character of a place consist of?
1.) Physical Characteristics
2.) Human Characteristics
What are three types of regions?
1.) Formal region
2.) Functional region
3.) Perceptual region
Movement of a place
The place’s characteristics, how it follows/affects people, goods, ideas, and its movements between them.
Negative effects of human-environment interaction
1.) Deforestization
2.) Pollution
3.) Oil Spills
Absolute Location
The position of a place on the globe
Functional Region
A central place and the surrounding places affected by it
Geography
The study of where people, places, and things are located and how they relate to each other
Perception
A viewpoint that is influenced by one’s own culture and experience
Relative Location
The location of a place compared to other places
Perceptual Region
People’s feelings and attitudes about an area
GIS
A geographic tool that uses computer technology to collect, manipulate analyze, and display data about the earth’s surface.
Formal Region
An area in which a certain characteristic if found everywhere
Hemispheres
The two halves in which the equator divides
Volcanoes
Molten rock breaks through the earth’s surface
Earthquacks
Large, sudden rock movements that occur along a fault
Spreading Zone
When two plates pull away from each other
Volcanic Formation/Subduction
An oceanic plate meets a continental plate
Mountain Range Creation
Two continental plates collide
Core
The center of the eart
Mantle
The thick layer of rock that is around the earth’s core
Crust
A thin rocky surface
Lithosphere
Soil, rocks, landforms, and other surface features
Atmosphere
The layer of air, water, and other substances about the surface of the earth.
Hydrosphere
The water in oceans, lakes, rivers,and under the ground
Biosphere
The world of plants, animals, and other living things that occupy the land and waters of the planet.
Continents
The large landmasses in the earth’s oceans
Relief
1.) Differences in elevation
2.) How land forms are classified
Plate tectonics
A theory that the earth’s outer shell is not one piece of rock.
Continental Drift Theory
The idea that all continents were once a single landmass but are now separate.
Ring of Frie
A circle of volcanic mountains around the Pacific Ocean.
Mechanical Weathering
Occurs when rock is actually broken or weakened physically
Chemical Weathering
The process in which a rock’s chemical makeup is altered by changing the minerals that form the rock or combining them with new chemical elements
Frost Wedging
Water freezing in the cracks of rocks, causing expansion to break the rock or crack it.
Root Growth
Plants growing in the cracks of rock, causing the rock to break.
Leaching
Chemical properties of Soil CHanging
Seepage of Carbonic Acid
When acidic water (a combination of water and carbon dioxide) seep into the crack of rocks dissolving them.
Acid Rain
Chemicals in the air and rain combine and eat away at stone
Erosion
movement of earth’s weathered materials
Water (Erosion)
Carries sediments which cut away at rocks
Sediments
small particles of soil such as sand and gravel
Wind (Erosion)
Can pick up and move sand, as well as create loess
Loess
Deposits of mineral-rich dust and silt
Glaciers (Erosion)
Creation of Moraines
Moraines
Melted glaciers that have receded and left behind bridge like piles of rocks and debris
5 Themes of Geography
1.) Location
2.) Place
3.) Region
4.) Movement
5.) Human-environment Interaction