Geography Chapter 1

North Pole
North Pole
the point that is the farthest north on Earth
South Pole
South Pole
the point that is farthest south on Earth
Equator
Equator
an imaginary line that divides the Earth into Northern and Southern Hemispheres
Latitude
Latitude
a set of imaginary lines running parallel horizontally around the earth. They are used to measure distance north or south of the Equator, which is 0°.
Longitude
Longitude
a set of imaginary lines running vertically around the earth from North Pole to South Pole. They are used to measure distance east or west of the Prime Meridian near Greenwich, England, which is 0°.
Prime Meridian
Prime Meridian
the line of longitude that runs through Greenwich, England. Distances are measured east or west of the Prime Meridian which is considered “0 degrees”.
International Date Line
International Date Line
an imaginary line that almost follows the 180th Meridian of longitude. Areas to the east of it are one day earlier than areas to the west.
Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Cancer
an imaginary line of latitude at 23.5° north of the equator. It marks the northern boundary of the Torrid Zone.
Tropic of Capricorn
Tropic of Capricorn
an imaginary line of latitude at 23.5° south of the equator. It marks the southern boundary of the Torrid Zone
Arctic Circle
Arctic Circle
the imaginary line of latitude 66.5° north of the equator. It forms the boundary between the North Temperate and North Frigid zones.
Antarctic Circle
Antarctic Circle
the imaginary line of latitude 66.5° south of the equator. It forms the boundary between the South Temperate and South Frigid zones.
Climate
Climate
Long-term patterns and trends in weather and atmospheric conditions
Climate Zones
Climate Zones
regions on Earth with similar climate
Torrid Zone
Torrid Zone
the part of the Earth’s surface which always has a hot climate and is between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn
Temperate Zones
Temperate Zones
the areas on Earth that are warm in the summer, cold in the winter, and moderate in the spring and fall. They lie between the tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere or between the tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle in the Southern Hemisphere
Frigid(Polar) Zone
Frigid(Polar) Zone
two areas on Earth that are always cold. One is between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole, and the other one is between the Antarctic Circle and the South Pole.
Continent
Continent
one of 7 large landmasses on Earth
North America
North America
a continent in the Northern Hemisphere. It is north of South America. It is bordered by the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
South America
South America
a continent that is mostly in the Southern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
Europe
Europe
a continent in the Northern Hemisphere. Europe is attached to Asia and is west of it. Many bodies of water surround Europe. The Mediterranean Sea is to the south. The Atlantic Ocean is to the west.
Asia
Asia
a continent in the Northern Hemisphere. Asia is attached to Europe and east of it. The Pacific Ocean is east of Asia.
Africa
Africa
a continent that crosses the equator. It is south of Europe and bordered by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans
Australia
Australia
an island continent and country in the Southern Hemisphere
Antarctica
Antarctica
the continent that surrounds the South Pole
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
the second largest ocean in the world. It separates North and South America on the west from Europe and Africa on the east.
Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
the largest ocean in the world. It separates Asia and Australia on the west from North and South America on the east.
Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
the third largest ocean. It is bounded on the north by Asia and India; on the west by Africa; on the south by the Southern Ocean around Antarctica; and on the east by Australia
Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
encircles Antarctica
Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
surrounds the North Pole

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