geogeogeo – Flashcard

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mulatto
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people of African and European descent
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bauxite
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A mineral used in making aluminum
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llano
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“plain” in spanish
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cordillera
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system of parallel mountain ranges of the andes
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campesiono
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tenant farmer
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altiplano
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“high plain,” in Peru and Bolivia
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paramo
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high plain” in Ecuador
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timber line
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the boundary above which continuous forest vegetation cannot grow
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selva
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a forested region in ecaudor, peru, and bolivia
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peat
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a spongy material containing waterlogged mosses and plants
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cultural divergence
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the result of the restriction of a culture from the outside cultural influences
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blight
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plant disease
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fjord
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flooded glacial valleys
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geothermal energy
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energy that comes from the earth’s internal heat
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mixed economy
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systems combining different degrees of government regulation
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dialect
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variations of a language that are unique to a region or community
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impressionism
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school of painting of the late 1800s and early 1900s that tried to capture fleeting visual impressions
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nationalized
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brought under state control
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recession
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an extended decline in business activity
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estuary
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the wide part of a river where it nears the sea
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piedmont
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foothills
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pampas
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grassy, treeless plains of southern South America
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gaucho
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a cowboy of the South American pampas
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fertile
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able to produce abundant crops
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ore
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a mineral or rock that contains a useful substance that can be mined for profit
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teritiary economic activity
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an economic activity in which people do not directly gather or process raw materials but pursue activities that serve others lawyers, doctors, salesperson, truck drivers, firefighters, police officers
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moor
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broad, treeless rolling plains
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bog
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areas if wet, spongy ground
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glen
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narrow valley
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confederation
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A loose group of governments working together
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reparation
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payment for war damages
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inflation
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sharply rising prices
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lignite
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a soft, brown coal
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polder
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land that is reclaimed from the sea or other body of water by diking and drainage.
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dike
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an embankment of earth and rock built to prevent floods
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decentralize
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to transfer government power to smaller regions
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canton
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a political division or state; means a state in Switzerland
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neutral country
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one that does not take sides in a war
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perishable good
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A product that does not stay fresh for long
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strip mining
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the mining of ore or coal from an open mine
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what is the population of venezuela and guinea?
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almost 24 million in VA and 1 mill in guinea
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what is venezuelas per capita GNP?
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$3,530
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what is venezuelas average life span and what is guineas?
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venezuelas = 73.1 guinea-64
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what is venezuelas official language
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spanish
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what patterns of migration are reflected in the guainas?
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The Europeans brought africans slaves over to work on the sugar plantations, and after slavery was abolish Asians from China, India, and South east asia began migrating so they could work in sugar plantations.
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what are the chief economic activities of venezuela? in which part of country they take place?
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oil and gas production, agriculture. the oild beds lie in the eastern llanos, the orinoco delta, the lowlands near lake maracaibo, and offshore
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how do colombia’s chief exports differ from those of venezuela and the guianas?
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Colombias farmers depend heavily on one crop which is Coffee. Other main exports are illegal drugs such as marjuana and coke.
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how might geographic factors such as natural hazards and changing climatic conditions affect an economy that is based on only one crop?
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It is at risk if world demand for that single crop drops or the source is destroyed
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how do physical characteristics divide the Andean nations into three enviroments?
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The mountain range is nearly 500 miles wide. It’s rocky walls divide the andean nations into three distinct environments: coastal plain, highlands, and forest.
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how have people of the Andean countries adapted to the natrual enviroment?
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They have adapted to mountain living by “vertical trade” where people from villages at diff elevations meet to trade their crops which people grow crops suited to there own climate zone
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how are the economies of Ecuador and Peru similar? how are the different?
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a minority of people of European descent control most of the country’s wealth and are leaders in the government and in the army Differences are there exports Peru is more mineral based
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how do climatic conditions affect economic in bolivia?
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the cold, thin air of the high plateau makes physical activity difficult for the nonnatives
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why does chili find good markets for its agricultural produce in the US?
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Because Chile’s productive summer season comes during the northern hemispheres winter
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how do physical characteristics divide southern south america into several regions?
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the great river system
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how do conditions of buenos aires, argentina, demonstrate bot the attractiveness and the ‘ problems of city life?
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the population of 13 million shows that city life can be uncomfortable for some because of lots of people but it is also Latin America’s wealthiest nation in terms of per capita GNP
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why are pampas important to the economy of Argentina?
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the pampas are argentinas bread basket producing about 80 percent of the nations grain and about 70 percent of its meat
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what countries depend on the rio del a plata system for trade and transportation? why do they depend on this river system?
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Argentina and Uruguay. The vast river system provides an inexpensive and efficient way for people in this functional region to ship goods
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describe the three different physical areas of the english landscape
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highlands: band of hills difficult to farm midlands: thick veins of coal some of the highest population densities lowlands- land slopes gently toward the english channel and elevations rarely top 1,000 feet tend to be fertile
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what impact did technologial innovations have on the british economy?
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some of the earliest technological advances were used in factories that produced textiles or cloth. British manuf. used water power to run spinning machines but later turned to coal. In Britain coal was plentiful.
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What impact did technological innovations have on British landscape?
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noise and filth from the factories and mines
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What geographic factors affected London’s level of development?
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1) it lies only 70 miles from Europe 2) located on the Thames River 3) became bustling sea port in 1500s
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what was the effect of the industrial revolution on britains coal supply? how has the british economy recovered from this loss?
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Much of the area’s coal supply was used up during the Industrial Revolutuion. Since the 1970’s Britain has turned to oil and gas deposits beneath the floor of the North Sea as a source for fuel
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What are the major physical characteristics of Scotland?
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1) Scotland occupies nearly 1/3 of the UK land 2) rugged landscape
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In what ways has scotland preserved its cultural heritage?
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When the scottish and English parliaments were united through the act of union in 1707, scotland kept important trading and political rights. many also remained memebers of the Presbyterian church, rather than joining the church of England.
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how has welsh maintained there cultural identity
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A seperate language
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Why is Ireland called the Emeral Isle?
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Irelands moist west coast climate keeps the vegetation a brilliant green for most of the year
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Describe the geographic processes that led to the formation of two political units in Ireland.
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Conflict between Irish Protestants and Irish Catholics led to cultural divergence, or deliberate efforts to keep the cultures separate.
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How has the government of Ireland tried to improve the economy?
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In the 1990s, the Republic of Ireland invested in education and modern telecommunications. Foreign high-tech companies were persuaded to locate administrative offices in Ireland.
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how does the North Atlantic drift affect climatic conditions in Norden?
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The warm currents of the North Atlantic drift moderate the weather and keep the coast free of ice
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what cultural similarities define northern europe as a region?
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climate, location, similar histories, they share certain political and economic beliefs, and the have sound/peaceful economies
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what are the various resources from which the nordic nations derive their wealth?
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Denmark and southern sweden: agriculture Norweigans: fishing region also profits from oil and gas production, high grade ores, and vast expanses of forest
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How do the economies of the Nordic nation show charateristics of both free anterprise and socialism?
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The Eastern European economies show free enterprise by allowing citizens to open and run businesses with a minimum of government regulation but they show socialism by heavily taxing the income from these businesses and using that money for public works.
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how did the industrial revolution change the patterns of settlement in the british isles?
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The industrial revolution changed settlement patterns by drawing people away from the agricultural life into cities.
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what are sources of conflict in ireland?
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Religion. The long-term causes of the conflict lie in the division between Protestants and Catholics in Ireland.Government supression by England nationalism
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how did the potato famine lead to migration away from ireland?
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The potato famine caused a lot of hardship for the native people of Ireland as potatoes were their staple food. Most of the other food they grew was sent to Britain as the Irish were under their rule. As a result many people died and left because of the hunger and disease created by the potato blight. They were willing to risk the long boat journey from Ireland to other countries just to get away from their plight.
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why did many irish emigrants choose to relocate in the US?
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The Potato Famine left thousands of Irish starving, and without any income. Raising the potatoes was the livelihood of most Irish and when the rot struck, they had no way to pay landlords or pay for food. They were forced to leave in hopes of a better life somewhere else, and since America was so famous, most chose to come here. Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_did_the_Irish_Immigrants_come_to_America#ixzz1w2lLTgYn
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describe the physical characteristics that define the Nordic nations as a region?
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A Varied Landscape o Region is a collection of peninsulas + islands separated by seas, gulfs, + oceans o Most continuous landmassesScandinavian + Jutland peninsulas o Terrain varies dramaticallyDenmark’s highest point is 600 f, whereas Norway is 1 of the mostmountainous nations in Europe • Environmental Change o Glaciers carved out thousands of lakes across the Scandinavian Peninsularemoved topsoil +other materials and deposited them in Denmark and other parts of W. Europeas a result,much of the soil in Scandinavia remains rocky + difficult to farm • Natural Resources o Icelandvolcanoes + glaciers exist side by side o Icelanders have learned to take advantage of the island’s geology to produce geothermalenergy • Long Winters, Short Summers o Norden’s location to the far north results in long winters and short summersat midwinter the sun may sine only 2/3 hours a day; in midsummersun shines for more than 20 hours o During winter aurora borealis (northern lights) shine most brightly in the Nordic nations Occurs when atomic particles from the sun, attracted by the magnetic fields of the NorthPole, break through the N. atmosphere • The Ocean and Climate o Despite the length of winter, the climate can be surprisingly mildthe warm currents of the N.Atlantic Drift moderate the weather and keep the coast free of ice o Coldest areas in Norden lie just east of a mountain chain that runs N.E. to S.W. through Norwaythis range prevents the warm, moist ocean winds from reaching the rest of the ScandinavianPeninsularesults in a cold, dry, sub arctic climate
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why might britain be reluctant to adopt the euro as its currency?
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They do not want to be tied to any other economies.I think that there is a sense of national identity around the currency that many people in the UK do not want to lose. Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_might_Britain_be_reluctant_to_adopt_the_euro_as_its_currency#ixzz1w5ojZz4A
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the climate of the British Isles and Nordic Nations is milder than other countries of similar latitudes because of what?
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the warm currents of the North Atlantic Drift
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why is tourism a major industry in the french alps?
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the alps are known worldwide for there ski resorts, challenging skiing, and a magnificent array of alpine wildflowers that attract hikers
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how did the roman conquest of gaul lead to cultural convergence?
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For over 500 years the area prospered under the Romans. The Gauls, the native people of area were strongly influenced by this cultural convergence, adopting the romans latin language and christian religion
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how has language helped unite France?
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It has helped and allowed them to, throughout their turbulent histroy, the people of france have maintained a strong sense of national identity
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what efforts have been taken to ensure that france has one national language?
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new french words are published in official dictionaries only if they are approved by the French academy. This body was established in 1635 to preserve the purity of the french language.
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How have political and economic pressures caused conflict in france?
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France may be a wealthy nation but it has faced economic and political pressures. They struggled for a long while during the recession. And also their were several other challenges which mostly resulted in unemployment. Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_did_political_and_economic_pressures_caused_conflict_in_France#ixzz1w6QC3Uid
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how do the dutch use most of the land that they reclaim from the sea?
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More than half of the land is used for agriculture , either to grow crops or as pasture.
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why have the two main peoples of Belgium clashed in the past? how have those issues been resolved?
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The flemish and the walloons. Flemish (55%) are dutch speaking and Walloons (30%) are french speaking the flemish made up a large part of the population and wanted the same cultural and economic right that the waloons enjoyed. To help resolve the conflict, the beligian government made flemish an official language in 1898
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what are luxembourg’s most important economic activities?
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high tech firms and service industries
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how is each of the following a significant part of the culture of Switzerland?
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citizenship: Swiss citizens have more direct control over their government neutrality: when Napoleans forces were defeated switzerland was recongnized as a neutral country and has not taken sides in conflicts between other coutnries, and no other European country has invaded it’s borders high standard of living; although switzerland has few natural resources within its borders, it has developed economic activities that are highly profitable tourism; has few natural resoursces within its borders so dairy farming, chocolate making, cheese making, watch making, microscopes and measuring/cutting tools, medicine making
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why is Austria a much smaller country today than it was in the 1800s?
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Austria and Hungary were separated into independent countries and much of the land they had controlled was taken to form new Eastern European countries.
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what is one reason why the population of Vienna is smaller today than it was in the past?
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modern industries find Vienna too congested and prefer to locate in smaller cities like Graz, Linz, or Innsbruck.
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through which countries do the alps run?
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Austria France Germany Italy Liechtenstein Slovenia Switzerland
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how have the Alps served as a natural barrier to migration in the past?
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for centuries, the Alps hindered movement between France and Italy
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how does climate affect economic activities in southwestern France?
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In the southern parts of France, the air is warmer and the soil drier. The grapes used to make french wine thrive in this area
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how did coal deposits help make Germany an important industrial power?
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the Ruhr Valley developed into Germany’s first industrial center. Ruhr Valley today produced most of Germany’s iron and steel.
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how has switzerland given its citizens more direct control of there government?
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any law passed must be ratified by popular vote if enough Swiss citizens so request
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at the end of world war 1 why was germany required to pay money to other countries? how did these payments affect the economy of Germany?
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Germany was defeated and had to pay reparations; money for war damages – the economy collapsed in early 1920’s when inflation, or sharply rising prices, ruined the value of Germanys’s currency. In 1929, a worldwide economic depression left millions of Germans without jobs.
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ethnic tensions between the walloons and flemings contributed to
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the adoption of two national languages in belgium

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