Geo 210 final

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ethologists
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study peoples sense of territoriality
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cognitive images
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the images that come to mind when we think of a place, any place.
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vernacular landscape
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Everyday, mundane lived-in landscape
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proxemics
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a study of the social and cultural meanings that give people personal space- for example how near or distant you like to sit near others in class
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topophilia
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the longing or ongoing attatchment that a migrant may have to their homeland
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recognizing that landscapes both produce and communicate meaning allows us to
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interpret local and national values, priorities, histories, cultural practices
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semiotics
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the study of embedding signs and symbols in the landscape that send messages about identity, beliefs, practices, and values – in which we can learn to read and interpret
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slow cities movenment
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the concept of community life
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landscape-as-text
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holds that some people actively shape the landscape
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territoriality
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regulates access to people, resources, regulates social interaction, and provides a focus of group membership and identity
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modernism
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the telegraph, the telephone, the x-ray, the motion picture, the radio, the bicycle, the internal combustion engine, the airplane, the skyscraper, relativity theory, and psychoanalysis are included in
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economies of scale
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the cost advantages that manufacturers get from high-volume production
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no
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is economic development even over space?
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sustainable development
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economic development meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
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postindustrial
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the highest level of per capita GDP are found in the economies where the tertiary and quaternary sectors dominate the workforce
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neo-fordism
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flexible production, distribution and marketing systems are specifically associated with
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“dependency” for peripheral countries
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dependent on core countries for demand, investment, technology, and imports
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Andre Gunder Franks “dependency theory”
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the development and prosperity of the worlds core was based on the underdevelopment of the periphery
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infrastructure
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schools, roads, retail outlets, railroads, hospitals, recreational and cultural opportunities, social services and entire framework of support services and amenities in a city or region is its
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cumulative causation
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the spiral of economic growth and advanage that emerges as external economies, agglomeration and localization economies develop in a place called
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Paul Krugman
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The only “Geographer” to earn the Nobel prize is
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Creative destruction
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the withdrawal of investment from low profit areas and activities for reinvestment in high profit ones.
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Fordism
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Manufacturing based on assembly line techniques and high wages, and reliant upon mass consumption, is known as
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per unit of labor
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Commercial agricultural systems in the core are especially efficient in terms of food production
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agrarian culture
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one (in) which agricultural production is predominant in daily life.
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Subsistence agriculture
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characterized by agriculturalists who consume what they produce.
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rotating fields
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shifting cultivation is characterized by the practice of _________ to maintain soil fertility
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Pastoral nomads
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depend on animals rather than crops for their livelihood
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industrialization of agriculture
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made the farm a component in the agro-commodity production system.
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GMO
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An organism that has had its DNA modified in a laboratory rather than through crosspollination or other forms of evolution is known as a
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Blue Revolution
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fish is the most characterized product of what
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Second Agricultural Revolution
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characterized by the emergence of a significant surplus of production that could be sold and the beginnings of the industrialization of agriculture
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Third Agricultural Revolution.
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Food Manufacturing, Chemical Farming, and Mechanization are all phases of the
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coastal dead zones.
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Around the world, runoff from heavy use of synthetic fertilizers has created
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The United Nations
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the most inclusive organization (has most members) and has as a primary goal the maintenance of international peace and security
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A federal state (or federation)
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one in which government power is disbursed to local units
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exclusionary boundaries.
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The Berlin Wall and the Mexican border are good examples of
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republic
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The United States is best characterized as a
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reapportionment
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The process of allocating electoral seats to geographical areas is known as
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Ratzel’s theory of the state
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imperialism emerges from the need for territorial expansion tied to population growth.
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decolonization
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The (re)acquisition of sovereignty and territorial integrity following colonization is known as
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state
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a set of institutions, controls territory, and is active, not static
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Neocolonialism
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allows core states to continue exploiting periphery states
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Antarctica
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carved like a territorial pie into claims by various states
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The domino theory
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the rationale behind stopping the spread of communism
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North Atlantic Treaty Organization
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an international military alliance
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Manchester, England, industrial centers
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By the mid-19th century, ________, _______ was one of the world’s leading _______ __________, built around the manufacture and export of cotton textiles.
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50
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According to statistics compiled by the United Nations, nearly ___% of the world’s population today lives in cities.
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interdependent urbanism
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The very first region of _______ __________ was in the Middle East
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Gateway cities
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tend to be port cities, were typically established by Europeans in their colonies, and are control centers providing access into and out of particular countries or regions.
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urban migration and falling death rates.
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By the late 18th century and the Industrial Revolution, cities of Europe began to grow with rural to
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urban system
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The interdependent relationship between cities and settlements of different sizes and functions within a given region is known as an
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Central place theory
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explains the relative size and spacing of urban centers based on markets & consumer behavior
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centrality
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The functional dominance (cultural, economic, political) of a city within an urban system is known as
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Overurbanization
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when cities grow faster than their ability to provide jobs, housing and other basic needs.
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Megacities
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determined by primacy, centrality, and size.
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urban land use model
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sometimes referred to as the trade-off model because people make a trade-off between accessibility and living space.
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congregate
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The characteristics by which urban minority groups are typically defined and ______ typically include race, language and religion, nationality, sexual orientation or lifestyle.
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concentric zone model of cities
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the zone of transition typically begins at the dynamic outer edge of a city’s central business district.
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gentrification
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The invasion of older, centrally-located working-class neighborhoods by higher-income professionals in search of character and convenience
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Redlining
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most specifically, a form of housing discrimination
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Smart growth
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attempts to address the problem of urban/suburban sprawl.
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urban design
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began as early as the height of the Roman Empire
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Urban change in core regions
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has been influenced the most by the economic transformation to a postindustrial economy.
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polycentric new metropolis
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The megalopolis that extends from Washington, D.C. to Boston is best exemplified by ________ ____ _______model of urban structure.

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