Geo 102 | Chapters 1-5 | UMass

People extend into it and is the relative understanding of an area

caring for something and something that cares for you — push pull relationship

Human Geography
The study of the relationships between people and the places and space in which they live

Spatial Models
Used to explain space and models

__________ are rarely homogeneous

Focused on people — cultural region who has populace with one or more culture traits in common

Functions as a unit politically, socially and economically

-Perceived by its inhabitants base in the collective spare l perception of the population at large and bearing a generally accepted name or nickname
– Some based on political features and others on economic, political or historical characteristics
– Vernally lack sharp borders, vary in scale and people may claim residence in more than one

Subjectivity of Formal Culture Region
– No two cultural traits have the same distribution
– Territorial extent of a regions dependent on what and how many defining traits are used
– How the geographer chooses to define the region depends on the specific purpose of research or teaching that the region is designed to serve

Borders formal regions
– Functions as a unit politically, socially and economically
– Function regions have nodes (central points are coordinated and directed)
– Many functional regions have clearly defined borders
– Functional regions generally do not coincide spatially with formal regions

Understanding of how and why different cultural elements more through space and locate in particular settings

the movement of people, ideas, or things from one location outward toward other locations

way something spreads (like through the air)

Time-Distant decay
Diffusion becomes weaker as cultural innovation moves away from a point of origin

large scale movements of people between different regions of the world

International Migration
Migration among country borders

Stepwise migration
Migration conducted in a series of steps

Return migration
Migrants return to place of origin after long term resident elsewhere

Seasonal migration
Migrants move according to changes in weather

Transnational migration
Movement of groups of people who maintain ties to their homelands after they left

– Economic, social and political integration that operate on a global scale and collectively created ties that make a difference to lives around the planet
– Creates faster and more reliable transportation, aims almost-instantaneous communication, and the comm. of digital sources of information and media

Relations between nations & regions are mutual but not necessarily equal dependence

– Formal culture regions reveal diff. along racial, religious, gender related and the lines of distinction
– Groups of people with norms, values and material practices that differentiate them from the dominant culture to which they belong (this isn’t fixed)

Material cultures
– All physical, tangible objects made and used by members of a cultural group – visible aspect of culture
– This leads to some subjectivity

Nonmaterial cultures
Wide range of tales, songs, beliefs, values and customs that pass from one generation to another as part of oral or written traditions

Folk culture
– Rural, unified, largely self-sufficient groups that share similar customs and ethnicity. Many of the items used are handmade and most food is grown and consumed locally
– With urbanization, folk culture is hidden in rural and agricultural areas
– Push to blend old ideals with modern ideals

National culture
– Citizens possess a set of recognizable values behaviors, and beliefs – often including the same ethnic and linguistic traits – that express the core culture of each modern nation
– Wanted people to fall back on German folk ideals
– Europe’s new urbanized, cosmopolitan elites looked to rural folk as the source of distinct national identities

Indigenous culture
– Constitutes the original inhabitants of a territory, distinct form the dominant national culture, which is often derived from colonial occupation
– Generally associated with non urban, rural spaces, particularly the isolate forests and mountain ranges of the world
– Peoples who were colonized — mostly but not exclusively by Euro powers are now minorities in their homelands

Pop Culture
Modern ways of life associated with the rise of mass produced machine made goods and the invention of long distance comm. tech. that collectively shape cultural preferences and define cultural identity

– Resulting from standard formula of the built environment
– New York and London look very similar
– Global culture looks the same – globalization
– Eliminate unique meanings associated with unique locations

Pop. Geography
– The study of the spatial and ecological aspects of pop., including distribution, density/unit of land area, fertility, gender, health, age, mortality, and migration
– Western lifestyles are adopted by a significant # of Earth’s 7 billion inhabitants, we may soon deplete or contaminate Earth’s life-support systems

Pop. Density
– A measure of pop./unit area (per square mile)

Carrying capacity
– The maximum # of people that can be supported in a given area
– Provides a more meaningful index of overpopulation that density alone
– Can be difficult to determine carrying capacity until the region under study is near or over the limit
– ________ of one place can be expanded by drawing on the resources of another place
– This causes economic and education expansion (i.e. importing oil)

Patterns of natality
– One way to calculate the birth rate is:
– the number of births/year/thousand people
– The second way is the total fertility rate which is measured as avg. number of children born/woman during her reproductive lifetime (14-45 yrs)
– Focuses on the female segment of the pop., revealing avg. family size, and gives an indication of future changes in the population structure

birth rate
number of births/year/thousand people

total fertility rate
avg. number of children born/woman during her reproductive lifetime

The Demographic Transition
used to represent the transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system. The transition involves five stages.

Cartographers solve the problem of showing the spherical Earth on a flat piece of paper by using:

Where and when
Central to the study of geography are the questions ________ and ________.

physical sciences and social sciences
Geography as a discipline links the _________________ with the _____________________.

political boundaries, cultural characteristics, physical characteristics
In defining a region, geographers might take into account:

Lines of longitude are also known as:

The globe is divided into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at the

Greenwich, England.
The prime meridian runs from the North Pole to the South Pole through:

Through which ocean does the longitude line at 180° run?

spatial analysis, multiple scales of analysis and cartography
Aspects of geographical analysis are:

Which of the following refers to the relationship between the distances shown on the map and the actual distances on Earth’s surface?

Which of the following terms refers to the making of maps?

spatial analysis
Which of the following terms refers to the study of how people, objects, or ideas are, or are not, related to one another across space?

Which of the following terms refers to the unit of Earth’s surface that contains distinct patterns of physical features or of human activities?

Lines of longitude
_____________ on a map run from pole to pole.

the world leader in population in 2050 will likely be:

China, the world’s most populous country, contains about _____ of the world’s population.

more educational opportunities for women
Falling fertility levels are closely associated with:

Generally speaking, the world’s lowest total fertility rates are found among the peoples of:

In which region does the majority of the world’s people live?

In which region is the population the oldest?

densely populated regions
The Indian subcontinent and East Asia are:

7.1 billion
The approximate population of Earth is:

The most densely populated nation in the world is:

decrease in death rates
The world’s population explosion was triggered by a dramatic:

average number of children a woman has in her reproductive years
Total fertility rate refers to:

zero population growth or population decline
What is the ultimate or final effect of the demographic transition in the postindustrial period?

When using the demographic transition model to study population, one would expect countries with high birth and death rates to be:

people are born in a particular place, people move from place to another and people die in a particular place
causes of population change:

births, deaths and immigration
influences on the population size of a country

Indian subcontinent cluster, East Asian cluster and European cluster
the world’s three most heavily populated clusters are:

focuses on the female segment of the population.
first, the total fertility rate…

gives an indication of future changes in population structure
the total fertility rate also…

reveals average family size
the total fertility rate…

total fertility rate of 2.1
Zero population growth is achieved at a:

very low birthrate, one of the oldest populations and an adoption system for the elderly
Italy has:

Diseases spread through:

way something spreads

– A recent phenomenon dating from the late 20th century
– Different countries and different parts of the world have long been linked

Catalyst for:
– Increasingly linked and interdependent economic and political and cultural networks might lead different groups of people to become more and more alike
– BUT… there are new global encounters that have enabled increasing recondition of difference between groups of people
– Uneven development
– Tendency for industry to develop a core periphery pattern. Countries at core**

higher fertility rates
In countries with emphasis on farming there are _______

Death rate
The number of deaths/year/1000 people

age-induced degenerative conditions or industrial pollution
In the developed world most people die of:

Contagious diseases
leading cause of death in poorer countries are:

Demographic transition
The movement from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates

Agrarian societies depended on family labor
1st step in Demographic transition

Limited access to health care
2nd step in Demographic transition

Industrial era
3rd step in Demographic transition

Birth rates didn’t fall so quickly
4th step in Demographic transition

Eventually a decline in the birth rate following the decline in the death rate
5th step in Demographic transition

reflects experience of western Europe

Look-step, stage-by-stage progression
not all countries go through the stages

Pop. pyramid
Shows the age and sex composition of a pop.

Geography of gender
– The human race is divided almost evenly between females and males, but geographical differences do occur in the sex ratio: the ratio between men and women in a pop.
– Slightly more boys than girls born, but infant boys have slightly higher mortality rates than do infant girls
– Recently settled areas have more males than females
– Women tend to outlive men

Gender roles
– Culturally specific notions of what it means to be a man and what it means to be a woman – are closely tied to how many children are produced by couples
– Spaces that many cultures associate with women tend to be the private family spaces of the home
– Public spaces are often associated with men
– Falling fertility levels that coincide with higher levels of education for women have resulted in challenges to cultural ideas of male and female spaces

Standard of living
– The United Nations Human Development Index (HDI): combines measures of literacy, life expectancy, education and wealth
– Infant mortality rate
– The number of infants/1000 live births who die before reaching one year of age

Global South
Area of the earth that is underdeveloped

Human Development Index
combines measures of literacy, life expectancy, education and wealth

Human groups moved in response to the migration of the animals they hunted for food and the ripening seasons of the points they gathered
1st reason for migration (way back when)

The agricultural revolution
2nd reason for migration

Some groups still migrate(d) in response to environmental collapse, in response to religious or ethnic persecution or for better opportunities
3rd reason for migration

move over vast distances
Humans are the only real migratory ape species to:

huge catalyst for migration

movement and resources
Humans organize themselves around ________ & _______

Push and pull factors
Unfavorable, repelling conditions and favorable, attractive conditions that interact to affect migration and other elements of diffusion**

Most important factor prompting migration throughout human existence has been __________

Langua franca
language of business

Indo-European, followed by Sino-Tebtain
Most languages spoken are:

Languages are put into _____ to show the evolution of languages

– Shows that many languages are related to each other
– Languages branch off from one another because they are isolated
Language tree models do what?:

Language and dialects are __________

the study of spatial patterns and of the differences from one place to another

human geography
the study of the relationships between people and the places and spaces in which they live

a total way of life held in common by a group of people

cultural practices
the social activities and interactions ranging from religious rituals to food preferences to clothing

physical environment
all aspects of the natural physical surroundings such as climate, terrain, etc.

refers to an abstract location on the map

an abstraction of an imaginary situation – allows people to simulate conditions to isolate certain forces at work

connotes the subjective, idiographic, humanistic, culturally oriented type of geography that seeks to understand the uniqueness of certain regions

World Heritage Sites
Places that have some cultural significance

Formal region
a region inhabited by people with one or more cultural traits in common

Border zones
the areas where different regions meet and sometimes overlap

the tendency of both formal and functional culture regions to consist of the core or node

Central point in a functional culture – where functions are coordinated and directed

Functional region
A cultural area that functions as a unit politically, socially or economically

Independent invention
A cultural innovation developed in two or more locations by individuals or groups working independently

Relocation diffusion
The spread of an innovation or other element that occurs with migration

Expansion diffusion
Ideas or practices spread throughout pop. from area to area

Hierarchical diffusion
ideas that leapfrog from one important person to the next or from one urban center to another

Contagious diffusion
involves the spread of ideas in a wavelike manner — with no regard to hierarchies or boundaries

Stimulus diffusion
A type of expansion in which a specific trait fails to spread, but the concept is accepted nonetheless

Absorbing barriers
Completely stop diffusion

Permeable barrier
Barrier that permits some aspects of innovation to diffuse throughout region

an ongoing set of ideas, people or things that have no particular center or periphery

International migration
Migration that crosses country borders

Internal migration
Occurs within the borders of a country

Great migration
The movement of ~6 million African Americans to Northern U.S. states

Uneven development
tendency for countries in the core periphery to grow faster than countries that are outside the core periphery

Refers to the complex relationship between people and the physical environment **

Isolation of infected people form the healthy population – quarantine
1st spatial response to disease

Flee the area
2nd spatial response to disease

Target the specific ways the disease spreads
3rd spatial response to disease

Cultural ecology
the study of the relationships between the physical environment and culture

Environmental determinism
the belief that cultures are indirectly shaped by the physical environment

Humans, rather than the physical environment are the driving force on the environment

Environmental perception
The belief that culture depends more on what people perceive the environment to be

Natural hazard
an inherent danger present in the specific environment

organic view of nature
this belief says that people are part of nature

mechanistic view of nature
humans are separate from and hold dominion over nature

doctrine that claims that women are better at preserving the environment – given their motherly instincts

cultural landscape
the visible human imprint on the land

symbolic landscapes
landscapes that express the values, beliefs, and meanings of a particular culture

settlement forms
the spatial arrangement of towns, roads, buildings and other features

a relatively dense settlement form

a type of settlement form where people live further apart from one another

land-division patterns
refers to the spatial patterns of different land uses

diaspora culture
ethnic, racial and national pop. concentrations people displaced from their homelands

+born on mobility

indigenous populations
worldwide, large concentrations of __________ exist outside of the strong influence of national cultures and are far removed from the governments

queer geography
study of sexuality and space

European union
The union of 28 European countries established through a set of political, economic and cultural treaties

Trying to establish their identity after being displaced
What is the current problem facing the diaspora cultures?

digital divide
Pattern of unequal access to advanced tech. – of course this decreases the rate of growth in countries technologically behind

convergence hypothesis
a hypothesis holding that cultural difference between people is being reduced and leading to homogenization of popular culture

local consumption cultures
distinct consumption practices and preferences in clothing, food, music, and so forth

consumer nationalism
A situation where local consumers favor nationally produced goods over imported goods. – part of nationalist agenda

taking over land aggressively – often resulted in the displacement of native people

Diversity among individuals, populations, species, communities and ecosystems

indigenous technical knowledge
localized knowledge about environment and sustainable land-use practices

subsistence economies
economies in which people seek to consume only what they can produce and to produce only for local consumption – not for export

a cultivation system where people interplant trees with w/field crops

folk architecture
buildings by locals: they have a recognizable style and typically are constructed out of local resources

leisure landscapes
landscapes that are designed to entertain people

amenity landscapes
prized for their natural and aesthetic qualities and real estate industries and their customers

collection of landforms, such as mountains, hills, plains, and plateaus.

‘shaped lands’

cultural landscape
reveals the important differences within and between cultures

a geographic area,including both cultural and natural resources and the wildlife or domestic animals therein, associated with a historic event, activity, or person or exhibiting other cultural or aesthetic values

pop. geography
the study of the spatial and ecological aspects of population

pop. density
a measurement of population per unit area

carrying capacity
the maximum # of people that can be supported in a given area

demographic transition
the movement of from high and death rates to low birth and death rates

younger than 15 years of age
In Latin America, Africa and tropical Asia half the population is:

sex ratio
the numerical ratio of females to males in a population

gender roles
what it means to be a man or a woman in different cultural and historical contexts

Infant mortality rate
The number of infants/1000 live births who die before reaching one year of age

The number of infants per 1000 live births who die before they are one year old
The infant mortality rate is

people who leave their country of nationality to flee persecution

that human overpopulation was the cause of poverty, illness and warfare

believe that science that science and tech. can solve resource shortages

humans are the greatest resource

Rule of 72
Take country’s rate of annual increase, expressed as a percent and divide it into the number 72 – this will give the years it will take for a given population to double

Take country’s rate of annual increase, expressed as a percent and divide it into the number 72
How does the rule of 72 work

adaptive strategies
the unique ways in which each culture uses its particular physical environment

environmental refugees
people who are displaced from their homes due to severe environmental disruption

____________ to resource availability can precipitate environmental destruction

Closeness to jobs and higher population densities
____________ in theory will reduce the commuting distances

farm villages
clustered rural settlements of moderate size inhabited by people who are engaged in farming

the center of farm operations, containing the house, barn, sheds and livestock pens

a decrease in population that sometimes occurs as the result of sudden catastrophic events such as natural disasters, disease, epidemics and warfare

longer life spans, lower mortality rates or large influx of immigrants
population increases occur gradually because of:

unevenly distributed
humankind is ________________ over the earth

language family
a group of languages that spring from a common ancestor

lingua franca
A language of communication and commerce spoken across a wide area is known as:

A language variant that can be understood by many or most speakers of the main language is a:

Comparing the _____ of various Indo-European tongues reveals their kinship.

Following Indo-European, which language family is spoken by the MOST people?

derived from a common ancestor
In French the word for three is “trois,” in Romanian it is “trei,” in Sanskrit it is “travas,” and in Welsh it is “tri.” This indicates that these languages are:

a lingua franca
In bilingual societies, there is no need for:

East Africa
In which region is Swahili a lingua franca?

Into what language family do Semitic languages like Hebrew fall?

creole language
Into what type of language can a pidgin language evolve as it acquires more words and speakers?

pidgin language
A fourth language, D, takes elements from A, B, and C to facilitate communication among the groups. D might be considered a:

the Middle East
The Semitic languages are spoken mostly in:

The official language of China is:

The single most common variable by which different cultural groups are identified and by which they assert their unique identity is:

What is the largest and most widely spoken language family?

The lingua franca
A. It exists to facilitate commerce.
B. It serves a similar purpose as a pidgin language.
C. It is one agreed-upon language used for communication purposes among different peoples.

B. It is the most common variable by which different cultural groups assert their unique identity.
C. It is the main means by which learned belief systems and customs pass from one generation to the next.
D. facilitates cultural diffusion and shapes the way people think about, perceive, and talk about the environment.

True or false: Separate languages are mutually unintelligible.

True or false: Dialects are variant forms of languages.

True or false: Culture groups often have their own languages of dialects.

True or false: Dialects are mutually unintelligible.

With the creation of the state of Israel in 1948, a common language was needed to unite the immigrant Jews. _____ was revived as the official national language of the new country.

True or false: In the video shown in class on Friday, it can be said of the Aborigninal langauges that they are all mutuall intelligble.

a mutually agreed-on system of symbolic communication that has a spoken and usually written expression

a composite language usually consisting of a small vocabulary borrowed from the linguistic groups involved in commerce

a language derived from a pidgin language that has acquired a fuller vocabulary and become the native language of its speakers

The ability to speak 2 languages fluently

Language family
a group of related languages derived from a common ancestor

a mixture of different languages

a theory of language diffusion holding that the movement of Indo-European languages from the area in contemporary Turkey followed the spread of plant domestication tech.

a theory of how languge diffusion holding that the spread of Indo-European languages originated with animal domestication in the central Asian steppes & grew more aggressively and swiftly than proponents of the other hypothesis

the border of usage of an individual word or pronunciation

words and phrases that aren’t pat of a standard, recognized vocabulary for a given language, but that are nonetheless used and understood by some of its speakers

a dialect spoken by a particular ethnic group

language hotspots
those places on Earth that are the home to the most unique, misunderstood or endangered languages

linguistic refuge areas
an area protected by isolation or inhospitable environmental conditions in which a language or dialect has survived

a place-name usually consisting of two parts: the generic and the specific

generic toponym
the descriptive part of many place-names, often repeated throughout a culture area

the naming of places has become the _____ of urban spaces

____ are fluid, always being altered and reinvented as the needs and experiences of their users change

the tendency to shift between languages in the same sentence is called:

___________ of one group over another is often expressed in the latter’s exclusion form the linguistic cultural landscape

China and India
In _____ and ______ people are trying to slow the pop. growth

17% of all humans reside in ______

4.4% of all humans reside in _____

ethnic group
People who share a common ancestry and cultural tradition compose a(n):

The belief that human capabilities are determined by racial classification and that some races are superior to others is:

What occurs when an ethnic minority completely blends with the host culture?

shared history stemming from slavery
Which factor do most African-Americans use to define their ethnicity?

self-definition, the way others treat them, the way society treats them
Which factors play a role in a person’s understanding of his or her race and ethnicity?

individuals may choose to identify themselves with more than one racial group
the current approach of the U.S. Census Bureau to self-definitions of race is what?

True or false / An ethnic group is usually weakened when an outsider marries into it.

True or false / Indigenous peoples can become ethnic minorities as a result of colonialism or conquest.

True or false / There is far more variability within so-called racial groups than between them.

True or false / Unlike many other areas of study, the study of ethnicity does not have built-in geographical dimensions.