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General Psychology Quiz Bank 2

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The scientific approach assumes that
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events are goverened by some lawful order.
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Which is NOT among the goals of scientific psychology?
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searching for absolute truths about behaviors.
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Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study are called
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Variables.
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The use of reinforcement principles to modify a child’s unruly behavior reflects the goal of science thay deals with
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Application and control.
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The_____ approach assumes that events are governed by some lawful order.
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Scientific.
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A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables is a(n)
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Hypothesis.
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Mrs.Smith, an elementary school teacher,believes that girls are smarter than boys. She predicts that the girls in her class will learn more than the boys during the school year. Her prediction is a(n)
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Hypothesis.
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Scientific theories are most directly associated with which goal of science ?
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Understanding and prediction.
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Hypothesis are typically expressed as
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Predictions.
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A researcher is measuring the heart rate as subjects as an index of anxiety. In this study, heart rate is
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An operational definition of anxiety.
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Laura answered a series of written questions that asked about her attitudes and options on a number of current issues. The method of data collection that was being used in this case was
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A questionnaire.
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A scientific journal refers to
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A periodical that publishes technical and scholary articles.
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Psychologists use a variety of data collection techniques; which of the following is best suited for studying attitudes?
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questionnaires.
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Statistical procedure are used during which step in conducting a scientific investigation?
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Analyze the data and draw conclusion.
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The scientific approach requires that people specify exactly what they are talking about when they formulate hypothesis. Which advantagesof scientific investigations does this illustrate?
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Precision.
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The two main types of research methods used in psychology are the
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experimental and descriptive/ correlational research methods.
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A researcher wants to see if a protein-enriched diet will enhance the maze-running performance of rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of trhe study; the other group continues to receive ordinary rat chow. In this experiment, the rats’ maze-running performances is the
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dependent variable.
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An experimenter tests the hypothesis that physical excercise improves mood. Subjects in the experimental group participate on monday and tuesday and those in the control group on wednesday and Thursday. What is the independent variable?
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the exercise.
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In an experiment, the vaiable that is controlled or manipulated by the researcher is called the
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independent variable.
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A dependent variable in an experiment refers to the variable
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that changes value because of the systematic manipulation in the experiment.
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If we view an experiment as an attempt to establish a cause-effect relationship, the ____ variable would be the cause, and the _____ variable would be the effector.
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independent: dependent.
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In an experiment designed to test memory processes, one group was given special instructions and asked to group the items on a listinto categories while they tried to memorize them. A second group of participants was given the same list, but they did not receive any special instructions. In this study, the experimental group is
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the group that receives the special instructions.
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A group of researchers wanted to determine wheter children would behave more aggressively after watching violent television programming. Half the children in this study watched a violent television show; the other children wathced a non-violent program. In this study, the control group is the children who
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watch the non-violent program.
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A group of researchers wanted to determine if people will eat more food ina room with red paint than in a room that is decorated blue. Half the participants in this study ate in a red room and half ate in the blue room. The researchers then measured how much food was consumed in each of the two rooms. In this study, the independent variable was
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The color of the room.
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A variable, other than the independent variable, that appears to have influenced the dependent variable in a study is referred to as
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And extraneous variable.
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In experiments, placing subjects in experimental groups such that each subject has and equal probability of ending up in an experimental group is referred to as
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Random assignment.
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Conclusions concerning cause – and – effect relationships are only possible when the___method is used.
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Experimental
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One of the disadvantages of the experimental method is
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The fact that experiments often can’t be done for practical or ethical reasons.
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The correlation coefficient is a measure of
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The degree of relationship between two variables.
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Dr. Mactor predicts that people will act more aggressively during the heat waves of summer then they will during the Cold spells of winter. This suggests that Dr. Macator believes that temperature and level of aggression are
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Positively correlated.
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If two variables have positive correlation, you would expect that___scores on one variable are generally associated with___scores on the second variable.
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Low;low
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As an adult ages, his/her physical strength declines. The relationship between age and physical strength is a(n)
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Negative correlation.
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It correlation between the two variables exist when scores on one variable
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Are related to scores on second variable.
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Of the following, the correlationcoefficient indicates the weakest relationship between the two variables being measured is
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+0.01.
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As correlation coefficients___, The baby to predict one variable based on knowledge of the second variable increases.
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Increase in strength
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Of the following, the correlation coefficient indicates the strongest relationship between two variables being measured is
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-0.89.
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According to fish I will always have a value between
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0% and 100%
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And descriptive/correlational research, the investigator
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Systematically observed two variables to see whether there is association between them.
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Naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys all have in common that
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They do not manipulate the variables under study.
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You are sitting on a park bench in a major metropolitan area from 7 AM to 7 PM and you’re not the number of people who walk by, whether or not they litter, and their gender. You are engaging in
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Naturalistic observation.
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The tendency for participants to participate in a survey research appears to have
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Declined noticeably in recent decades.
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One advantage of naturalistic observation is that it
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Allows behavior to be started in realistic settings.
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Dr. Kincaid was interested in the topic of autistic savants (individuals would limited abilities in many areas, but with an exceptional talent in one specific area). In the intial part of the investigation, Dr. Kincaid carefully observe and complied detailed files on three individuals who were autistic seventh. Dr. Kincaid is conducting
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A case study research.
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One of your friends is writing a research paper and wants to obtain information about the depth of personal information people typically reveal during a first date. Directly observing a large number of people during the first date it will be difficult, so your friend asked for your advice on the best way to collect this type of data. The best suggestion would be for your friend to use
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A survey.
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The research method that is often used to obtain information concerning individuals’ behaviors, attitudes, and/or opinions is the
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Survey mood.
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The principal disadvantages of the descriptive/correlational research method is
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Send researchers cannot control variables of interest, conclusions concerning cause – and – effect relationships are not appropriate.
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To determine whether students would like more courses scheduled in the late afternoon and evening hours, the student servicesdepartment send questionnaires to 50 students selected at random from the 5000 who are registered at the campus. In this instance, the 5000 students who are registered at the campus would be
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A population.
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The subjects who participated in experiment should
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Be carefully chosen that they represent a sample of the population.
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Sampling bias is a problem because if
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Limits the generality of the findings.
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Research involving the repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results can be duplicated referred to as
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Replication studies.
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Sometimes a subjects expectations may lead to behavior change in the absence of any effective treatment. This is referred to as an example of
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The placebo effect.
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The tendency for survey subjects to provide answers that place them in a favorable light is referred to as
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Socially desirable respondings.
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The fact that researchers often unintentionally influence the outcome of their studies implies the existence of
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Experimenter bias.
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The experimental procedure in which both the experimenter and subject are unaware of who is in the experimental and who is in the control group is referred to as the
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Double – blind procedure.
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Which of the following statements is MOST accurate?
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Deception Has been fairly common in psychological research since the 1960s.
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Research has revealed that subject who participated in research involving deception
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Didn’t mind being misled and generally enjoyed taking part in research.
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Which of the following statements is MOST accurate?
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The American psychological Association has developed at the cool guidelines for research involving animals.