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General Psychology: Chapter 5

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_____ is a systematic, relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience.
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Learning
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_____ is a theory of learning that focuses solely on observable behaviors, discounting the importance of such mental activity as thinking, wishing, and hoping.
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Behaviorism
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Learning that occurs when an organism makes a connection between two events is called _____.
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Associative Learning
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Lightning is associated with thunder and regularly precedes it. Thus, when we see lightning, we often anticipate that we will hear thunder soon afterward. This is an example of _____.
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Classical Conditioning
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Organisms learn about the consequences of behavior through _____?
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Operant Conditioning
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Classical and operant conditioning involve learning through _____, whereas observational learning involves learning through _____.
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Association/observation and imitation
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Miranda is learning how to play tennis. For her first lesson, her instructor models serving and backhand returns while Miranda patiently watches. Miranda then tries to imitate the sequence of swings and motions made by her instructor. Which of the following concepts best describes how Miranda is learning to play tennis?
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Observational Learning
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Dr. Meyer is known for his difficult pop quizzes. Immediately before he springs a pop quiz on his students, he typically goes to the classroom door and closes it. Students soon learn to anticipate a pop quiz whenever Dr. Meyer closes the classroom door. Closing the door has become a(n) _____.
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Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
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Before the bell was ever presented, Pavlov’s dog salivated each time food was presented. The _____ in this situation is salivation.
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Unconditioned Response (UR)
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The presentation of a stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior is called _____.
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Positive Reinforcement