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General Psychology Chapter 1 Vocab and People

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Psychology
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The scientific study of the mind and behavior
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Mind
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The private inner experience of perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings
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Behavior
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Observable actions
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Consciousness
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A person’s subjective experience of the world and the mind
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Structuralism
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The analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind
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Introspection
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The subjective observation of one’s own experience
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Functionalism
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The study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment
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Unconscious
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The part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness but influences conscious thoughts, feelings, and actions
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Psychoanalytic theory
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An approach that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behavior
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Psychoanalysis
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A therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders
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Humanistic psychology
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An approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings
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Behaviorism
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Restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior
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Stimulus
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Sensory input from the environment
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Response
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An action or physiological change caused by a stimulus
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Reinforcement
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The consequences of a behavior determine whether it will be more or less likely to occur again
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Gestalt psychology
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A psychological approach that emphasizes the we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts
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Cognitive psychology
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The scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning
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Behavioral neuroscience
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An approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes
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Cognitive neuroscience
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Sheffield of study that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity
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Evolutionary psychology
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A psychological approach that explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection
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Social psychology
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The study of the causes and consequences of sociality
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Cultural psychology
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The study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members
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William James (1842-1910)
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Wrote “The Principles of Psychology”. One of the first to major in psychology
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Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
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Opened the first psychology laboratory in 1879