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General Psychology (Ch. 13, 15-16) Essay

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Trait
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a dispostion to behave consistently in a particular way
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Behavioral thresholds
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the points at which a person moves from not having a particular response to having one
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Mechanisms
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adaptive solutions to problems of survival and reproduction
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Quantitative trait loci (QTL) approach
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a technique in behavioral genetics that looks for the location on genes that might be associated with particular behaviors
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Unconscious
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one of Freud’s three levels of consciousness; it contains all the drives, urges, or instincts that are outside awareness but nonetheless motivate most of our speech, thoughts, feelings, or actions
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Id
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one of Freud’s provinces of the mind; the seat of impulse and desire; the part of our personality that we do not yet own; it owns or controls us
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Ego
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one of Freud’s provinces of the mind; a sense of self; the only part of the mind that is in direct contact with the outside world; it operates on the “reality principle”
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Superego
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one of Freud’s provinces of the mind; the part of the self that monitors or controls behavior; it “stands over us’ and evaluates our actions in terms of right and wrong; hence, our conscience
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Defense mechanisms
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unconscious strategies the mind uses to protect itself from anxiety by denying and distorting reality in some way
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Reaction formation
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a defense mechanism that occurs when an unpleasant idea, feeling, or impulse ins turned into its opposite
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Projection
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a defense mechanism in which people deny particular ideas, feelings, or impulses and project them onto others
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Sublimation
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a defense mechanism that involves expressing a socially unacceptable impulse in a socially acceptable way
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Striving for superiority
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according to Adler, the major drive behind all behavior, whereby humans naturally strive to overcome their inherent inferiorities or deficiencies both physical and psychological
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Inferiority complex
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an unhealthy need to dominate or upstage others as a way of compensating for feelings of deficiency
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Personal unconsciousness
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according to Jung, a form of consciousness that consists of all our repressed and hidden thoughts, feelings, and motives
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Collective unconscious
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according to Jung, a form of consciousness that consists of the shared experiences of our ancestors–God, mother, life, death, water, earth, aggression, survival–that have been passed down from generation to generation
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Archetypes
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ancient or archaic images that result from common ancestral experiences
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Shadow
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according to Jung, the dark and morally objectionable part of ourselves
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Anima
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according to Jung, the female part of the male personality
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Animus
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according to Jung, the male part of the female personality
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Neuropsychoanalysis
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a new scientific movement started in the late 1990s that combined Freudian ideas with neuroscientific methods
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Unconditional positive regard
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acceptance of another person regardless of his or her behavior
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Comorbidity
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the occurrence of two or more psychological disorders at the same time
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
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a childhood disorder characterized by severe language and social impairment along with repetitive habits and inward-focused behaviors
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Psychotic disorders
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psychological disorders of thought and perception, characterized by an inability to distinguish between real and imagined perceptions
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Schizophrenia
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a psychotic disorder characterized by significant disturbances in thought and emotion, specifically problems with perception, including hallucinations
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Negative symptoms
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symptoms that include non responsiveness, immobility, emotional flatness, problems with speech, and inability to complete tasks
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Cognitive symptoms
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problems with working memory, attention, verbal, and visual learning and memory, reasoning and problem solving, processing, and speech
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Diathesis-stress model
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explanation for the origin of psychological disorders as a combination of biological predispositions (diathesis) plus stress or an abusive environment
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Depressive disorder
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the highest-order category of the depressive disorders; it subsumes all forms of depression, including major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder
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Major depressive disorder
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a mood disorder characterized by pervasive low mood, lack of motivation, low energy, and feelings of worthlessness and guilt that last for at least 2 consecutive weeks
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Persistent depressive disorder
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a form of depression that is milder in intensity but longer in duration than major depressive disorder
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Bipolar disorder
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a mood disorder characterized by substantial mood fluctuations, cycling between very low and very high moods
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Manic episodes
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one mood cycle in bipolar disorder, typically involving increased energy, sleeplessness, euphoria, irritability, delusions of grandeur, increased sex drive, and “racing” thoughts that last at least 1 week
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Hypomanic episodes
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consists of same symptoms as manic episodes but are shorter in duration
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Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
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a state of pervasive and excessive anxiety lasting at least 6 months
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Panic attacks
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brief episodes of anxiety associated with a perception of threat and occurring because of fear of danger, and inability to escape, embarrassment, or specific objects
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Panic disorder
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an anxiety disorder characterized by panic attacks and persistent anxiety about having more attacks
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Agoraphobia
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an anxiety disorder involving fear of being in places from which escape might be difficult or in which help might not be available, should a panic attack occur
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder
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an anxiety disorder in which obsessive thoughts lead to compulsive behaviors
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Obsession
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an unwanted thought, word, phrase, or image that persistently and repeatedly comes into a person’s mind and causes distress
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Compulsion
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a repetitive behavior performed in response to uncontrollable urges or according to a ritualistic set of rules
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
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a type of trauma- and stressor-related disorder that involves intrusive and persistent cognitive, emotional, and physiological symptoms triggered by catastrophic or horrifying events
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Dissociative disorders
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psychological disorders characterized by extreme splits or gaps in memory, identity, or consciousness
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Dissociative identity disorder (DID)
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a dissociative disorder in which a person develops at least two distinct personalities, each with its own memories, thoughts, behaviors, and emotions
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Schizoid personality disorder
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an odd-eccentric personality disorder characterized by a desire to avoid close relationships as well as by emotional aloofness, reclusively, and lack of humor
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Schizotypal personality disorder
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an odd-eccentric personality disorder characterized by a desire to lice in an isolated and asocial life but also by the presence of food thoughts, perceptual distortions, and beliefs
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Paranoid personality disorder
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an odd-eccentric personality disorder characterized by extreme suspicions and mistrust of others in unwarranted and maladaptive ways
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Histrionic personality disorder
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a dramatic-emotional personality disorder characterized by the desire to be the center of attention and by dramatic, seductive, flamboyant, and exaggerated behaviors
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Borderline personality disorder
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a dramatic-emotional personality disorder characterized by out-of-control emotions, fear of being abandoned by others, and validation between idealizing and despising people who are close to the person with the disorder
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Narcissistic personality disorder
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a dramatic-emotional personality disorder characterized by having an extremely positive and arrogant self-mage and being extraordinarily self-centered; other symptoms are an exaggerated sense of self-importance and grandiosity
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Antisocial personality disorder
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a dramatic-emotional personality disorder characterized by extremely impulsive, ruthless, and callous behaviors; a serious and potentially dangerous disorder
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Avoidant personality disorder
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an anxious-fearful personality disorder characterized by extreme fear of being criticized, low self-esteem, and avoidance of social interaction
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Dependent personality disorder
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an anxious-fearful personality disorder characterized by fear of being rejected and a strong need to be cared for
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Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD)
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an anxious-fearful personality disorder characterized by rigid habits and extreme perfectionism; more general than obsessive-compulsive disorder
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Prefrontal lobotomy
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a form of psychosurgery in which the connections between the prefrontal cortex and the lower portion of the brain are severed; it is no longer in use
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Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
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the treatment of last resort for severe depression that involves passing an electrical current through a person’s brain in order to induce a seizure
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Tardive dyskinesia
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repetitive, involuntary movements of the jaw, tongue, face, and mouth and body tremors resulting from the extended use of traditional antipsychotic drugs
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Lithium
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a salt that is preserved for its ability to stabilize the mania associated with bipolar disorder
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Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
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a treatment for severe depression involving exposure of specific brain structures to bursts of high-intensity magnetic fields instead of electricity
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Psychotherapy
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the use of psychological techniques to modify maladaptive behaviors or thought patterns, or both, and to help patients develop insight into their own behavior
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Psychoanalytic therapy
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therapy aimed at uncovering the unconscious motives that underlie psychological problems
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Free association
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a psychotherapeutic technique in which the client takes one image or idea from a dream and says whatever comes to mind, regardless of how threatening, disgusting, or troubling it may be
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Transference
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the process in psychotherapy in which the client to a person in a present relationship as though that person are someone from the client’s past
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Catharsis
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the process of releasing intense, often unconscious, emotions in a therapeutic setting
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Client-centered therapy
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a form of humanistic therapy in which the therapist shows unconditional positive regard for the client
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Evidence-based therapies
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treatment choices based on empirical evidence that they produce the desired outcome
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Dodo bird verdict
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the finding that most forms of therapy are effective and few significant differences exist in effectiveness among standard therapies
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Tech-based therapies
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therapies that make use of tech or the internet to complement current therapies or make psychotherapeutic techniques available to more people
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Virtual reality therapies
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therapies that use virtual (digital simulation) environments to create therapeutic situations that would be hard to create otherwise
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Integrative therapy
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an eclectic approach in which a therapist draws on different treatment approaches and uses those that seem most appropriate for the situation
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Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT)
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an approach that combines elements of CBT with mindfulness meditation to help people with depression learn to recognize and restructure negative thought patterns
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Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)
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treatment that integrates elements of CBT with exercises aimed at developing mindfulness without meditation; it is used to treat borderline personality disorder
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Optogenetics
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a treatment that uses a combination of light stimulation and genetics to manipulate the activity of individual neurons