General Biology Study Guide

question

in the scientific method– what is a testable prediction?
answer

hypothesis
question

in the scientific method—the variable that you control.
answer

independent variable
question

inthe scientific method–the variable that is effected by the independent variable
answer

dependent variable
question

what identifies the dependent/independent variables?
answer

the experimental procedures
question

on what axis the the dependent variable go?
answer

always the Y
question

in the scientific method– in the CONCLUSION, this is a general, applies meaning, and is what YOU think.
answer

inference
question

NOT a guess or hypothesis–a conclusion that has mounds of data that supports it and non reject it.
answer

theory
question

what are the 3 domains of living things?
answer

archea bacteria Eukarya
question

what are the characteristics of the animilia kingdom?
answer

eat (ingestive heterotrophs) –cannot make own food
question

what is man’s 1. domain 2. kingdom, 3. phylum, 4. class, 5. order, 6. family, 7.genus, 8.species???
answer

1. eukarya 2. animilia 3. chordata (subphylum=vertebrata) 4. mammalia 5. primate 6. hominidae 7. home 8. sapiens
question

why do living things need water?
answer

living organisms are 70-90 % water and need waters unique properties
question

what is the structure of DNA?
answer

double helix form with 2 spiral bands –nitrogenous bases and amino acids
question

what is ATP function?
answer

energy
question

structurre of organic compounds?
answer

the element MUST contain carbon and hydrogen
question

who is the Father of Modern Genetics?
answer

Gregor mendel
question

what did mendel use to ecplain variable between family members?
answer

pea plants
question

a short sgement of DNA that codes for a specific trait and protein?
answer

GENE
question

DNA bound by protein and contains hundreds of genes
answer

chromosome
question

you get 1 from father and 1 from mother–code for the same genetic traits, not necessarily the same expression
answer

homologous chromosomes
question

genes that code for the same genetic trait–not necessarily the same expression of that trait
answer

alleles
question

a physical expression of a gene
answer

phenotype
question

actual genes that organisms have?
answer

genotype
question

\”fixing\” the genome of a person with a gane that they are missing so that they wont have a genetic disease
answer

gene therapy
question

what are some GM foods in the US?
answer

BT Corn round-up ready beans tomatoes strawberries golden rice cholera vaccine bananas
question

what are some cures of stem cells?
answer

72 with adult stem cells ex: leukemia treatment with bone marrow -blood vessels serving heart -spinal chord injury -shoulder injuries
question

how do cells become different from eachother when they all have the same DNA?
answer

gene expressions controls which genes are turned on/off
question

what taxonomic for plants: 1. domain 2 kingdom 3. phylum 4. class 5. order 6. family 7. genus 8. species
answer

1. eukarya 2. plantae 3. primitive tracheophyte 4. spermopsids 5. angiosperms 6. gymnosperms 7. dicot 8. monocot
question

do not have seeds, produce spores like fungi do
answer

primitive tracheophyte
question

produce seed
answer

spermopsids (most plants)
question

means flower –plants that produce flowers
answer

angiosperms
question

seeds are born naked (no flowers)
answer

gymnosperms
question

characteristics of dicot
answer

two cotyledon
question

what are example of dicots?
answer

peanuts, pecans, peas
question

characteristica of monocot
answer

one cotolydeon
question

example of monocot
answer

corn
question

in cludes ovary, style (holds stigma up) and stigam (holds polllen)
answer

carpel
question

what produces pollen?
answer

the anther
question

what holds up anther?
answer

filament
question

what is the main function of roots?
answer

gather water and minerals
question

what is the main function of stems?
answer

transport
question

what is the main function of leaves?
answer

photosynthesis and transpiration
question

can divide body in several different ways and still have mirror images
answer

radial symmetry (starfish)
question

can only divide them in a plane and get mirror images
answer

bilateral symmetry
question

a body cavity in the abdomen b/w the outer wall and the inner organs
answer

coelom
question

loss of body part and grow back
answer

regeneration
question

what is segmentation
answer

the body has segments –in humans (abdomen, thorax, and head)
question

not able to move around–attached to something
answer

sessile (coral–sponges)
question

have backbone
answer

vertebrate
question

no back bone
answer

invertabrate
question

‘jawless fish’ –most primitive class–use tongue to latch on to other fish
answer

agnatha
question

‘cartilage fish’ –have jaw –charks, sting rays, paddle fish
answer

chondrichthyes
question

bony fish –98% of the worlds fish are these
answer

osteichthyes
question

‘double life’ –includes frogs, salamanders,etc have gills
answer

amphibians
question

truly terrestial –able to live on land b/c of scales, calws, lungs, internal fertilzation
answer

reptiles
question

have feathers warm blooded
answer

aves
question

have fur or hair–mammary glands include whale dolphin bat and humans
answer

mammal
question

known as a virus—give example
answer

lytic diseas –common cold, flu, measles, mumps, hapatitus A, and polio
question

known as a viral disease–give examples
answer

lysogenic disease –HIV/AIDS, hepatitus B, chicken pox, warts (HPV), herpes, and mono
question

lysogenic virudes can mutate ur dna and also cause?
answer

cancer
question

this disease may prodice toxins that causes disease or may invade organs and cells
answer

bacterial disease
question

list some example of a bacterial disease.
answer

-staph infection -strep -bacterial pnemonia -bronchitis -food poisoning -tuberculosis -ear infections -syphillis -gonorrhea
question

what are some practical uses of bacteria?
answer

produce: -cheeses -vitamins and antibiotics -chemicals/drugs
question

aka phytoplankton microscpic, usually unicellular organisms in water producers of aquatic ecosystems
answer

algae
question

what are the main components of the lymphatic system?
answer

lymph lymph nodes lymphatic vessels
question

what are the main components in the digestive system?
answer

stomahc, small intestines, large intestines, colon anus
question

what are the main compoents of the respiratory system?
answer

lungs various tubes diaphragm
question

what are the main components of the urinary system?
answer

kidneys various tubes bladder
question

what are the main components of the nervous system?
answer

brain spinal chord nerves
question

main components of the integumentary systems
answer

skin and other membranes
question

what are the main components of the skeletal system?
answer

bones
question

main component of cardiovascular system
answer

heart and blood vessels (arteries veins and cappillaries) and blood
question

what is the job of the cardio vascular system?
answer

transport blood and other things
question

job of lymphatic systems?
answer

return to fluid to blood after it gets filtered
question

job of digestive system?
answer

digests and absorbs food
question

job of respiratory system?
answer

takes in Oxygen and lets out CO2
question

job of urinary system?
answer

excretion of nitrogenous wastes electrolyte and water homeostasis
question

job of nervous system?
answer

receives, interprets and responds to stimulus
question

what is the main function of the endocrine system?
answer

makes hormones and secretes them to control the body
question

what are the main components of the endocrine system?
answer

pituitary gland, thyroid, adrenal glands etc.
question

job of the integumentary system?
answer

sensations, protections, and excretion (of sweat)
question

job of skeletal system?
answer

protection support movement
question

whjob of muscular system?
answer

movement
question

job of reproductive system?
answer

to reproduce
question

measure of ventricles in systole (contraction of heart–120!)
answer

systolic blood pressure
question

measure of ventricles during relaxation of heart
answer

diastolic blood pressure
question

thick layer of smooth muscle tissue–carry blood away from the heart
answer

arteries
question

thinner walls–move blood to the heart, superficial
answer

veins
question

thin walled and do diffusion
answer

capillaries
question

what are the 4 functions of the digestve system?
answer

ingest digests absorbs eliminates
question

kill antigen directly with a posion
answer

t cells
question

kill antigen induirectly
answer

b cells
question

means big eater–slowest cell but most effective
answer

macrophages
question

fastest phagocyte and most common WBC
answer

neutrophil
question

mostly in digestive and respiratory tracts and guard body against parasite
answer

eosinophil
question

job is to release histaine and aka a mast cell
answer

basophil
question

made by cells that are dying of a viral invasion and blocks virus from attaching to neighboring cells
answer

interferon
question

passive, natural immunity
answer

antibodies in breasts milk
question

passive, artificial immunity
answer

serum injection
question

active natural immunity
answer

diease
question

active artificial immunity
answer

vaccine

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member