GCSE Chemistry Atoms and the atomic structure Essay

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Atom
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All substances are made from particles called atoms
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Element
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An element contains only one type of atom 90 elements occur naturally, the rest are man made.
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Compounds
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Are substances when two or more different elements are chemically joined together.
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Mixture
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Is a substance, when two or more different elements are joined together (NOT CHEMICALLY) They are easily separated.
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Molecule
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A group of ATOMS bonded together, creating the smallest possible unit of a compound.
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Atomic Structure is made up of…
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Subatomic particles known as Protons, neutrons and electrons
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Protons
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Have a positive charge and decide the element and its atomic number. Have a mass of 1, and is also found in the centre of the atom know as the nucleus
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Neutrons
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Have a no charge and also have a mass of 1 Also found in the nucleus.
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Electrons
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Have a negative charge and have a mass of almost 0. The electrons are found orbiting the nucleus.
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Atomic Number
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Is the amount of protons in the atom. The atomic number will always be the smaller number on the chemical symbol.
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Atomic mass
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Protons + Neutrons = Atomic Mass
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Electron Shells
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The electron shells determine how many electrons will fit in each shell. Shell 1 – 2 electrons Shell 2 – 8 electrons Shell 3 – 8 electrons Shell 4 – 18 electrons etc
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Electronic Configuration
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Is the amount of electrons in an atom Sodium – 2:8:1 because there is 2 electrons in the first shell, 8 electrons in the 2nd shell and 1 electron shell left to go in the 3rd shell.
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Isotope
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Atom with a different number of neutrons – less stable – Radioactive / Lethal substance.
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Covalent Bonding
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All the elements want to have a filled shell. So they bond with other elements to fill their shells. A covalent bond happens – between Non-metals only – The electrons are shared between the two elements. – does not involve charged particles. The shared electrons join the elements together to create a covalent bond. – Only occurs on the OUTER SHELL of the electrons, the other shells are full.
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Giant Covalent Bonding
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The covalent bonds in these substance don’t create molecules they are vast networks of atoms called Giant covalent structures. E.g Diamond and Graphite (They are both made of carbon, but take on different structures, different forms of elements are know as allotropes)
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Double Bonding
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Is when two pairs of electrons are shared.
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Ratio of atoms
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Nitrogen | Hydrogen Configuration| 2.5 | 1 Electrons | 3. | 1 Needed. Ratio of Atoms. | 1:3 (Creates ammonia)
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Ionic Bonding
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Occurs between metals and non metals Electrons are lost or gained. Involves charged particles It occurs between positive and negative ions which are attracted to one and other and bond to create an ionic compound. Example Na+ and Cl- create sodium chloride compound. The ions are held in place by electrostatic attraction.
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Metal Ions
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The metals ions lose electrons when they attract. It then has more protons than electrons so it is positively charged Example – a magnesium atom will lose two electrons so it would be Mg2+
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Non – Metal Ions
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The non metal ions gain electrons making the atom negatively charged. Example – an oxygen atom will gain two electrons making it O2-
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Ions
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Is an atom or a group of atoms that have an electrical charge.

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