GCOM Online Quiz Questions Essay

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Ethics in the communication competence model is
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a set of standards for judging the moral correctness of communication behavior.
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Which of the following is not a weakness of the linear model of communication has:
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doesn’t include noise
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Noise from a communication perspective includes
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startling sounds, biases and assumptions, confusing word choices
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fields of experience refer to
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cultural background, geographic location, ethnicity
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research on communication abilities of americans reveals that
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managers see themselves as good or very good listeners, but most of their employees rate most of their managers as poor on listening skills
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the interactive model provides the following insights about human communication
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fields of experience can significantly affect the understanding of messages transmitted
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communication is a proces that means
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we must adapt to inevitable change when we communicate with others, no relationship stands still ,frozen in time
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rules
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socially constructed, never perfectly shared, only approximately shared.
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if everyone who works in the office leaves early on days when the boss is not there, but no one reports it. this represents a
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implicit rule
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meaning is
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socially constructed, never perfectly shared, only approximately shared, shared both verbally and nonverbally
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your communication can be appropriate without being effective
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true
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there are rules associated with every communication context
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true
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rules determine appropriateness of our communication with others
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true
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by age 6, if language has not been learned, it is hopeless to try to teach a child language
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false
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a persons communication is either competent or incompetent
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false
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Perception is
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both a and b. a. inherently, unavoidably selective. b. shaped by our limited sensory capabilities.
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Which of the following is not necessarily a characteristic of empathy
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accepting the viewpoint of others..
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Stimuli that we attend to is influenced by
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all of the above. the intensity of the stimuli b. the novelty of the stimuli c. the repetition of the stimuli
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You meet a person for lunch and he offers to shake your hand. You don’t ask him, “What are you doing?” because you already know that you should shake his hand as a greeting gesture. This is an example of a
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script
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Which of the following is true of prototypes?
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they are the best example of a given phenomenon or person.
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Which of the following is not true of self-disclosure
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it is the sharing any information about yourself with another person..
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When we formulate perceptions of others which of the following is not true?
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positive more than negative information influences the perception..
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Selective memory bias
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occurs when we tend to remember information that supports our stereotypes of others and to forget information that contradicts our stereotypes of others..
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Perception is . . .
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culturally influenced
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Attribution is
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all of the above. a. assigning causes to people’s behavior b. influenced by the consistency of a person’s behavior c. often incorrect because personal traits are assumed to cause bad behavior when situations often influence behavior more strongly
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You’re competing in a tennis championship and you lose in a final set tie-breaker. You attribute your loss to bad officiating and distractions from crowd noise, not to your opponent’s superior skill. This is an example of the self-serving bias.
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true
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Self-disclosure is most effective in building a relationship when it is done all at once, not drawn out over time.
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false
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The problem with stereotypes is that they always present false, incorrect information about a group.
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false
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Perception is the stimulation of our senses, and sense experience is the interpretation of data from our senses.
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false
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You are interviewed for a job. You have included five pages of outstanding accomplishments on your resumé and only one seemingly minor flaw in an otherwise impressive record. Your interviewer, however, seems unfairly focused on your single blemish, ignoring your accomplishments. This is an example of the negativity bias.
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true
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Convergence can be created in the following way
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all of the above. a. adjust your speaking style to more closely align with members of other cultures b. cooperate to find common ground c. reduce uncertainty by seeking information about divergent cultures.
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Mindfulness is exhibited when
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all of the above. a. we are open to new information that focuses on the communication process b. we strive to avoid stereotyping c. we pick up signals that alert us to potential misunderstandings in intercultural transactions
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Which of the following is not a difference between individualist and collectivist cultures include
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self-promotion is encouraged in collectivist cultures.
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According to Hofstede’s research
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both a and b. a. individualist cultures give higher priority to personal as opposed to group goals and needs than do collectivist cultures b. “responsibility,” “loyalty,” and “commitment” reflect collectivist cultural values
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Values are:
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the most deeply felt, generally shared view of what is deemed good, right, or worthwhile thinking or behavior..
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Low power-distance cultures tend to be
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both a and b. North American b. Scandanavian (Norway, Sweden, Finland)
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Australia is a high individualist culture. From this you can deduce that they are also
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a low power-distance culture.
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Feminine cultures tend to be
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both b and c. b. Scandanavian (Norway, Sweden, Finland). c. African
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Which of the following are correct statements about cultures?
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Every culture is ethnocentric to some degree.
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Your cultural values encourage you to “sell yourself” during a job interview and to emphasize your personal accomplishments. You probably belong to a
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both b and c. b. highly individualist culture c. low power-distance culture
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No culture is entirely individualist or collectivist.
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true
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Collectivist cultures have a We-orientation, and individualist cultures have a Me-orientation.
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true
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Individualist cultures tend to be more competitive than collectivist cultures.
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true
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The individualism-collectivism dimension is the most important dimension separating cultures.
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true
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Cultural values are highly in flux
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false
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Which of these claims related to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is valid?
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a and c. we can perceive phenomena, events, objects, and ideas more easily when a lexicon to describe them is readily available. having a large vocabulary for a specific phenomenon, event, or object reflects the significance a speech community places on these
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Which of the following statements about the abstracting process is accurate?
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a and b. a. It is a process of selective perception b. The first step in the abstracting process is our sense experience of the physical world
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Phonology is
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the study of how we find order within the apparent chaos of speech sounds.
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“You’re either a feminist or a woman-hater” is an example of
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a false dichotomy.
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jargon
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b and c. b. acts as a verbal shorthand that is useful for efficient communication c. is the specialized language of a group
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“Middle age begins when your last child leaves home” is
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an operational definition of middle age.
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Americans and Britons speak the same language, yet they have different meanings for the same words. This is a problem of
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denotative meaning.
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This capacity of language to transform a small number of phonemes into whatever words, phrases, and sentences that you require to communicate your abundance of thoughts and feelings is called
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productivity
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Euphemism
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is language that numbs us to the unpleasant or offensive.
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When a speaker yells repeatedly to a crowd, “What do we want?” and the crowd repeatedly and immediately shouts back in unison, “Feminist Power,” this is an example of
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a signal reaction
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Language is not thought, but language is interconnected with thought.
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true
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Using language to shape meaning for others is called framing.
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true
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The degree of accuracy of labels should be determined by social agreement regarding what the label means and whether a particular use of the label conforms with common meaning.
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true
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No word is inherently, naturally obscene, profane, or abusive because context determines how words will be perceived.
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true
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Connotations are the source of most signal reactions
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true
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Non-verbal communication is:
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continuous
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The following rules are appropriate for dealing with touch violations
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both a and c. begin by assuming the first touch violation is accidental. describe your reaction and the behavior that produces the perception of violation to the offender
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An obnoxious driver flips you off, gives you the finger, shows you the middle digit. This is an example of
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an emblem
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Nonverbal and verbal communication are interconnected in which of the following ways?
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all of the above. a. nonverbal cues can repeat verbal messages b. nonverbal cues can substitute for verbal messages c. nonverbal cues can contradict verbal messages
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Which of the following linguistic characteristics also apply to nonverbal communication?
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none of the above
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From research, the following valid conclusions can be drawn about cross-cultural perceptions of facial expressions:
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members of diverse cultures show significant differences in perceptions of the intensity of emotion exhibited by a facial expression.
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To communicate competently with nonverbal communication
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all of the above. a. observe multiple nonverbal cues before drawing any conclusions about a person’s communication b. try to match nonverbal and verbal communication to avoid mixed messages c. monitor your own nonverbal communication
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The following are valid conclusions, based on research, about gestures and cultures:
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illustrators usually come naturally to individuals from all cultures.
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Differences between verbal and nonverbal communication include
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both b and c. b. nonverbal communication possesses none of the four essential characteristics of language (verbal communication) c. verbal communication is single-channeled; nonverbal communication is multichanneled
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Friendship-warmth touch
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both b and c. b. is most ambiguous type of touch c. leads to the most misunderstandings between people
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Listening is composed of which of the following elements?
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all of the above. a. comprehending b. retaining c. responding
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Confirmation bias is
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the psychological predisposition to listen to information that agrees with our beliefs and values and to ignore or distort information that disagrees with them.
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A shift response is
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a and c. c. a competitive vying for attention and focus on self by shifting topics. a. a type of conversational narcissism
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What percentage of their time do college students spend listening?
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55%
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Skepticism is
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a process of examining claims, evaluating evidence and reasoning, and drawing conclusions based on probabilities.
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Which of the following are valid generalizations about the differences between open- and closed-mindedness?
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Open-mindedness means following where the evidence leads; closed-mindedness means refusing to examine one’s beliefs and points of view when there is compelling evidence contradicting them.
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Which of the following are not criteria for evaluating reasoning and evidence when critically listening?
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vividness
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Mindful listening is
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active listening
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You are asked by a speaker to accept her point of view because most people already do, as indicated on several national surveys using random samples of more than 1,000 subjects. She has committed a fallacy called
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ad populum
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A friend comes to you with a problem. He has lied to his partner, and he feels terrible about it. Your initial response is, “That was a lousy thing to do.” This response is
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evaluative
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Hearing and listening are the same thing.
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false
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Cynicism is persistently finding fault with the beliefs and opinions of others.
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true
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We do not usually remember what has not received our focused attention.
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true
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Men interrupt, on average, more than women do in conversation.
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false
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A shift response is interrupting to seize the floor during a conversation.
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false
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The reliability of Internet information can be evaluated in which of the following ways?
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a and b. a. consider the source of all information found on a Web site b. try to determine if the source of the information is biased
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Requirements for a competent introduction include which of the following?
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all of the above. a. make a specific purpose statement b. gain attention c. establish the significance of your topic for the audience
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What percentage of college seniors are required to give a presentation
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95%
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Which of the following is not an audience type?
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composite
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When you organize your speech on the basis of a sequential time pattern, this is which of the following organizational patterns?
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chronological pattern.
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Using rhetorical questions as an attention-getting device in the introduction to your speech
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can be an effective attention strategy.
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“This is an ounce of cocaine, and this is an ounce of marijuana. Which would you prefer to ingest” is an example of an opening to a speech given by a student in a college speech class. This would be
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gaining an audience’s attention in an inappropriate way.
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When you are trying to explain why an event occurred, typically you would use which of the following organizational patterns?
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Causal pattern.
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Which of the following characteristics are important for the speaker to consider?
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all of the above. a. religion b. race c. educational background
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You’re researching the topic of great speeches given in recent history. Tips for narrowing your search on this topic when using the Internet include
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both b and c
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Attention is focused awareness on a stimulus at a given moment.
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true
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Approximately 99% of all stimuli received by our brains are filtered out as irrelevant.
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true
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Any kind of startling statement or behavior that grabs the attention of an audience is appropriate for a speech.
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false
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Any humorous comment, joke, story, or quotation that grabs attention is appropriate for a speech.
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false
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When using humor, be sure to begin with a statement such as “I heard the most hilarious story the other day” to prepare your audience to laugh.
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false
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My third reason is . . .” is an example of
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signpost.
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The benefits of visual aids include that
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all of the above. a. they can clarify a difficult or complex point b. they can gain the attention of an audience c. they can increase the speaker’s credibility
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To use visual aids effectively, a speaker should
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put the visual aid out of sight when not referring to it.
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“James Jones at Merck notes that a cure for cancer is only a few years away” is a citation of a source that is incomplete in which of the following ways?
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all of the above. a. missing specific date of statement b. credentials of Jones are insufficient c. Jones is a questionable source for the statement
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The limitations associated with using objects as visual aids include that
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all of the above. a. some objects may be illegal b. some objects are too large and bulky c. live objects such as animals can be difficult to control
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Drawings as visual aids are ineffective when
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both b and c. b. they are too small to be seen by listeners in the back of the room c. they are sloppy and poorly drawn
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“So how does this affect us?” is an example of
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a transition
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“According to Francine Freederhouser, director of research at Plantonometrics, a manufacturer of computer chips, global warming will cost $3 trillion worldwide to reverse” is a weak use of a source because the source is
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both a and c, missing a date, c. cited out of her field of expertise
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When using video clips during your 10-minute speech,
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be certain the clip is cued up
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You’re using a graph to illustrate an important point in your speech. You finish the point and prepare to move on to another point not illustrated by the graph. You should
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cover the graph or remove it and place it face down on a table top.
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Informative speeches do not usually stir disagreement and dissension
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false
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Informative speeches typically tell us what to think, and persuasive speeches tell us what to think about.
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false
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A speech is divided into an introduction, body, and conclusion.
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true
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An informative speech may produce a strong desire from listeners to correct a problem presented during the speech.
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true
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Demonstrations and lectures are the same type of informative speech.
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false
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Supporting materials for speeches accomplish which of the following purposes?
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all of the above. a. support claims b. amplify ideas c. clarify points
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Examples used as supporting material for a claim are likely to be effective when they
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aren’t representative of the claim that is made.
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When citing testimony from an expert as supporting material for a claim made in a speech, a complete citation should include the
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all of the above. a. name of the expert b. expert’s specific title or expertise c. publication in which the expert’s statement appears
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Fredricka states in her speech that “35% of the world’s children live in poverty.” As credible support for her claim that poverty is a serious global catastrophe, this statistic as cited
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both b and c. b. could be dated since no date is provided c. has no credible source for the statistic
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“A hypnotic horror that hounded them to hell” is an example of
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alliteration
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Credibility of a statistic used to support a claim in a speech is enhanced by
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all of the above. a. citing a credible source for the statistic b. citing a source of the statistic that is objective (no special interest in an outcome) c. citing a source of the statistic that has a history of accuracy
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Manuscript speaking is
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speaking from a written version of the speech.
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Which of the following are common disadvantages of manuscript speaking?
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all of the above. a. weak eye contact with audience b. changes in content to adapt to audience feedback are difficult to make smoothly c. speech sounds read instead of natural
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“My old neighbor was French and he was very rude. Thus French people are rude”. This is:
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a hasty generalization.
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Which of the following is accomplished by using a well-chosen statistic?
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all of the above. a. supports a claim b. corrects a false assumption c. amplifies an idea
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“Imagine that you have just entered the on-ramp of a busy freeway” is the beginning of a hypothetical example to illustrate a point.
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true
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Hypothetical examples are more effective than real examples for making points in a speech.
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false
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Testimony cited on the Internet is usually reliable and credible evidence.
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false
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oral and written style are virtually the same, so writing your speech word for word and reading it to your audience is an effective way to present a speech.
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false
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Clarity of style comes from a simple, concise use of language.
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true
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Which of the following is an example of persuasion as defined in the text?
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a political candidate speaking to the party faithful; telling them what they want to hear about the evils of the opposition candidate.
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Which of the following generalizations is valid from the perspective of the social judgment theory?
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persuasive messages that fall within a person’s latitude of rejection almost never produce a change in attitude.
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Factors that significantly influence how consistent your behavior is likely to be with your stated attitude include
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how much effort is required to perform the behavior.
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Ways to establish speaker identification with an audience include
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both b and c. b. dressing similar to your audience c. emphasizing common positions, values, and attitudes with an audience
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Amy wants to enhance her credibility with her audience because she is faced with a big challenge in changing attitudes about a needle exchange program for the inner cities’ drug problem. Which of the following is unlikely to enhance her credibility?
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a. expressing rage over the terrible plight of drug addicts to demonstrate her intense commitment to change.
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According to Toulmin, an argument includes which of the following?
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all of the above. a. warrant b. data c. claim
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“The sale, distribution, and use of drugs should be legalized” is a
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proposition of policy.
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A person who holds two inconsistent ideas, beliefs, or opinions at the same time will likely experience
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cognitive dissonance.
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Barbara wants to convince her audience of college students that they should all become vegetarians. She tries to scare her listeners by presenting several serious health dangers to eating meat. This high fear appeal is not likely to work unless
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all of the above. a. she offers simple and easy ways to become a vegetarian b. she presents high-quality arguments supported by convincing evidence c. she shows that becoming a vegetarian won’t also cause serious health hazards
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The elaboration likelihood model claims that
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all of the above. a. listeners use both central and peripheral routes to persuasion b. the peripheral route to persuasion is most frequently used by those individuals with little or no direct personal experience with an issue or problem presented c. central processing is what skeptics do when presented with a persuasive message
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Conversion is a realistic goal for a student giving a 7-minute speech in a class.
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false
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The ultimate goal of persuasion is to change the attitudes and beliefs of listeners
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false
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Resistance to counterpersuasion (attacks from an opposing side) can be induced by forewarning an audience that an attempt to change their attitudes and behavior will occur.
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true
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The strength of an argument depends primarily on the strength of the warrant.
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true
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You think that women should have “the right to choose” on the issue of abortion. We can confidently and accurately predict from this attitude that you would get an abortion if the need arose.
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false

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