Fundamentals of Nursing Chapter 1

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Knights of Saint Lazarus
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an order of knights that dedicated themselves to the care of people with leprosy, syphilis, and chronic skin conditions. established circa 1200
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Alexian Brothers
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organized care for the victims of the black plague in the 14th century in Germany
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Fabiola
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a wealthy Roman matron; viewed by some as the Patron Saint of early nursing who used her position and wealth to establish hospitals for the sick Provided house of care and healing; forerunner of hospitals for poor, sick, and homeless
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Harriet Tubman
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(1820-1913) known as “The Moses of Her People” for her work with the underground railroad; during the Civil War, she nursed the sick and suffering of her own race.
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Sojourner Truth
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(1797-1883) an abolitionist, underground railroad agent, preacher, and women’s rights advocate, she was a nurse for more than 4 years during the civil war and worked as a nurse and a counselor for the Freedman’s Relief Association after the war. Provided care and safety to slaves fleeing to the north on the underground railroad
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Dorthea Dix
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(1802-1887) woman leader who provided nursing care during the civil war was the union’s superintendent of femal nurses during the civil war responsible for recruiting nurses and supervising the nursing care of all women nurses working in Army Hospitals
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Sairy Gamp
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a character in the Charles Dickens book “Martin Chizzlewit” who represented the negative image of nurses in the early 1800’s. she “cared” for the sick by neglecting them, stealing from them, and physically abusing them
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Florence Nightingale
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(1820-1910) “Lady with the Lamp” Considered the founder of modern nursing, she was influential in developing nursing education, practice, and administration
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Florence Nightingale
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(1820-1910) Believed in personalized and holistic client care. Vision included public health and health promotion. Referred to as the first nurse researcher. Opened the __________ School for Nurses in 1860. Improved standards of care of war casualities in the Crimean war. First nurse to exert political pressure on the government. Wrote “Notes on Nursing: What it is, and what it is not.”
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Clara Barton
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(1821-1912) a schoolteacher who volunteered as a nurse during the civil war. Most notably, she organized the American Red Cross, which linked the International Red Cross when the U.S. Congress ratified the Geneva Convention in 1882
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Linda Richards
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(1841-1930) America’s first trained nurse Known for introducing nurse’s notes and doctor’s orders. She also initiated the practice of nurses wearing uniforms
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Mary Mahoney
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(1845-1926) first african american professional nurse; constantly worked for the acceptance of African americans in nursing and for the promotion of equal opportunities
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Lilian Wald
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(1867-1940) founder of the Henry Street Settlment and Visiting Nurse Service, which provided nursing and social services and organized educational and cultural activites; Considered the founder of public health nursing first to offer trained nursing services to the poor in New York slums
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Lavinia L. Dock
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(1858-1956) a nursing leader and suffragist who was active in the protest movement for women’s rights that resulted in the U.S. Constitution amendment allowing women to vote in 1920 feminist, prolific writer, political activist, friend of Lilian Wald in 1893, founded the American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses of the U.S. (precursor to NLN)
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Margaret Higgins Sanger
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(1879-1966) considered the founder of Planned Parenthood, was imprisoned for opening the first birth control information clinic in Baltimore in 1916 Public Health nurse in New York
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Mary Breckinridge
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(1881-1965) a nurse who practiced midwivery in England, Australia, and New Zealand; founded the Frontier Nursing Service in Kentucky in 1925 to provide family-centered primary health care to rural populations within the FNS, started one of the first midwifery training schools in the U.S.
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Continuing Education
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(CE) formalized experiences designed to enlarge the knowledge or skills of practitioners CE is a responsibility of all practicing nurses Meets one or more of the following needs: 1. Inform nurses of new techniques and knowledge 2. help nurse attain expertise in specialized area of practice 3. provide nurses with info essential to nursing practice
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In-Service Education
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education that is designed to upgrade the knowledge or skills of employees Offered by employer specific type of CE program
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Consumer
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an individual, a group of people, or a community that uses a service or commodity
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Patient
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a person who is waiting for or undergoing medical treatment and care Latin for “to suffer” or “to bear”
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Client
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a person who engages the advice or services of another person who is qualified to provide this service presents the recievers of health care as collaborators in care, that is, as people who are responsible for their own health
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Luther Christman
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Male Nurse of distinction in the U.S. Chairman of the board of American Assembly for Men in Nursing (AAMN) First man to be a dean at a university school of nursing. First man nominated for president of ANA, first man elected to the American Academy of Nursing (they named him a “living legend”), and first man inducted into ANA’s hall of fame for his extraordinary contributions to nursing
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Standards of Practice
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descriptions of the responsibilities for which nurses are accountable Generic in nature, using the nursing process as a foundation, and provide for the practice of nursing regardless of area of specialization. Various speciality nursing organization have further developed specifics for their area.
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Standards of Practice
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Assessment, Diagnosis, Outcomes Identification, planning, implenmentation: Coordination of care, health teaching, and health promotion, consulatition, prescriptive authority and treatment
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Standards of Professional Performance
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as set by the American Nurses Association (ANA), describe behaviors expected in the professional nursing role
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Standards of Professional Performance
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Ethics Education EBP and Research Quality of Practice Communication Professional Practice Evaluation Resource Utilization Environmental Health
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Caregiver
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a role that has traditionally included those activities that assist the client physically and psychologically, while preserving the client’s dignity encompasses the physical, psychosocial, developmental, cultural, and spiritual levels
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Communicator
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nurses identify client problems and then communicate these verbally or in writing to other members of the health team The nurse must be able to do so clearly and accurately
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Teacher
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a nurse who helps clients learn about their health and the health care procedures they need to perform to restore or maintain their health Assess client learning needs and readiness to learn, set specific goals in conjunction with the client, enacts teaching strategies, and measures learning
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Client Advocate
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acts to protect the client the nurse may represent the client’s needs and wishes to other health professionals also assis clients in exercising their rights and help them speak up for themselves
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Counseling
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the process of helping a client to recognize and cope with stressful psychologic or social problems, to develop improved interpersonal relationships, and to promote personal growth provides emotional, intellectual, and psychological support
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Change Agent
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persons (or groups) who initiate change or who assist other in making modifications in themselves or in the system
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leader
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a person who influences others to work together to accomplish a specific goal effective ___________ is learned process requiring an understanding of the needs and goals that motivate people, the knowledge to apply the __________ skills, and the interpersonal skills to influence others
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Manager
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one who is appointed to a position in an organization that gives the power to guide and direct the work of others Nurse ________ delegates nursing activities to ancillary workers and other nurses, and supervises and evaluated their performance Requires knowlege of organizational structure and dynamics, authority and accountability, learders ship, change theory, advocacy, delegation, and supervision and evaluation
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Case Manager
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a nurse who works with the multidisciplinary health care team to measure the effectiveness of the case management plan and monitor outcomes each agency or unit specifies the role of the nurse ____ ______ help ensure that care is oriented to the client, whole controlling costs
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Profession
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an occupation that requires extensive education or a calling that requires special knowledge, skill, and preparation
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Professionalism
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a set of attributes, a way of life that implies responsibility and commitment
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Professionalization
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the process of becoming professional; acquiring characteristics considered to be professional
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Governance
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the establishment and maintenance of social, political, and economic arrangements by which practitioners control their practice, self-discipline, working conditions, and professional affairs
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Socialization
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a process by which a person learns the ways of a group or society in order to become a functioning participant
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Benner’s Model of Socialization
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Novice – No Experiance Advance Beginner – Marginally acceptable Competent – 2 to 3 years experiance Proficient – 3 to 5 years experiance Expert – fluid, flexible, highly proficient
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Diagnostic-Related Groups
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(DRGs) A medicare payments system to hospitals and physicians that establishes fees according to a diagnosis
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Telecommunications
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the transmission of information from one site to another, using equipment to transmit information in the forms of signs, signals, words, or pictures by cable, radio, or other systems
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Patient Self-Determination Act
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(PSDA) legislation requiring that every competent adult be informed in writing on admission to a health care institution about his or her rights to accept or refuse medical care and to use advance directives
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Demography
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the study of population, including statistics about distribution by age and place of residence, mortality, and morbidity
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home
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Nursing could be said to have its roots in “the ____”
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Religion
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_______ has played a significant role in the development of nursing
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Crusades
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The _____ saw the formation of several orders of knights
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Medieval Times
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During ______ _____, there were many relgious orders of men in nursing
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Crimean War
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(1854-1856) the inadequacy of care given to soliders during the ______ ___, led to a public out cry in Great Britian
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National Council Licensure Examination NCLEX-RN
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all RNs in the US take the same licensure examination called the___ ____ ___ ___ or _______
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LPN/LVN
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programs that last 9-12 months
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diploma
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programs that largely took the form of apprentinceship programs, with little formal classroom instruction
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Associate Degree
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programs that were the first and only educational programs for nursing that were systematically developed from planned research and control experimentation 44% of all new RNs each year are educated in _____ ______ programs
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Baccalaureate Degree
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Most are 5 years in length 34% of RNs are educated in these programs
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Clinical Nurse Leader
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masters degree-prepared clinicial who oversees the care coordination of a distinct group of clients and actively provides direct client care in complex situations
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Doctor of Nursing Practice
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nurses who earn a PhD in nursing required to assume advanced practice roles such as nurse practioner, clinical nurse specialist, nurse midwife, and nurse anesthetist
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Nursing
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________ is: caring, an art, a science, client centered, holistic, adaptive, concerned with healht promotion, health maintenance, and health restoration, and a helping profession
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wellness
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nurses promote ________ in clients who are both healthy and ill
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optimal health
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the goal of illness promotion programs is to maintain ______ _____ by preventing disease
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Restoring Health
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Nursing activities include the folllowing: Providing direct care to the ill person Performing diagnostic and assessment procedure Consulting with other health care professionals about client problems teaching clients about recovery activities Rehabilitating clients to their optimal functional level following physical or mental illness, injury, or chemical addiction
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Assessment
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The RN collects comprehensive data pertinent to the healthcare consumers health and/or the situation
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Diagnosis
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The RN analyzes the assessment data to determine _______ or issues
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Outcomes Identification
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the RN identifes expected ______ for a plan individualized to the healthcare consumer or the situation
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Planning
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the RN develops a plan that prescribes the strategies and alternatives to attain expected outcome
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Implementation
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The RN ________ the identified plan (includes coordination of care, health teaching and health promotion, consulatation, prescriptive authority and treatment, and evaluation)
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coordination of care
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the RN employs strategies to promote health and a safe environment
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health teaching and health promotion
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the RN emplys strategies to promote health and a safe environment
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consultation
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the graduate-level prepared specialty nurse or advanced practice RN and the nursing role specialist provide consultation to influence the identified plan, enhance the abilities of others, and effect change
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Prescriptive Authority and Treatment
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the advanced practice RN uses prescriptive authority, procedures, referrals, treatments, and therapies in accordance with state and federal laws and regulations
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Evaluation
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the RN evaluates progress toward attainment of outcomes
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Ethics
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the RN practices ethically
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Education
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the RN attains knowledge and competence that reflects current nursing practice
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EBP and Research
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the RN integrates evidence and resesarch findings into practice (abbreviation)
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Quality of Practice
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the RN contributes to quality nursing practice
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Communication
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the RN communicates effectively in all areas of practice
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Leadership
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The RN demonstrates leadership in the professional practice setting and the profession
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Collaboration
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The RN collaborates with the healthcare consumer, family, and others in the conduct of nursing practice
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Professional Practice Evaluation
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the RN evaluates her or his own nursing practice in relation to professional practice standars and guidelines, relevant statues, rules, and regulations
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Resource utililization
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the RN utilizes appropriate resources to plan and provide nursing services that are safe, effective, and financially responsible
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envioronmental health
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the RN practices in an environmentally safe and healthy manner
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Novice
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Stage 1 No experience, Performance is limited, inflexible, and governned by context-free rules and regulations rather than experience
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Advanced Beginner
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Stage 2 Demonstrates marginally acceptable performance. Recognizes the meaningful aspects of a real situation. Has experienced enough real situations to make judgements about them
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Competent
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Stage 3 Has 2 or 3 years of experience. Demonstrates organizational and planning abilities. Differentiates important factors from less important asepects of care. Coordinates multiple complex care demands
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Proficient
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Stage 4 has 3 to 5 years of experience. Perceives situations as wholes rather than in terms of parts, as in stage 2. Uses maxims as guides for what to consider in a situation. Has holistic understanding of the client, which improves decision making. Focuses on long-term goals.
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Expert
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Stage 5 Performance is fluid, flexible, and hightly profiecient; no longer requires rules, guidelines, or maxims to connect an understanding of the situation to appropriate action. Deomonstrates hightly skilled intuitive and analytic ability in new situations. Is inclined to take a certain action because “it felt right.”
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American Nurses Association
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ANA
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National League for Nursing
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NLN
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International Council of Nurses
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ICN
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National Student Nurses Association
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NSNA
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Sigma Theta Tau
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International Honor Society Meaning love, courage, and honor

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