FTCE Social Science 6-12 (Average Rigor)

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Provides water for hydroelectric power
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is not a use for a region’s wetlands
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Meridian (lines of longitude)
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are the determining factor in separting time zones and determining time around the world.
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Adam Smith
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The \”father\” of modern economics is considered by most economists
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John Keynes
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(1883-1946) advocated an economic system in which government regulations and spending on public works (check and balances) would stimulate the economy and lead to full employment and prosperity. He was a firm believer in capitalism, but in a less classical sense.
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Karl Marx
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(1818-1883) German political and economic philosopher who is generally regarded as the founder of modern socialism and communism, believed that capitalism was not fixable and was the pretense for the rise of revolutionary socialism and communism.
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Max Weber
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(1864-1920) German sociologist most concerned with examining social and environmental roles in the rise of capitalism, such as the ideals of religion (Calvinism) and its influence on economics (capitalism).
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John Locke
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Whose book Two Treatises of Government has long been considered a founding document on the rights of people to rebel against an unjust government was an important figure in the founding of the US Constitution and on general politics of the American colonies (1632-1704)
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Boycott
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the refusal to buy goods or services
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Economics
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the study of ways in which different societies around the world deal with the problems of limited resources and unlimited needs and wants.
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Arbitage
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the purchase of goods or servies n one market for immediate resale on another market
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Output
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an amount produced or manufactured by an industry
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Enterprise
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simply any business organization
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Mercantile
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one of the first systems of economics in which goods were exchanged
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Market
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potential customers for any product or service are not only called consumers
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Resource
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a source of wealth; natural resources are the casis for manufacturing goods and services.
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Commodity
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anything that is bought or sold, any product
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Laissez-faire
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the belief that government should stay out of economic affairs
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Mercantilism
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an economic system that dominated trade between the major nations of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries in which there was believed to be a fixed amount of wealth in the world and a country must attain the riches of another
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Democratic-Socialism
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called for democratic political parties to play an important role in shaping the economy in order to avoud the problems of free enterprise capitalism and exploitation in favor of more equality and nationalization
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Approval
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George Washington’s opinion of America having trade with other nations
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Nationalization
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the process of the state taking over industries and businesses
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Privatizations
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the opposite of nationalization, is the process by which business and industry previously controlled by government comes under control of private enterprise.
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Aristotle
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the \”father of political science\” because of his development of systems of political order the true development, a scientific system to study justice and political order. (384-322 B.C.)
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Thomas Hobbes
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wrote the important work Leviathan in which he pointed out that people are by all means selfish, individualistic animals that will always look out for themselves; therefore, the state must combat this nature desire. (1588-1679)
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Plato
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contributed to the field of political science (427-347 B.C.)
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Pocket Veto
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when a president neither signs nor vetoes a bill officially for ten days while the legislature is in session.
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Checks and balances
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the ability of each branch of government to \”check\” or limit the actions of the others (executive, legislative, judicial)
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Executive branch
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limits the legislature by power of veto over bills and appointments in the court system
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Judicial branch
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limits the power of the legislature by judicial review and the ability to rule laws unconstitutional; it may also order executive orders unconstitutional.
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Legislative branch
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checks the executive branch by power of impeachment
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James Madison
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mostly wrote the Bill of Rights, alond with the majority of the Constitution.
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Thomas Jefferson
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wrote the Declaration of Independence
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George Washington and Alexander Hamilton
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were present at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 in Philadelphia, and they were advocates of federalism or increasing the power of hte federal government.
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Legislative
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responsible for taxation
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Congress
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responsible for levying federal taxes
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Executive
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often thought by the public to be responsible for taxation since taxation is often a highly talked-about issue in presidential campaigns, but it is in fact Congress that is ultimately responsible
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U.S. Government’s federal system
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consists of three parts, the Executive, the Legislative, and the Judiciary
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Impeach
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bring charges against a President. It is brought forth in the House of Representatives, and then the Senate makes the decision of the President’s guilt in the matter. It does not mean to remove or re-elect the President.
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Andrew Jackson and William Jefferon Clinton
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the only two U.S. Presidents to have been impeached. They were both acquitted during hearings and remained in office. Richard M. Nixon resigned from office as the House of Representatives prepared impeachment proceedings
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Judiciary Act of 1789
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established the Federal and circuit court system
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Article III of the U.S. Constitution
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established the Supreme Court in 1789
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Marbury vs. Madison
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established the principle of Judicial Review in 1803
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State Court System
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was established within the thirteen original colonies and since then the U.S. Constitution has existed side by side witht the federal court system.
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Ex Post facto Law
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a law made against an act after it has been committed.
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Conservatives
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voters that are \”right of center\”
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Moderates
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voters who teeter onthe line of political centralite or drift slightly to the left or right
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Liberals
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voters who stand to the left of center
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Socialists
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would land far to the left on the political spectrum of America.
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Metropolitan Government
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the form of local government that acts as an intermediary between the state and the city and comes from the idea of municipal home rulefirst enacted by Missouri in 1875
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Otto Von Bismarck
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America’s weak foreign policy and lack of adequate diplomacy during the 1870s and 1880s led to the comment that \”a special Providence takes care of fools, drunkards, and the United States. (1815-1898)
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Benjamin Disraeli
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a conservative, political rival of William Gladstone (1804-1881)
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William Gladstone
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a liberal, greatly disliked by his rival Disraeli and his Queen for being such a staunch political and economic reformer. (1809-1898)
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Paul von Hindenberg
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a German field marshal and president who fought against the Americans in World War I (1925-1934)
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Containment
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The doctrine that sought to keep communism from spreading. Was the creation of the Truman Administration following WWII and spawned the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949.
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Cold War
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was the escalation of the threat of war between the US and the Soviet Union following WWII up to the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the full collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe in 1991. A nonviolent state of extreme tension in which fears ran high and threats were made but not carried out.
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Rollback
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a reference to policy used at some point in the Vietnam War to scale back the intensity of fighting and pull US troops out of Vietnam
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Theodore Roosevelt
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made the statement \”Walk softly and carry a big stick\” in reference to his foreign policy, which was just as aggressive as his domestic policy. (1858-1919)
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Montesquieu
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attributed with the principle that \”men entrusted with power tend to abuse it\”
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Constitutionalism
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a political system in which laws and traditons put limits on the powers of government.
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Federalism
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the idea of a strong, centralized national government to hold together the nation.
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Parliamentary system
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systems in which a group of representatives are led by a prime minister contrasting with a presidential system
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Presidential system
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run by a head of state, the elected (or sometimes self-appointed) president
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Sumer
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first organized city-states (around the fourth millenium BC)
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Vladimir Lenin
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founder of the first Communist Party and the first leader of the Soviet Union, led the Soviets to victory in the October Revolution of 1917 (1870-1924)
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Karl Marx
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generally regarded as the founder of the modern socialism and communism (1818-1883)
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Joseph Stalin
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took over the USSR after Lenin’s death and fought off Trotsky for power in the party. Was well known for his intensely repressive tactics against dissent in the party. (1879-1953)
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Socialists belief
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that the government should have a greater role in the economy, including state control of the means of production, in order to assure that thwer is an equal distribution of wealth and resources to all of the people.
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Capitalist belief
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that the government should have little or no involvement with the economy and that free enterprise and private ownership over the means of production will regulate itself in the best interest of the people.
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Totalitarianism
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governments that seek to control all aspects of society; political, economic and social.
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Communist system
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the state controls the means of production as opposed to a capitalist system
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Capitalist system
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the owners of business and industry control the means of production
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Anarchist system
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workers themselves would control the means of production.
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Niccolo Machiavelli
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an Italian Renaissance writer who was most concerned with getting and keeping political power. (1469-1527) Principle work in 1532 was The Prince.
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Fascism
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sits to the extreme right of the political spectrum (antagonistic of communism)
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Communism
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sits to the extreme left of the political spectrum (antagonistic of fascism)
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Prime Minister
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In a parliamentary system, is chosen by by a majority or coalition of parties in the parliament
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Cult of personality
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is an idea most associated with fascism
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Karl Marx statement
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He was generally regarded as the founder of modern socialism and communism, and made the claim that \”history of all societies is one of class struggle\”
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Tort
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a private or civil action brought into court. e.g. could be a breach of contract in which the injured party may for compensatory damages. The earliest was created as a protection from property and personal trespass.
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Phoenicians
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Eastern Mediterranean Culture of people. An early cultural group was so skillful in navigating on the sea that they wer able to sail at night guided by stars.
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Minoans
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an advanced early civilization off the Greek coast on Creta more noted for their innovations in terms of sewage systems, toilets, and running water.
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Egyptians
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the first true developers of a solar calendar, the decimal system, and made significant contributions to the development of geometry and astronomy
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Babylonians
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of ancient Mesopotamia flourished for a time under their great contribution of organized law and code, called Hammurabi’s Code (1750 B.C.), after the fall of Hammurabi.
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Hebrews
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First ancient civilation to introduce and practice monotheism, or the belief in one God
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Sumerians and Phoenicians
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practiced religions in which many gods and goddesses were worshipped.
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Minoan culture
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shared many religious practices with the Ancient Egyptians.
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Minoans
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developed bathtubs, hot and cold running water, and sweage systems with flush toilets
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Development of agriculture
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ended the once dominant practices of hunting, gathering, and fishing among prehistoric people. It provided a more efficient use of time and a surplus of food.
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Aristotle
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wrote \”Poverty is the parent of revolution and crime\” a comment that is probably as relavent today as it was in his day.
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Hinduism
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the world religion which includes the caste system, in which people were born into castes.
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Caste system
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would determine their class for life including who they could marry, what jobs they could perform, and their overall quality of life.
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Michel de Montaigne
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(1533-1592) a French essayist from a mixed background, half-Catholic and hafl-Jewish, did write some about the dangers of absolute powers and later examined himself in an effort to make inquiries into humankind and nature.
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Francois Rabelais
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(1490-1553) a French writer and physician who was both a practicing monk (1st Francisncan then later Benedictine) and a respected humanist thinker of the Renaissance.
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Desiderius Erasmus
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(1466-1536) was a Dutch humanist who was very critical of the Catholic Church but was equally conflicted with Luther’s Protestant Reformation.
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Sir Francis Bacon
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(1561-1626) was an English philosopher and writer who pushed the idea that knowledge msut come from thorough scientific knowledge and experiment and insufficient data must not be used in reaching conclusions.
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John Calvin
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(1509-1564) Considered to be the most important figure in the spread of Protestantism across Switzerland
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Huldreich Zwingli
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(1484-1531) was the first to spread the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland around 1519
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Thomas Munzer
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(1489-1525) a German Protestant reformer whose radical and revolutionary ideas about God’s will to overthrow the ruling classes and his siding with the peasantry got him beheaded.
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Leyden
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was a founder of the Univeristy of Leyden, a Protestant place for study in the Netherlands
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John Cabot
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(1450-1498) the English explorer who gave England its claim to North America
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Sir Walter Raleigh
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(1554-1618) an English explorer and navigator who was sent to the New World in search of riches. He founded the lost colony at Roanoke, VA, and was later imprisoned for a supposed plot to kill the King for which he was later released.
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Sir John Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake
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both navigators who worked in the slave trade, made some voyages to the New World, and commanded shops against the Spanish Armada in 1588
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\”divine right\” of kings
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the key political characteristic of The Age of Absolutism and was most visible in the reign of King Louis XIV of France, as well as during the times of King James I and his son, Charles I.
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Divine Right doctrine
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claims that kings and absolute leaders derive their right to rule by virtue of their birth alone. They see this both as law of God and of nature.
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Brazil
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One South American country quickly and easily gained independance in the 19th century from European control; was noted for the uniqueness of its political stability and gradual orderly changes.
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Otto von Bismarck
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the man most often credited witht he unification of Germany, the first chancellor of a unified Germany.
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Kaiser William II
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succeeded Bismarck, and ultimately led Germany into WWI, when nationalist sentiment proved too stong for the united Germany.
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United Nations
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the international organization established to work for world peace at the end of WWII
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Totonacs
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the only group given that was not foung in the West Indies, they were coastal Mexicans rallied by Cortes to help fight the Aztec civilization under Montezuma
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Caribs
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native peoples of Lesser Antilles, West Idnies, who drove out the Arawaks in the late 1300s.
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Ciboney
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the third important group indigenous to the West Idnies
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Rhode Island
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of the thirteen colonies, the greatest degree of religious toleration was found here.
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Roger Williams
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founder of Providence and Rhode Island, had objected to the Massachusetts colonial siezure of Indian lands and settlements and the relationship between these seizures and the Church of England. He was banished from Mass. and purposely set of R.I. as the fisrt colony with a true separation fo church and state.
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Virginia 1619
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three memorable events: 1-first arrival of twenty African slaves, 2-the right to self governance through representative government in the Virginia house of Burgesses, 3-the arrival of sixty women sent to marry and establish families in the colony

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