FRST 211 Tree Silvics

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Ponderosa Pine
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Edaphic Amplitude: SMR: Very-Moderately Dry SNR: M- VR Tolerances: – heat – water deficit/surplus – wind Limiting Factors -nutrient deficiency – frost intolerant – shade intolerant -insects Adaptations – thick bark, self-pruning – 46m lateral roots – deep tap-root Co-existing trees – douglas-fir – lodgepole pine – western larch Regeneration dynamic – after stand-replacing fire – root grafting – persistent snags Silvicultural characteristics – high reproduction capacity – low seed dissemination – high initial growth rate – lifespan: 600 yrs early-late successional species
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Interior Douglas-fir
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Edaphic Amplitude: SMR: Moderately Dry-Fresh SNR: P- VR Tolerances – shade tolerant – fire – wind – snow: M – Frost: M Limiting Factors – water surplus – nutrient deficiency – light – insects – fungi Adaptations – deep tap root – thick bark – self-pruning Co-existing trees – western hemlock – western redcedar – ponderosa pine – lodgepole pine – western larch Regeneration dynamic – after stand-replacing disturbance – planting – root grafting Silvicultural characteristics – fast initial growth – lifespan: 500-1500 years – high reproduction capacity silvicultural systems: – clearcuts, shelterwood, selective
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Lodgepole Pine
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Edaphic Amplitude: SMR: VD- W SNR: VP-M Tolerances – Frost – heat – water surplus -nutrient deficiency Limiting Factors -sensitive to drought – shade intolerant – snow – fire – fungi -MPB Adaptations – serotinous cones – rapid initial growth – prolific seed producer – roots vary with soil depth – lifespan: < 300 years Co-existing trees: – black spruce – white srpuce – western larch – DF Regeneration dynamic – natural regeneration – after stand-replacing disturbance(fire) Silvicultural systems – even-aged: clear cutting
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Engelmann Spruce
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Edaphic Amplitude: SMR: slightly dry- V. moist SNR: P-R Tolerances – water surplus – frost – snow – nutrient deficiency – moderately shade-tolerant, partial shade Limiting Factors – heat – wind – fire – drought Adaptations – moderate seed producer – shallow roots -mycorrhizal associates – very productive – lifespan: >600 years Co-existing trees – subalpine fir – lodgepole pine Regeneration dynamic – linked to disturbance – gap-phase Silvicultural systems -early to late succession
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Subalpine fir
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Edaphic Amplitude: SMR: Fresh – V. Moist – loves CWD, leaf litter, mineral soil SNR: P-R Tolerances – shade – frost -nutrient deficiency – water surplus – snow – frozen soil Limiting Factors – heat – wind – fire – insects, fungi – herbivores eat seed Adaptations – seed dispersal via wind – slow growth – releases in gaps – self-pruning – very productive (decrease with elevation) – very shade tolerant – lifespan: > 250 years Co-existing trees – engelmann spruce – white spruce Regeneration dynamic – vegetative layering – gap- release Silvicultural systems
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Western larch
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Edaphic Amplitude: SMR: MD- SD SNR: M-R Tolerances – snow – wind – fungi – heat: M water deficit: M Limiting Factors – VERY shade intolerant – insects – water surplus – fire Adaptations – deep tap-root – high reproduction – open-regen – self-pruning – lifespan: 900 years Co-existing trees: – lodgepole pine – DF – Western redcedar Regeneration dynamic – after disturbance, open spaces Silvicultural systems –
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Trembling Aspen
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Edaphic Amplitude: SMR: slightly dry-fresh SNR: M-R Tolerances – exposure-requiring – frost – snow – wind Limiting Factors – light – water deficit – fungi – suckering Adaptations – heart root system – root suckering increase shade tolerance – shallow laterals, deep sinkers Co-existing trees: – white spruce – lodgepole pine – DF Regeneration dynamic – within 3 yrs after fire – early-mid succession Silvicultural systems – nurse tree to boreal systems
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Paper birch
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Edaphic Amplitude: SMR: fresh-moist SNR: M-R Tolerances – moderately shade – frost – heat – water surplus – wind – insects, pathogens Limiting Factors – snow – water deficit – nutrient deficit – fire – bark is flammable Adaptations – shallow rooted, no tap root – litter increases nutrients – highly resistant to armillaria – nitrogen fixing – high productivity – medium initial growth rates – lifespan: ~200 years – high reproduction Co-existing trees – white spruce – DF Regeneration dynamic -open sites – after fire Silvicultural systems – nurse tree to conifers
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Scrub Birch
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– dominates climates with long summer days, short frost free nights Tolerances – frost – frozen soils – wind Limiting Factors – flooding – shade intolerant Adaptations – deep roots – fast initial growth – long lived Co-existing trees – white spruce – black spruce Regeneration dynamic – after fire, open spaces – early to late succession segregation of habitats: – gender specific response to climate change as females regenerate on high-resource sites
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Tamarack
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Edaphic Amplitude: SMR: fresh- V. moist SNR: M-R Tolerances – frozen soil – snow – shade intolerant, exposure requiring – water surplus Limiting Factors – seedling susceptible to fire – light Adaptations – cold winters – shallow roots – rapid initial growth – short-lived: 150-200 yrs Co-existing trees: – black spruce Regeneration dynamic – open sites, after disturbance Silvicultural systems
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White Spruce
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Edaphic Amplitude: SMR: slightly dry – moist SNR: M-R – feather moss layer – likes mineral soils, burned substrate Tolerances – moderately shade tolerant – snow, severe winters – frost(growing season) – water surplus (like waterlogged sites) Limiting Factors – slow initial growth – wind – stand-replacing fire – root disease, insects Adaptations – high reproduction – high seed dissemination – shallow roots -lifespan: 300-1000yrs -early-late succession Co-existing trees: -trembling aspen – lodgepole pine – black spruce – subalpine fir – paper birch Regeneration dynamic – layering – release in fine-scale gaps – after severe fire Silvicultural systems
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Black Spruce
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Edaphic Amplitude: SMR: W-F/M-D SNR: VP-P – likes wet, organic acidic soils (bogs) – sphagnum moss Tolerances – very shade tolerant, not requiring – snow – frozen soil – water surplus nutrient deficiency Limiting Factors -wind – seed availability – slow growth – fire – root disease – herbivores Adaptations – shallow roots – high reproduction – can regenerate in open – lifespan: 300-1000 years Co-existing trees: – lodgepole pine – white spruce – tamarack Regeneration dynamic – reproductive layering – pioneer after fire Silvicultural systems
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Jack Pine
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Edaphic Amplitude: SMR:VD-MD SNR: VP-P – acidic soils: high quartz sands(no bogs) Tolerances – heat – water deficit – frost -wind – nutrient deficiency Limiting Factors – shade intolerant – snow – flooding -fire – insect (MPB) Adaptations – rapid initial growth rates – deep tap-root, shallow laterals – thin barked – serotinous cones – lifespan: < 200 years Co-existing trees: – white spruce – black spruce Regeneration dynamic – after stand-replacing fires – natural regen Silvicultural systems – clearcuts
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Yellow-cedar
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Edaphic Amplitude: SMR: F-W SNR: P-R Tolerances – shade – water surplus – nutrient deficiency Limiting Factors – frost(freeze/thaws) – heat – snowpack(reduced): roots require insulation Adaptations – seeds low success rate – de/hardens with temperature – slow growing – shallow root system – lifespan: >1200yrs – snags and logs persistent for 100s yrs Co-existing trees: – mountain hemlock – western hemlock Regeneration dynamic -vegetative layering – early-late succession Silvicultural systems
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Mountain Hemlock
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Edaphic Amplitude: SMR: fresh-V. moist SNR: VP-M – likes acidic soils Tolerances – shade tolerant – nutrient deficiency Limiting Factors – frost – wind – heat Adaptations – high seed dissemination – shallow rooted – de/hardens with photoperiod – slow growing – lifespan: 500-1000 yrs Co-existing trees: – yellow-cedar Regeneration dynamic – releases in gaps – early-late succession Silvicultural systems
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Amabilis fir
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Edaphic Amplitude: SMR: fresh- V. moist SNR: P-R – likes organic substrates Tolerances – very shade tolerant – water surplus – nutrient deficiency – snow Limiting Factors – low viability of seeds – heat – water deficit -frost Adaptations -slow growth – thin barked -roots susceptible to frost – lifespan: 300-800 years Co-existing trees: – mountain hemlock – western hemlock -yellow-cedar Regeneration dynamic – release in gaps -persists in understory Silvicultural systems – natural regeneration
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Western redcedar
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Edaphic Amplitude: SMR: SNR: Tolerances – shade tolerant – nutrient deficiency Limiting Factors – wind – frost – snow – fungi, browsing Adaptations: – shallow-ish roots -abundant seed -lifespan: 1000 years Co-existing trees: – DF – western hemlock Regeneration dynamic – vegetative layering – no seedling bank required -releases in gaps – persistent snags and logs – early-late succession Silvicultural systems
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Western hemlock
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Edaphic Amplitude: SMR: fresh- V.moist SNR: VP-M – loves CWD, mineral soil Tolerances – shade tolerant, not required – nutrient deficiency Limiting Factors – drought(juveniles) – frost -heat – snow – wind – dwarf mistletoe Adaptations: – prolific seed production – dispersal <100m -regeneration in low light – shallow root, no tap-root – variable growth -lifespan: 500-700 years Co-existing trees: – amabilis fir – sitka spruce – DF – western redcedar Regeneration dynamic – release in gaps – early to late succession Silvicultural systems
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Coastal Douglas-fir
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Edaphic Amplitude: – bare mineral soils, burned substrate Tolerances – exposure-requiring Limiting Factors – frost – flooding – insects, fungi Adaptations – thick bark, self-pruning – fast growing – lifespan: 1200yrs – early successional species but persists in old growth Co-existing trees – western hemlock – western redcedar Regeneration dynamic – after stand-replacing disturbance Silvicultural systems – clearcuts, shelterwood, selective cutting
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Red Alder
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Edaphic Amplitude: SMR: W SNR: R-VR -exclusively on bare minerals – symbiotic association with frankia Tolerances – exposure-requiring – nutrient deficiency Limiting Factors – frost – heat – water deficit – snow – wind – break nodules Adaptations – N-fixing – prolific seed producer – fast-growing – lifespan: 100yrs Co-existing trees – western hemlock – sitka spruce – western redcedar Regeneration dynamic -pioneer species in floodplains – early successional species Silvicultural systems – nurse tree on poor sites
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Sitka Spruce
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Edaphic Amplitude: SMR: fresh-V.Moist SNR: R-VR -likes low elevations, mineral soils Tolerances: – moderately shade tolerant – tolerant of salt spray – water surplus – snow/fungi Limiting Factors -frost -heat – water deficit – nutrient deficit – insect Adaptations – prolific seed producer – high dispersal by wind – shallow roots – lifespan: 800yrs Co-existing trees – western hemlock -western redcedar – red alder Regeneration dynamic – ocean spray sites \”fog\” forests – wind-disturbance – open or gap -artificial regen – planting -early-mid-late successional species Silvicultural systems
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Willows
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Edaphic Amplitude: SMR: SNR: Tolerances Limiting Factors Adaptations Co-existing trees Regeneration dynamic Silvicultural systems

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