Forensic Science Segment 2

question

What is the crossing out or overwriting of original material to make it unreadable?
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Obliteration
question

What might law enforcement do to reduce attempts at deception when gaining a handwriting sample?
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Have the material contain some of the same words and phrases as the questioned document.
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What element can influence our handwriting?
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The way we hold a pencil; The pressure we use to write;The speed we write with
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A transmitting terminal identifier is found on documents from what device?
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Fax machine
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What materials can be used to erase part of a document?
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Chemicals;Eraser;Sandpaper
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Exemplars are what type of sample?
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Authentic
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What is true about natural handwriting?
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Natural handwriting changes over time in the same person.
question

When presented with a handwritten questioned document, what is one of the first things that a document examiner will look at?
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Writing style
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Our writing tends to be more similar to others when we are in which stage of life?
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Younger
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Who maintains a database of thin-layer chromatography results for different pens, ink, and toners?
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The US Secret Service and the IRS
question

The Van Urk-Salkowski test is used when which drug is suspected?
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LSD
question

Which group of drugs includes legal painkillers such as OxyContin?
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Narcotics
question

The Scott Test is used when which drug is suspected?
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Cocaine
question

Which group of drugs slows down the central nervous system?
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Depressants
question

Ecstasy is one example of which of the following?
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Club drugs
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Forensic scientists can use which of the following to test for the presence of drugs in a human?
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Blood; Hair; Saliva
question

In the Marquis Color Test, the solution will turn what color in the presence of opiates?
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Purple
question

Stimulants are also called what?
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Uppers
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Which type of test helps forensic scientists to narrow down the possibilities of what drug a substance may be?
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Screening test
question

What is the most commonly and widely used depressant in the United States?
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Alcohol
question

Taking a cross section of a fiber can reveal what?
answer

The shape of the fiber
question

What are substances that provide support or structure for the pigment in paint?
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Binders
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Which microscope has the highest potential magnification?
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Scanning electron microscope
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Gas chromatography can be useful in determining what about paint?
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Its chemical composition
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How many layers of paint are there on the typical manufactured vehicle?
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Four
question

What is PDQ?
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A paint database
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When a polarized white light is sent through a synthetic fiber, how many perpendicular rays are created?
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Two
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A compound microscope has how many lenses?
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Two
question

A microspectrophotometer measures which of the following?
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Light absorption
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Pigment does what to paint?
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Gives it color
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The philosopher Socrates was executed using which poison?
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Hemlock
question

What is used in a Reinsch test?
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A copper strip
question

Toxicology is the study of what?
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Substances that have an adverse effect on living organisms
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Which poison is produced by vehicle exhaust and fires?
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Carbon Monoxide
question

Women’s bane or wolfsbane is another term for which poison?
answer

Aconite
question

Which poison was used in the Jonestown massacre?
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Cyanide
question

The high rate of death during the 1918 Spanish influenza was possibly due, in part, to what?
answer

Scarlet fever Arsenic poisoning-incorrect Aspirin toxicity Staph infections
question

What type of sample can give information on how long someone has been exposed to a poison?
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Hair
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What did Hermann Boerhaave suggest?
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That poisons could be detected through chemical means
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What is a characteristic that would make a poison useful to someone who wanted to intentionally poison someone?
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The substance’s taste or odor is easily hidden; The substance is easy to administer; The substance is easily found and accessible.
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Forensic scientists encounter few drug investigations in their work.
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False
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Most drugs that are sold on the illegal market are about 95 to 99 percent pure, containing only the drug itself.
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False
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Cyanide was used in the infamous Jonestown Massacre.
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True
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There is concern that ricin might be used as a potential terrorist weapon.
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True
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A scanning electron microscope works by shooting a beam of electrons at the item and recording the electron emissions that occur.
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True
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Most vehicles use at least four different coatings when a car is painted.
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True
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Microscopes are rarely used by forensic scientists.
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False
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Unlike some of the other areas of forensic science, there are often no specific tests that can be used to definitively prove that something has been forged or that it is not authentic.
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True
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Document examiners generally have an easy time of obtaining exemplars since most people volunteer them.
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False
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Every altered document indicates that a crime has taken place.
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False
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Chromatography tests are used to separate the drug from other substances that it might be packaged or diluted with.
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True
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Color tests are more specific than microcrystalline tests in identifying a particular drug.
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False
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Opium is produced from the cannabis plant.
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False
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Which drug comes from the poppy plant?
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Opium
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Cocaine is an example of which of the following?
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Stimulants
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All typewriters and related devices will have variations in the type over time as the typewriter experiences wear and tear to its parts.
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True
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To see if correction fluid has been used on a document, it can be put up in front of a light and the area will appear opaque.
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True
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Our unconscious handwriting incorporates into it different mental, physical, and mechanical elements, and it would be highly unlikely for two people to share exactly the same traits in these areas to produce the same handwriting.
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True
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Stamped signatures are always illegal.
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False
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When examining indentations, document examiners may apply what to help reveal the indentations?
answer

Ash
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Which of the following is a clue that something has been erased on a document?
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The fibers of the paper are disturbed when looked at under a microscope
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Which of the following might be used to help enhance the information on a receipt?
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Digitizing
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Forensic scientists who study possible forgeries and questioned documents are often called what?
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Document examiners
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Which of the following is an example of a heavy metal that is toxic to humans?
answer

Arsenic
question

Which poison can be identified by a color test?
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Cyanide
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What did Mathieu Orfila do related to forensic toxicology?
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Published one of the first written works dedicated to the topic of poisons
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Who worshipped a goddess of poison?
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Sumerians
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Orfila was able to identify what poison in human tissue?
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Arsenic
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Forensic toxicology involves not only the area of toxicology, but also the use of areas such as analytic chemistry and pharmacology.
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True
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Although strychnine is colorless, it has a very strong bitter taste.
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True
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There are relatively few substances on earth that are considered toxic or poisonous.
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False
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Pigments are always made of natural materials.
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False
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One study indicated that if a paint chip were to match a paint chip from a known sample (say a suspect’s car), there is only a 1 in 33,000 chance that the paint chip came from another random vehicle.
answer

True
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When fibers are found at a crime scene, they become valuable only when the forensic scientist can determine where the fiber came from.
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True
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A hit-and-run incident is one of the more common cases for paint evidence.
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True
question

Polymers contain how many atoms?
answer

Thousands
question

Which type of microscope produces a three-dimensional image of the object under the lens?
answer

Stereoscopic microscope
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When paint is collected from a car suspected of being involved in a hit and run, where would the known paint sample be taken from to compare to paint evidence?
answer

A spot close to the point of impact, but in a place that has not been damaged
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Speed up the central nervous system.
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Stimulants
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A type of drug identity testing that involves ultraviolet and/or infrared light.
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Spectrophotometry
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A milky substance that is obtained by cutting into the unripe pod of the poppy plant, which is found in many parts of Asia.
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Opium
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Pain-killing or pain-reducing substances that tend to reduce the rates of bodily functions like pulse and breathing.
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Narcotics
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Involve exposing a substance to a reagent and then examining the color and morphology (including shape) of the crystals that form.
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Microcrystalline Tests
question

Originally produced from ergot, a fungus that is found on some plants and grasses.
answer

LSD
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Alter an individuals mood, perceptions, or thoughts.
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Hallucinogens
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One of the most popular club drugs. Originally patented as an appetite suppressant, this synthetic drug produces feelings of happiness as well as hallucinations.
answer

Ecstasy
question

Substances that produce physiological or psychological effects in humans.
answer

Drugs
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Slow down the central nervous system.
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Depressants
question

Used to separate the drug from other substances that it might be packaged or diluted with.
answer

Chromatography Tests
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Prove a drugs identity.
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Confirmatory Tests
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Involve introducing a chemical reagent to the drug and observing whether or not the material changes color.
answer

Color Tests
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Extracted from the coca plant, which is found in tropical areas of Asia and South America.
answer

Cocaine
question

Synthetic drugs that are typically used in bars, nightclubs, raves, and other gatherings.
answer

Club Drugs
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A form of depressants. They are often referred to as \”downers\” as they tend to relax the individual and produce sleep.
answer

Barbiturates
question

A header that is printed on the top of each fax.
answer

Transmitting Terminal Identifier
question

Any document with handwriting or typewriting that is in question as to its authenticity.
answer

Questioned Document
question

The crossing out or overwriting of original material to make it unreadable.
answer

Obliteration
question

Small differences that appear in any repeated samples of a person’s handwriting.
answer

Natural Variations
question

This device connects a microscope to a spectrophotometer.
answer

Microspectrophotometer
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Authentic samples that are compared to the questioned document.
answer

Exemplars
question

The removal of handwriting, typescript, or another feature of a document using chemicals, abrasive surfaces (sandpaper, an eraser, etc.), or other means.
answer

Erasure
question

Happens when a document image is stored in digital memory.
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Digitizing
question

Creating a copy or imitation of something with the purpose of passing off the copy as the real thing.
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Counterfeiting
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Documents that have been changed in some way.
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Altered Documents
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The study of substances that cause adverse effects on humans or other organisms.
answer

Toxicology
question

Comes from the seeds of the strychnine tree; poisoning can occur through consumption, inhalation, or absorption by mucous membranes.
answer

Strychnine
question

Occurs when castor oil is produced; it is extremely poisonous when ingested or inhaled.
answer

Ricin
question

Test used to determine the presence of heavy metals.
answer

Reinsch Test
question

Suggested that the detection and identification of poisons needed to occur through the organs of the body in order to be sure of poisoning.
answer

Joseph Plenic
question

The ratio of hemoglobin that has been combined with carbon monoxide in comparison to hemoglobin that has been combined with oxygen.
answer

Percent Saturation
question

A Spanish-born chemist who published one of the first written works dedicated to the topic of poisons and medications.
answer

Mathieu Orfila
question

Developed a method of detecting arsenic in solutions.
answer

Johann Daniel Metzger
question

Developed a way to test for arsenic in tissue.
answer

James Marsh
question

The use of toxicology in the process of investigating deaths, drug cases, or suspected poisonings.
answer

Forensic Toxicology
question

Poison used in the infamous Jonestown massacre in 1978 where over 900 people died.
answer

Cyanide
question

Occurs when organic materials are not completely combusted.
answer

Carbon Monoxide
question

Dutch botanist and physician who suggested that poisons could be detected in a person’s body through the use of chemical means.
answer

Hermann Boerhaave
question

Has probably killed more individuals then any other poison. This substance is actually a common element, found in the crust of the earth as well as other natural locations.
answer

Arsenic
question

Sometimes known as a women’s bane, wolfsbane, or monkshead, this poison comes from the aconite plant.
answer

Aconite.
question

Provides a three-dimensional image of an item, although it does not have the magnifying power of a compound microscope
answer

Stereoscopic microscope
question

Works to dissolve or disperse substances into a liquid form.
answer

Solvent
question

Works by shooting a beam of electrons at an item and recording the electron emissions that occur.
answer

Scanning electron microscope
question

Substances made up of many atoms, with the atoms arranged in repeating patterns.
answer

Polymers
question

Paint Data Query, a database of information about vehicle paint.
answer

PDQ
question

onsist of both organic and nonorganic compounds and materials that are added to paint to produce a particular color.
answer

Pigments
question

Two or more atoms joined together by chemical ties.
answer

Molecule
question

Fibers made from plant or animal fibers.
answer

Natural Fibers
question

Combines a microscope with a spectrophotometer.
answer

Microspectrophotometer
question

Devices that use lenses to magnify items.
answer

Microscopes
question

Made up of polymers.
answer

Manufactured Fibers
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Has two lenses and can give magnify an item up to 1,500 times.
answer

Compound Microscope
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Combines two microscopes into one unit, allowing the viewer to see what is under each of the lenses at the same time.
answer

Comparison Microscope
question

Substances that provide support or structure for the pigment in paint.
answer

Binders

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