Foodservice

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quick service restaurant
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retail business with primary emphasis on providing the public a convenient location to quickly purchase from a small array of consumable products
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inputs in the foodservice systems model
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include Food service equipment and space, human resources
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EQUIFINALITY
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Having the same or similar outputs from using different inputs is termed
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LEED certification is an occupational safety requirement for foodservice operations
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FALSE
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franchiser
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Grants the right to another to market the company’s concepts
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An open system has interrelated parts ; interrelated parts are not part of a closed system
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FALSE
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Which of the following is a characteristic of a subsystem?
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It is a complete system in itself
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Permeability of boundaries is a characteristic of an open system
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TRUE
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The basic model of a system contains which three components
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inputs, transformation, outputs
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Procurement, production, safety/ sanitation/ maintenance, and distribution/ service are ——— in the foodservice systems model
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Functional Subsystems
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A system is a
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Collection of interrelated parts
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transformation
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the part of the foodservice system that involves changing inputs to outputs
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ARAMARK corporation is an example of a
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contract company
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Self-operation
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The manager is an employee of the company in which the foodservice is located
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LEAN
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The process that includes the concept of providing a product or service only when a customer wants it is termed.
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Quality Assurance
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is a procedure that defines and ensures maintenance of standards within prescribed tolerances for product or service.
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The key to a successful quality assurance program is
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continuous monitoring and evaluation
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Empowerment
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the degree to which managers allow employees to act independently within their job description
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The joint Commission
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the group that serves as an accreditation agency that reviews voluntary program of quality improvements in patient care in hospitals
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Plan-do-check-act cycle
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model for coordinating process improvement efforts
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Common to most total quality management definitions is
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a focus on empowerment of employees
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Greenwashing is a term used to recognize organizations for their improved sustainability efforts
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FALSE (Greenwashing – spends more time and money claiming to be “green” through advertising and marketing than actually implementing business practices that minimize environmental impact.)
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Reengineering
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radical redesign of business processes for dramatic improvement
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Quality should be defined by the
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customer
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PDCA
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A focus- PDCA is a way to coordinate process improvement projects
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Pareto Analysis
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often is referred to as the 80-20 rule, because 80% of a given outcome typically results from 20% of an input
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CONTROL
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Process improvement programs are part of ——- in the foodservice systems model
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SIX SIGMA
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data-driven technique for eliminating defects in a process
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Suppliers of food products are termed external customers of the foodservice operation
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False (they are internal customers)
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Plate waste studies are one method used to determine
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Food acceptability
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Aesthetic factors in menu planning include fat, sodium, and fiber content of menu items
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FALSE
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Healthcare reform legislation requires vending companies to post calories on vending machines
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TRUE
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Asking children to mark how well they liked what they ate on a facial hedonic scale is an attempt of determining sociocultural information about young customers
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FALSE
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Child Nutrition Programs participating in the National School Breakfast Program are required to provide 1/4 of the RDA for that age group in breakfast meals served
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true
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When planning a menu, recommendations are to first plan
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the entree course because those items are the most expensive.
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customer satisfaction
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the most important factor to consider in menu planning
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Menu planning for the National School Breakfast and Lunch programs is monitored by the
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U.S. Department of Agriculture
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The “3-A-Day” program was planned to
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increase consumption of dairy products.
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Food preferences express the degree of liking for a food item.
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TRUE
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hospitals are required to have multiple days of food supplies on hand in case of a disaster
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TRUE
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Having a food cost percentage of 40% means that
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40% of revenue was spent on food
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Truth-in-menu laws would prohibit which of the following practices?
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having the menu read “Roquefort Blue Cheese dressing” and purchasing Kraft® blue cheese dressing to serve
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the menu would be categorized as part of the _____________ segment of the foodservice systems model.
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CONTROL
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An a la carte menu is one in which several food items are grouped together and offered at a set price
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FALSE (prix fixe or table d’hote)
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LEED certification
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purchasing EnergyStar equipment would help a foodservice operation achieve
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Improper handling of sous vide products can result in
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microbiological health hazards.
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galley kitchen in a hospital allows for decentralized assembly of patient meals.
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TRUE
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The term sous vide is French for
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– UNDER VACUUM
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An example of food in the food processing continuum that enters a foodservice operation with little or no processing would be buying
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fresh apples, sugar, flour, and shortening to make apple pie.
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Satellite service centers are associated with
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commissary foodservice operations
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A hospital that uses cook-chill production and centralized tray production likely would have _____________ steps between procurement and service as compared to a table service restaurant.
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MORE
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Cook-chill and cook-freeze are examples of the _____________ type of foodservice.
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READY-PREPARED
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The COMMSSARY foodservice
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has centralized procurement and production facilities with distribution of prepared menu items to several remote areas for final preparation and service.
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Center of the plate typically requires two phases of heat processing in ready-prepared foodservices.
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TRUE
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In decentralized service, food is
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transported in bulk to galley kitchens near the patient units where patient trays are assembled
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One of the advantages of a ready-prepared foodservice as compared to a conventional foodservice is that
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peak demands for labor are removed
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READY-PREPARED foodservice
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menu items are produced and held chilled or frozen until heated for service later.
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Ready-prepared foodservice operations evolved because
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of the shortage of skilled labor.
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CONVENTIONAL
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The dominant type of foodservice in the United States
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of the following is an example of a Good Agricultural Practice (GAP)?
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providing hand-washing facilities for workers
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Organizing purchasing as a profit center means that the department would
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manage expenses and generate profit.
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Organizing purchasing as a cost center means that the department would generate sufficient profits to cover expenses.
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FALSE (Cost centers cost the company money – they do not generate profit)
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Carbon footprint
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is a measure of one’s impact on the environment based on the amount of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide) generated
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Using the term “lean” to describe the fat content of meat means that the meat has
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less than 10 grams of fat and 95 milligrams of cholesterol per serving.
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Specifying that an insulated beverage carafe must maintain temperature for at least 20 minutes is an example of _____________ specification.
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PERFORMANCE
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PURCHASE ORDER
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document given to the supplier listing the items to be ordered
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Using FIFO as an inventory control technique means that food items that were placed in the storeroom on January 5 would be used before those that were placed in the storeroom on January 12.
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true
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A yield grade of “1” stamped on a beef carcass means
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increased muscle and decreased fat
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Value added
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increasing value of food through manufacturing and processing
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U.S. Department of Agriculture.
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The agency responsible for the grading, inspection, and certification of meats
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Value is the perceived relationship between
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quality and price.
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Irradiation is used to
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control foodborne pathogens on food.
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Safety stock is the amount of food on inventory when a reorder is submitted.
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FALSE
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Procurement
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is located within the transformation component of the foodservice systems model.
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Which of the following is most likely to occur if a centralized ingredient room is used?
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Production costs can be reduced because less-skilled employees will be used to do preparation activities.
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batch cooking of frozen carrots in the steamer to serve 200
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cooking single pans of carrots just in time for service
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The concept of handling loss is a component of the _____________ recipe adjustment method.
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PERCENTAGE
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A current recipe has a yield of 200 servings and a total weight of 40 pounds. You want the cook to prepare 50 servings of the product. If you use the factor method to adjust the recipe, what is the conversion factor you will use to adjust the recipe?
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.25
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If carrots have an AP price of $.50/pound and an EP yield of .80, the EP price/pound will be _____________.
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$.62
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A coffee-shop is open Monday through Friday each week. Records for the week show that the following numbers of bowls of chili were sold: 160, 140, 135, 185, and 190. Using a 3-day moving average, what quantity would the manager recommend be prepared for Monday of the second week?
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170
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A #8 disher will yield which size portions?
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½ cup
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Food production is found in the _____________ component of the foodservice systems model.
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TRANSFORMATION
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If a 6-ounce spoodle is used to portion beef stew, what do we know about that portion of stew?
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Its volume will be equivalent to 3/4 cup
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Which of the following is most likely to be listed as a requirement for an ingredient room employee
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ability to compute simple math calculations
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A recipe for 100 servings contains 25 pounds of ground beef, 10 pounds of pasta, 10 pounds of tomato paste, and 5 pounds of cheese. You are adjusting this recipe using the factor method and have determined that your conversion factor is 5. How many pounds of ground beef will be in your new recipe?
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125 POUNDS
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If the ground beef is known to have a cooking yield of 45%, how much ground beef would need to be purchased to provide 10 pounds EP?
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23lbs
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exponential smoothing
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The forecasting method that uses a judgment factor to weigh the most recent data
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Dividing the individual ingredient weight by the total recipe weight is one step in the _____________ recipe adjustment method.
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PERCENTAGE
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Which of the following is an example of direct energy usage?
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refrigeration storage
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Distribution and service are categorized as _____________ in the foodservice systems model.
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functional subsystems
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Adding a transportation process between production and service increases the importance of
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HACCP monitoring.
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Having transportation carts or patient trays that will maintain hot food temperatures is most important in which type of foodservice?
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conventional food production with centralized service
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Which of the following best describes how food items are transported in a match-a-tray type of transportation cart?
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Hot and cold food items are transported on separate trays in separate compartments
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The primary advantage of decentralized service is
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decreased time between meal assembly and service
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Family-Style service
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type of service in which food is brought to the table on platters or in bowls by the waitstaff and then passed at the table
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SELF service
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Buffets are an example of
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cafeteria-style service
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The predominant form of service used in on-site foodservice operation
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COUNTER service
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Maintaining appropriate food temperatures typically is least challenging with
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Centralized service allows for greater flexibility than does decentralized service in providing for individual customer needs and in making last-minute changes
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FALSE
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As the time between the completion of production and the time of service increases, the options for distribution practices decrease
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FALSE
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Assembling patient meal trays in the kitchen close to the point of production is termed decentralized service
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FALSE
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Using microwave ovens in galley kitchens for reheating of food items might be found in foodservice operations with
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cook-chill food production and decentralized service.
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One example of cross-training would be training waitstaff to work in kitchen positions
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true
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15) Distribution
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involves getting food from production to service.
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The most important way to prevent foodborne illness is
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having employees wash their hands.
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BACTERIA
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The microorganisms that most commonly produce foodborne illness are categorized as
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VIRUSES
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The microorganism that multiplies only in living cells is
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Foodborne infections are caused by
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the activity of bacterial cells carried by the food into the body.
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Safety, sanitation, and maintenance are considered part of _____________ in the foodservice systems model.
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TRANSFORMATION
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All of the following surfaces in a foodservice operation must be sanitized EXCEPT
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FLOORS
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SOURCE REDUCTION
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Allowing customers to bring in a reusable cup or mug is an example of
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A typical component of an integrated pest-management program would be use of
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control methods to reduce pest infestations.
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temperature danger zone
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41-135 F
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Occupational Safety and Health Act.
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federal act with the purpose of assuring safe and healthful working conditions
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ESCHERIDIA COLI
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foodborne pathogen that is most commonly linked with undercooked ground beef
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PARASITE
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The organism that needs a living host to survive
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Which of the following is not recommended, as it could result in harmful cross contamination of food?
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storing raw chicken above cooked roast beef in a refrigerator
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HUMAN ERROR
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Most accidents in foodservice operations are a result of
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NOROVIRUS
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causes more than half of all foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis
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The management function of planning
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involves determining in advance what should happen.
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efficiency
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achieving outcomes with minimum inputs.
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Line and staff positions differ in that
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line positions have supervisory responsibility; staff positions have advisory responsibility.
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Social responsibility
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an organization’s responsibility to society beyond its profit generation.
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RULES
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specify action by stating what must or must not be done in an organization
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Technical skill
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is most important at the start of one’s management career.
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departmentalization
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The assignment of various activities or tasks to different units or people
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Policies are important in organizations because they
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provide a general guide for organizational behavior.
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Which of the following would likely result in a narrower span of management?
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having complex work that needs to be done
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FUNCTIONAL departmentalization
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occurs when organization units are defined by the nature of the work being performed.
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Which of the following activities would be considered part of the INTERPERSONAL role of a manager?
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hiring and training staff
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“Span of management” refers to
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the number of people that one manager can effectively manage.
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A capitalistic economy is one in which a central planning agency determines what is produced, when it is produced, who can produce it, and in what quantities it will be produced.
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FALSE (A market economy (capitalist or free market) is one in which supply & demand drive what is produced. In a command economy (or government controlled),a central planning agency determines what is produced, and when, who can produce it, and in what quantities)
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organization chart.
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The graphic presentation of an organization’s structure
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The establishment of lines of authority in an organization is termed “horizontal division of labor.”
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FALSE (vertical division of labor) (Horizontal philosophy rejects the vertical hierarchy popular in American companies for years. Companies are encouraging employees to share ideas across all levels & departments. Managers & employees are being cross-trained to handle multiple jobs. The entire organization is flattened to develop acoaching environment.)
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Which of the following would be characteristic of a Theory X manager’s beliefs about the average employee?
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Employees have an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it if possible.
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EXPENCTANCY
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The motivation theory that is based on the belief that people act to increase pleasure and decrease displeasure
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change agent
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a person who initiates a change.
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Democratic is the leadership style in which the leader allows the group to make the decision.
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FALSE (An autocratic leader makes most decisions. The laissez-faire leader allows the group to make the decisions. The democratic leader guides & encourages the group to make decisions.)
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Motivation could be described as
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an inner force that activates or moves a person.
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Situational leadership would suggest that
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behavior of effective leaders depends on the situation.
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Intrinsic motivation
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comes from factors inside the individual.
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LEGITIMATE power
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type of power come from the formal position held by an individual in an organization
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If the baker blames the oven for the poor bakery product when, in fact, recipe procedures were not followed, the baker is using which defense mechanism?
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RATIONALIZATION
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According to Kouzes and Posner, a leader enables others to act.
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TRUE
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According to the expectancy theory, a high level of motivation requires
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high expectancy and high valence.
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Reinforcement theory emphasizes
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how the consequences of past action influence future actions.
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A transformational leader
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has a high need for affiliation.
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Continuous commitment is the commitment to the organization that employees display because they are happy to be members of the organization.
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FALSE (Affective commitment) (Continuous commitment exists when an employee feels the costs of leaving the organization are too great)
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SELF-ACTUALIZATION
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The highest level of needs on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
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DECISION TREE
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The decision-making technique that involves graphically displaying alternatives considered in a decision and the outcomes expected as a result
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The fact that the word “dinner” may mean the noon meal to one individual and the evening meal to another is an example of
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ineffective decoding of a message.
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Groupthink
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occurs when reaching an agreement becomes more important than finding the best decision.
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ASSIMILATION
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The acculturation process when individuals are absorbed in a new culture and withdraw from their former culture
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PESSIMISTIC APPROACH
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Identifying the worst possible outcomes for each alternative in the decision-making process
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When selecting a food supplier, Jim Jones, the foodservice manager, compared the dependability, price, and variety of products offered by three different suppliers. This illustrates which step in the decision-making process?
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EVALUATING ALTERNATIVES
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Which of the following can help reduce misconceptions and misperceptions when interacting with someone from a different culture?
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treating your interpretation as a working hypothesis
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balance
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Managerial adaptation to the changing environment
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The longer the time into the future that a decision is being made
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the greater the degree of risk in the decision.
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Two-way communication differs from one-way communication in that
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two-way communication includes feedback; one-way does not.
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Nonprogrammed decisions are most likely to be made by _____________-level managers.
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TOP
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NEGOTIATION
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The communication between management and union representatives to finalize a collective bargaining agreement
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The use of the symbols 🙂 to indicate a sense of happiness is an example of an
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EMOTICON
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Decision making
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is the selection of a course of action from a variety of alternatives.
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QUEUING THEORY
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The decision-making technique used to examine ways to reduce the amount of time that people wait in line
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All communication includes three primary elements
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sender, message, and receiver.
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The Family and Medical Leave Act
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gives employees up to 12 weeks of unpaid and job-protected sick leave.
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WAGNER ACT
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federal law established the right of a union to be the exclusive bargaining agent for all workers in a bargaining unit
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productivity
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The ratio of output to input
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The Americans with Disabilities Act requires that
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equal consideration be given to disabled applicants who meet job qualifications
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Employers are expected to make reasonable accommodations, if needed, to facilitate the work of a disabled person hired for a position
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true
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Fair Labor Standards Act
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Payment of a minimum wage was introduced by
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JOB ANALYSIS
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The process of obtaining information about jobs by determining the duties and tasks or activities of those jobs
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Which of the following is not an example of a benefit?
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OVERTIME PAY
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Asking a candidate for a cook position to complete a math test is an example of which type of testing?
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COGNITIVE APTITUDE
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Which of the following is considered the most critical step in the hiring process?
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HIRING DECISION
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STAFFING
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The determination of the appropriate number of employees needed by the operation for the work that needs to be done
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The productivity ratio of meals per labor hour is calculated by dividing
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meals served per day by labor hours for that day.
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The technique of having an employee record what they are doing at predetermined periods of time is termed occurrence sampling.
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FALSE
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DISCIPLINE
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The action brought against an employee who fails to conform to the policies or rules of an organization
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When an arbitrator is called in to hear a grievance, which of the following will occur?
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The arbitrator will hear both parties and issue a decision that both parties must accept because an arbitrator’s decision is binding.
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FLEX TIME
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A discretionary work schedule that allows employees to select their starting time
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Discrimination based on which of the following is not included in the Civil Rights Act (and amendments to the act)?
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AGE
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The local school foodservice operation served lunch to 2000 students; a total of 50 labor hours were required to serve the meals; and labor costs per hour were $6.00. The labor cost per meal was _____________.
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$.15
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AFFIRMATIVE ACTION
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requires that employers analyze their work force and develop a plan of action to correct areas of past discrimination
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FTE
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FULL_TIME EQUIVALENTS
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Calculation of the current ratio would involve which two pieces of data?
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current assets and current liabilities
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A high inventory turnover ratio indicates that large amounts of money are tied up in inventory.
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FALSE
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The breakeven point is where
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total revenue equals total cost
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Sam Jones owns a local restaurant. He buys steaks from the restaurant to serve his family at home for dinner. Sam should record this sale in the restaurant’s books because of the
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business entity principle.
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trend analysis
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comparison of ratios over several periods of time
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CONSISTENCY PRINCIPLE
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says that a company that chooses to use the LIFO method for valuing their inventory must use that same method each year.
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A budget
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is a plan for operating a business expressed in financial terms
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The fundamental accounting equation is
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assets = liabilities + owner’s equity
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The actual cost menu pricing method incorporates
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fixed and variable costs and desired profit in determining the menu sales price.
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SOLVENCY ratios
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Ratios that are used to examine an establishment’s ability to meet its long-term financial obligations
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One difference between a for-profit and a not-for-profit organization is
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excess revenue over expenses in a for-profit organization can go to the organization’s owners, while in a not-for-profit organization this excess goes back into the organization.
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Assets and liabilities are a part of which financial statement
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BALANCE SHEET
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BALANCE SHEET
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The financial statement that shows financial position at a point in time
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Total fixed costs
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do not vary with changes in sales volume.
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A pro forma income statement
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forecasts revenue and expenses for a future period.
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Heterogeneity of service means that
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there is a lack of uniformity in the performance of people
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The four Ps of marketing
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product, price, promotion, place
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The marketing environment is defined as the
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forces outside the organization that influence marketing activities
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Which of the following is an accurate comparison of products and services?
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Services cannot be stored for future sale; products can.
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Having an effective marketing concept usually places primary emphasis on
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SERVING THE CUSTOMER
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SWOT analysis focuses on identifying
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strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
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DEMOGRAPHIC
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A person’s ethnicity, income, and education
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A foodservice operation’s target market is
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a group of people for whom a company develops a product or service.
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Companies that have developed frozen, individual meals to be sold in supermarkets are responding to
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behavioristic variables.
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GEOGRAPHIC variables
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Natural resources, population density, and subcultural values that influence a customer’s product needs
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Market segmentation means
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dividing the total market into groups of people with similar product needs.
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A marketing objective is
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a statement of what is to be accomplished through marketing activities.
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A restaurant manager who includes food items on the menu that are high in fiber, or low in fat and sodium, is reacting to
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psychographic variables.
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SITUATION ANALYSIS
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Identifying marketing opportunities and potential problems confronting an organization
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Environmental forces are of great importance to the marketing manager because they help identify the target market.
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FALSE
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Affective sensory testing of food products involves evaluation of differences in quality by a consumer panel
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FALSE (Affective testing – panelists are used to determine the acceptability or preference between products Difference testing – panelists are used to determine whether detectable differences exist between products.)
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In a menu engineering analysis, items that are categorized as puzzlers are ones that are
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profitable but not popular
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Which of the following is not true about a mystery shopper?
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Mystery shoppers are typically managers in the organization.
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The preferred sensory test to differentiate three or more samples on the basis of a characteristic such as moistness is the paired comparison test.
answer

FALSE (Paired Comparison Test – test of difference in which a specific characteristic is designated to be evaluated in two samples. The sample with the greater level of the characteristic is to be identified. Rank Order – samples are ranked in order of intensity of a specific characteristic. Valuable when several samples need to evaluated for a single characteristic.)
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SENSORY EVALUATION
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Evaluation of the taste and juiciness of a product
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A menu engineering analysis focuses on
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food popularity and profitability.
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Customer satisfaction is part of which component in the foodservice systems model?
answer

OUTPUT
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Mystery shoppers
answer

usually provide a fairly comprehensive evaluation of the foodservice operation.
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If a foodservice manager wants to determine the likelihood that customers would purchase a new product, which of the following would be best to use to gain information for that decision?
answer

acceptance sensory test with a consumer panel
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The Job Descriptive Index was designed to measure
answer

employee job satisfaction.
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Employee satisfaction
answer

is defined as the beliefs and feelings that an employee has about his/her job.
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Quality desired in food products’ ingredients should be included in
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food specifications.
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Uniform Systems of Accounts.
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The framework for reporting financial data
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Customer comment cards
answer

may give a distorted view of overall customer satisfaction.
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Quality attributes of food include all of the following EXCEPT
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PRICE
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The 360-degree evaluation technique includes
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evaluations by peer employees, those who report to the employee, and those who supervise the employee.
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Which of the following is the largest component of foodservice waste?
answer

packaging
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Sarah Michaels wants to evaluate her operation’s efficiency by calculating the number of labor minutes per meal. Data from the previous week indicate that she served 7,500 meals. Her timecards indicated that employees worked a total of 625 hours for the week. What were the labor minutes per meal for Sarah’s operation?
answer

5
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A thermometer is usually placed just inside the door of a refrigerator because
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this is the warmest spot in the refrigerator and thus the most appropriate place to take the temperature
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All of the following impact the distribution of food from production to customer except
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the location of the storeroom in relation to the production area
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A turkey sandwich has a food cost of $.75 and is sold for $2.25. If the manager wanted to achieve a 40% food cost, which of the following should occur?
answer

the price of the sandwich should be decreased
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All of the following are principles of motion economy except
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one tool should be used at a time
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A tumble chiller would be most likely to be found in a_____ type of foodservice operation
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ready-prepared
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Decision making, communication, and balance are referred to as ____ within the foodservice systems model
answer

linking processes
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Synergy
answer

is used to describe the phenomenon in which parts of an organization acting together may have greater impact than the impact each has separately.
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menu engineering
answer

focuses on the popularity of menu items and their contribution to profit
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perception of value
answer

is what customers believe a menu item is worth
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Which of the following would not be considered a sustainable purchasing practice?
answer

purchasing individually wrapped and packaged juices
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Time series
answer

The most suitable method for short-term forecasts in foodservice
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One advantage of an assembly serve foodservice operation is
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the need for skilled production labor is nearly eliminated
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situation analysis
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identifying marketing opportunities and potential problems confronting an organization
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physical inventory
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taking an actual count of products in storage
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information required on a label under the nutrition labeling law includes
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amount of cholesterol, sodium, and vitamins A and C
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collective bargaining
answer

the negotiation between management and the union on the terms of employment
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pilferage
answer

occurs when employees take food products home without permission
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interface
answer

the area of interdependency between two subsystems
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issuing
answer

the process of supplying food to production units after it has been received
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all of the following are recommended purchasing practices except
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having the same person responsible for purchasing and receiving
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all of the following are required for growth of bacteria except
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sunlight
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forecasting
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the art and science of estimating events in the future
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if a menu item is categorized as highly popular but low in contribution to profit, the foodservice manager should
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consider increasing the price of this item
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which of the following is an example of energy conservation with the dishwashing process
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deliming the dish machine routinely
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a primary reason to open a business as a sole proprietorship instead of forming a corporation for business ownership is that
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a sole proprietorship avoids double taxation of the owner and business
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according to the american society for quality, which of the following is NOT a characteristic of quality
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quality is a program
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a primary difference between ready-prepared and conventional foodservice operation is
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in conventional foodservice operations, menu items are prepared for immediate service, in ready-prepared they are prepared for inventory
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The myplate graphic for healthy eating shows which of the following healthy eating recc
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make half of your plate fruits and veggies
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authority of competence
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the authority that is based on a manager’s expertise
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“A” products in the ABC inventory method are products
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that the managers should monitor and control very closely
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Employees who work the noon meal, have a few hours off, then return to work the evening meal are said to be on
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split-shift scheduling
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which of the following is not part of the ACEND definition of a sustainable food system
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managerially innovative
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cash, marketable securities, and accounts receivable are all categorized as ____ on a balance sheet
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current assets
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which of the following critical control points are more important in ready-prepared food services than in conventional food services?
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cooling and reheating
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which of the following is an example of sustainable design practices
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using bamboo for wood floors
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requiring that a product labeled “mayonnaise” contain egg is an example of
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standard of identity
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which of the following would be considered an example of sustainability in menu planning
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having “meatless mondays”
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matrix
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the division of labor that involved bringing together experts from different departments to work on a project
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perpetual inventory differs from physical inventory in that
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no visual inspection of the inventory is done to calculate perpetual inventory
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conventional
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a restaurant receives raw food products, prepares it, and serves it immediately to the customer
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Internal factors that affect the wage mix include
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worth of the job
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factor pricing method.
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The menu pricing method that uses desired food cost percentage in determining the menu sales price

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