Flash Cards based on the Exam 2 Review – Lipids

Define the following:
Saturated Fatty Acids
Solid animal fats
Harder to excrete and easier to store
NO Double Bonds
Define the following:
Mono- or Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
Primary fat in plants and fish
Oils
More easily excreted
One or More Double Bonds
Define the following:
Prostaglandins
Polyunsaturated fatty acids that regulate renin release, uterine contraction, and platelet aggregation
Define the following:
Trans fatty acids
Man-made chemically-induced fats from the conversion of oils to solids.
Structurally more closely related to saturated fats.
NOT Natural
What does Prostaglandins regulate?
renin release, uterine contraction, and platelet aggregation
What type of fatty acid is Margarine an example of?
Trans Fatty acids
Are lipids soluble in water?
No
Are Lipids organic or inorganic?
Organic
What are most lipids transported in plasma by?
Carrier proteins
Lipids are what type of precursors?
Hormone
What are 2 locations of Lipids?
Cell membranes
Insulation
Endogenous
Synthesized in Liver
Exogenous
Dietary, Essential
2 Functions of Lipids?
Provide cellular energy via production of acetyl CoA
Building blocks of other lipids
3 Fatty Acids + Glycerol
Water Insoluble
Insulator/Cushion
Triglycerides
What is the main source of Triglycerides?
Diet
What type of specimen is required for Triglycerides?
Fasting
What hydrolyzes Tg into FFA and glycerol so it can be taken up by cells for energy?
Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL)
Excess FFA are re-formed into what as storage fat?
Triglycerides
True or False:
Tg can be mobilized when needed for energy
Ttrue
What are 3 times when Tg can be mobilized when needed for energy
Starvation
Diabetes
Stress
Unsaturated Steroid Alcohol
‘Esterified’
Cholesterol
Exogenous Cholesterol accounts for what % of total cholesterol?
10-15%
Endogenous Cholesterol accounts for what % of total cholesterol?
85-90%
What is the Vitamin D and Steroid Hormone Precursor?
Cholesterol
Where is Cholesterol converted to bile acids to aid in fat absorption?
Liver
What organ is the main route of cholesterol removal?
Liver
Can you find Cholesterol in cell membranes?
Yes
Is Cholesterol a GOOD source of energy fuel?
No
What contains both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups?
Phospholipids
Name 3 phospholipid lung surfactants
Lecithin
Sphingomyelin
Phosphatidylglyercol
What contains sugar + lipid (ceramide)
Glycolipids
What makes up the cell membranes of the brain and CNS
Gangliosides
True or False:
Glycolipids serve a role in blood typing
True
What does the following stand for:
VLDL
Very Low Density Lipids
What does the following stand for:
LDL
Low Density Lipids
What does the following stand for:
HDL
High Density Lipids
Where is VLDL made?
Liver
What does VLDL transport to cells for energy or storage?
Triglycerides
VLDL is stimulated by what?
Intake of carbohydrates, saturated fatty acids, and trans fatty acids
What does VLDL cause?
Obvious Lipemia
What is LDL?
VLDL remnant after Tg has been deposited
What does LDL transport to tissues for cell membranes and hormone synthesis?
Cholesterol
Excess cholesterol is absorbed by macrophages in vessels, this leads to what?
foam cells and plaques
What can/do plaques lead to?
Atherosclerosis
CAD
Stroke
Where are HDLs mostly made?
Liver
HDL contains a higher percentage of what?
Protein
What does HDL transport from tissues to liver for disposal as bile acids?
Excess cholesterol
True or False:
High levels of Lp(a) may be genetically controlled
True
What does Lp(a) interfere with?
Normal plasminogen function
The presence of Lipoprotein a may promote what?
Clotting
What does Lipoprotein a have a Strong correlation with?
Family history of heart disease/stroke at an Early Age
Lipid + Protein
Lipoprotein
What is a Lipoprotein?
Protein/Phospholipid sphere with lipid in teh core
What is the function of Lipoproteins?
Transport lipids through the bloodstream
What are 4 types of Lipoproteins?
Chylomicrons
VLDL
HDL
LDL
Chylomicrons are made where in response to fatty foods?
Intestines
Chylomicrons carry what to adipose tissue for storage?
Exogenous lipids
Mainly Tg
Chylomicrons carry exogenous lipids to where organs for energy?
Liver
Muscles
It takes how many hours after a meal to clear the bloodstream of Chylomicrons?
6-8 hours
What is the main cause of lipemia?
Chylomicrons
What will a non-fasting specimen of Chylomicrons show?
Creamy layer on the top of the serum after refrigeration
Desirable range of Tg (fasting)
<150 mg/dL
Desirable range of Total Cholesterol
<200 mg/dL
Desirable range of HDL Cholesterol
> or = 60 mg/dL
Desirable range of LDL Cholesterol
<110 mg/dL
3 Causes of Dyslipidemias
Genetic/familial
Lifestyle
Secondary to other diseases
What is the formula used to calculate VLDL?
Triglycerides / 5
What is the formula used to calculate LDL?
Total cholesterol – HDL – VLDL
What amount of Triglycerides will make the Friedewald calculation invalid?
>400
What type of method is used to measure HDL?
Homogeneous method
For measuring HDL what type of enzymes block non-HDL lipoproteins?
Selective
A second reagent is used in the homogeneous method for measuring HDL to do what?
Quantitate HDL
Arteriosclerosis
Thickening or hardening of vessels; loss of elasticity
What is the leading cause of death and disability in the United States of America?
Arteriosclerosis
What does Increased Cholesterol lead to?
Foam cells –> Fatty streaks –> Plaques –>Thrombosis / Blockage
Arteriosclerosis – Brain = CVD = ?
Strokes
Arteriosclerosis – Arms, legs =
PVD
Arteriosclerosis – Heart = CAD or _______ = angina and MI
Atherosclerosis
Arteriosclerosis – Cholesterol Increases, what happens to LDL and HDL?
LDL Increases
HDL Decreases
What is the treatment for Arteriosclerosis?
Statins and bile acid sequestrants
What are the 2 Consequences of Chronically High Lipids?
Arteriosclerosis
Gallstones
What is the most common type of gallstone?
Cholesterol-containing
Why are gallstones formed?
Bile contains more cholesterol than can be kept in solution. It then precipitates.
Which sex tends to have more gallstones?
Women
What are 2 factors that can increase the risk of gallstones?
Obesity
Poor Diet
What are 7 conditions that are associated with Dyslipidemia?
Type 2 Diabetes
Nephrotic syndrome
Familial Hypercholesterolemia
Familial Hypertriglyceridemia
Alcoholism
Tangier’s Disease
Metabolic Syndrome / Syndrome X
What is deficient in Type 2 Diabetes?
LDL
What is increased in Type 2 Diabetes?
Triglycerides
Total Cholesterol
What does the LDL Deficiency in Type 2 Diabetes cause?
Increased circulating Tg
What does hyperglycemia cause?
Increased fat production in liver = Increased Tg in blood
What does insulin resistance cause?
Increased mobilized FFA = Increased Acetyl CoA = Increased Cholesterol
What is Nephrotic Syndrome caused by?
Loss of glomerular function
What decreases in Nephrotic Syndrome?
Serum Albumin
What 2 substances increase in Nephrotic Syndrome?
Serum Triglycerides and Cholesterol
What can typically be seen with Nephrotic Syndrome?
Proteinuria
OFB
Free fat globules
Fatty casts
Cholesterol Crystals
With Familial Hypercholesterolemia which type is rare?
Homozygous
With Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia what does the Cholesterol get up to?
1000
With Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia what does the Cholesterol get up to?
600
With Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia one can see heart attacks as early as what age?
Teen years
With Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia one can see heart disease in what age range?
20s-50s
What does Familial Hypercholesterolemia lack?
LDL cell receptors
Does LDL accumulate in the blood in Familial Hypercholesterolemia?
Yes
What increases in Familial Hypercholesterolemia?
Total Cholesterol
LDL
Is Familial Hypercholesterolemia associated with obesity?
No
Xanthomas and Arcus are associated with which condition?
Familial Hypercholesterolemia
What causes (Familial) Hypertriglyceridemia?
Imbalance between synthesis and clearance of VLDL
(Familial) Hypertriglyceridemia is an Imbalance between synthesis and clearance of what?
VLDL
What is (Familial) Hypertriglyceridemia deficient in?
LDL
What will patients with (Familial) Hypertriglyceridemia have even after fasting?
Chylomicrons
What can (Familial) Hypertriglyceridemia cause?
Acute pancreatitis
What can poor diet habits lead to?
Increased Fatty acid synthesis for cellular energy
Alcohol interferes with with LPL, so what 2 substances accumulate in blood?
Tg
VLDL
___% of cases of pancreatitis are caused by alcoholism
75%
GGT, AST/ALT are associated with which condtion associated with dyslipidemia?
Alcoholism
Cirrhosis and beta-gama briding are associated with which condition?
Alcoholism
What is absent in Tangier’s Disease?
Apoprotein A = NO HDL
Tangier’s Disease puts its patients at what type of risk?
Premature risk of CHD
Enlarged discolored tonsils and spleen are associated with which condition?
Tangier’s Disease
What are 3 other causes associated with dyslipidemia?
Smoking
Hypertension
Menopause
Patients are at risk for Metabolic Syndrome / Syndrome X if they have 3 or more of what?
Large waistline
Higher triglyceride
Lower HDL
Higher BP
Higher Fasting Glucose
Sedentary lifestyle
What 3 things could be higher for Patients of Metabolic Syndrome / Syndrome X
BP
Fasting Glucose
Triglyceride
Most cholesterol exists as what?
Cholesteryl esters
Enzymatic methods separate cholesterol from what?
Fatty Acids
What interferes with the lab analysis for Total Cholesterol?
Bilirubin
Ascorbic Acid
When analyzing Triglycerides in the lab which enzyme starts the reaction?
Lipase
What type of specimens are preferred to avoid false elevations from dietary Triglycerides?
Fasting
What will cause a false elevation of Triglycerides?
Free glycerol (endogenous)
When testing Triglycerides what type of “blank” should you use to overcome a potential false elevation?
Glycerol
What is steatorrhea?
Presence of excess fat in feces
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