Fitness Theory and Practice Final

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Vitamins to not provide _________, but they are essential to live.
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energy
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Recommendations on food labels are calculated on the assumption that people are consuming ________ calories per day
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2000
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For a healthy diet, an individual should reduce fat intake to now more than _________
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35% of total calories
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______________ should be the bulk of your diet
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Complex carbohydrates
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Simple sugars have a high _______ value.
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GI- this means they rapidly increase sugar levels in the blood
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Fat soluble vitamins
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A, D, E, K
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Saturated fats should comprise no more than __________
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10% of total calories
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How are trans fats created?
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when hydrogen is added to liquid oil
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Unsaturated fats are liquid at ___________
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room temperature
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____________ has recently been added to breads and other grain products in an effort to reduce birth defects
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Folic acid
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____________ are damaging on the kidneys because the body must process a lot of extra nitrogen
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High-protein diets
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Iron is necessary for the blood to carry adequate _________
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oxygen
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Amino acids are simple building blocks that make up ______
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protein
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Carbon monoxide from cigarettes causes reduced __________ in blood
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oxygen-carrying capacity
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Tar in cigarettes contains the carcinogenic compounds that cause __________
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cancer
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_______ smokers want to quit
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most
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The _________ of cigarettes is least likely to determine the dose of (or exposure to) tobacco
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brand
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_____________ tobacco is a major cause of mouth and throat cancer
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smokeless
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Smokeless tobacco has more ________ than cigarettes
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nicotene
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__________ is the single most frequently cited reason for difficulty in quitting smoking
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stress
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Smokeless tobacco contains higher levels of ____________ than cigarettes
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carcinogens
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Mainstream smoke
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exhale smoke form the smoker’s mouth
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________ is considered to be the most addictive
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nicotene
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__________ is a highly poisonous chemical
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nicotene
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According to statistics in the book, there is an increased risk of _____ when blood alcohol content (BAC) reaches _____ percent
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driving; .04
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There is a genetic predisposition in some people to _____
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alcoholism
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Binge drinking for men
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having 5 or more drinks in a row
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Why are women more susceptible to alcohol than men?
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They have less of the enzyme needed to process alcohol
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Ethanol
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the active drug in alcoholic beverages
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The rate and magnitude of the effects of alcohol do not depend upon ____________
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ethnicity
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The amount of alcohol that concentrates in an organ is proportional to…
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the amount of water the organ contains
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Moderate drinking
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for men- 2 or less drinks per day; for women- 1 or less drinks per day
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Excess alcohol consumption on campus contributes to…
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absenteeism from class, sexual abuse, and vandalism
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Contraindicated excercises
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poor choices for nearly everyone in the general population
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Pelvis tipped forward is _____ standing alignment
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poor
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Safe guideline to prevent posture, back, and neck problems when sitting in a chair all day
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resting your back firmly against the chair
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What happens when a body part is out of line?
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increased strain and stress on the muscles, ligaments, and joints because other body parts must compensate to balance it
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Main benefit of curvation of the spinal column
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help balance forces on the body and minimize muscle tension
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Lumbar lordosis
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“swayback”
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________ exercises improve pain tolerance and function for someone experiencing back pain
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core training
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Scoliosis
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most serious and deforming of all postural deviations
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Spinal column includes…
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intervertebral discs important in distributing force
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_________ exercise can help postural and back problems because it corrects muscle imbalances
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resistance
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Most Americans experience ___________ sometime in their life
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back pain
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Environmental factors can cause
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poor posture
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Improving performance requires __________ than health-related fitness because adaptations are specific to the activity
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more specific training
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What should be emphasized in a workout designed to build muscular endurance?
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many repititions with lighter weights
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What are likely to be the most productive for performance enhancement in soccer>
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kicking drills
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What kind of muscle fibers are best suited for anaerobic exercise?
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fast-twitch
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People that exercise more than once a day and while ill or injured may have…
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compulsive physical activity, activity neurosis, and/or exercise addiction
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Power
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combinations of strength and speed
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A mile-runner who regularly performs 6- to 7-mile runs is performing….
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long-slow distance training
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What is least likely to be considered a psychological ergogenic aid?
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time management
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What will aid performance in hitting, sprinting, and weight lifting?
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skill-related fitness
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Athletes who train too hard and do not allow time for rest are susceptible to …
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overload syndrome
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Periodization
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emphasis shifts from volume to intensity as training progresses
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What makes it diffictul to adopt healthy lifestyles, even when people may have good intentions to manage body fat levels?
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their environment
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When setting goals for weight/fat loss or gain, it is best to…
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set small goals that seem realistic to accomplish
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Physical activity should be combined with ___________ for weight loss (instead of relying on diet alone) because it prevents the loss of lean muscle tissue
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diet
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The best dietary guideline for reducing body fat
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moderately reduce caloric intake
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Hunger
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a psychological need for sustenance
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“Empty calories”
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food that is low in nutrients and high in calories
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Contributions of physical activity to maintaining energy balance is…
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an important weight control principle that is exemplified in the activity pyramid
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Spacing meals equally throughout the day is
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good for weight/fat control
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Large short-term changes in body weight from day to day are most likely to result from…
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changes in body water
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Most appropriate recommendations for long-term weight control
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eating a low-fat diet and performing regular exercise
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Losing ______ pounds per week is considered an appropriate short-term goal
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2
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Reading __________ to compare foods is a useful strategy for making food choices conducive to weight control
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food labels
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First step to managing stress
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recognizing the causes and being aware of the symptoms
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Most frequent and important stressors affecting humans
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emotional
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Ambiguous stressors are more problematic because
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fewer clear-cut solutions exist
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Why do college students today have additional pressures than they did in the past?
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More students now work to support their studies
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What personality type experiences more anxiety and depressed mood?
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D personality type
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Eustress
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positive dimension of stress
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Distress
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the excessive level of stress that compromises our function
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Stressors
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environmental, physiological and emotional
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Stress is…
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the non-specific response of the body to any demands placed upon it
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Physical symptoms of stress
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faster heart rate and increased muscle tension
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Emotional stressors are also referred to as
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psycho social stressors
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“Essential fat”
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the minimum amount of body fat essential for good health
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Amenorrhea
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the absence of menstruation
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Obesity
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excessive body fat
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People vary in body weight from day to day and even hour to hour based soley on their…
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level of hydration
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Body mass index or BMI is based on
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height and weight
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From a health perspective, what is more important than being fat?
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Being fit
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DXA
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the accepted gold standard or criterion measure for body composition measurements
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Accepted international standards used by the US and WHO is BMI> is
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>25 is overweight, >30 is obesity
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What does the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) provide?
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an estimate of fat distribution
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Fat in what region poses greater health risk than fat in other locations?
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abdominal body fat
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What is obesity the result of?
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eating more calories than you expend
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What is the best way to control body fatness?
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to combine diet modification and exercise
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Regular physical activity has been found effective at relieving stress by…
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reducing the intensity of the stress response and decreasing the likelihood of developing stress disorders
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According to research, what reduces physiological reactivity to non-exercise stressors?
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chronic exercise
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During the last 10 years, annual working hours in the US have…
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increased
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How is “recreation” different from “leisure”?
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“recreation” is done for a specific purpose
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Coping
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a person’s constantly changing cognitive and psychological efforts to manage stress
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What is an example of an emotion-focused coping strategy?
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going to a fitness center regularly
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What is an appraisal-focused strategy for stress management?
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