First Form Latin Grammar Questions

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Give the five vowel letters and their long sounds in Latin.
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a (ah) e (ay) i (ee) o (oh) and u (oo as in food)
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Give two Latin words that have the long sound of the five vowels.
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gloria, Jesus
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Always in Latin and usually in English, c, g, and sc are soft before:
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e, i, ae, oe
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Always in Latin and usually in English, c, g, and sc are hard before:
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a, o, u, consonants
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In Latin and English hard c has the sound of:
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k
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Soft c has the sound of what in English / Latin:
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English – s / Latin – ch
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In Latin, gn is pronounced like what sound? Give two examples:
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ny – pugno, magnus
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Give the names from left to right, of the last three syllables of a Latin word.
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antepenult, penult, ultima
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The accent is on the what syllable?
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the penult, unless the antepenult is marked
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Verb families are called:
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conjugations
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How many conjugations are there? Name them.
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four – first, second, third, and fourth
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Give the six attributes of a Latin verb.
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conjugation, person, number, tense, voice, and mood
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Give the three grammar persons.
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first person, second person, third person
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The first person is:
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the person speaking
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The second person is:
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the person spoken to
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The third person is:
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the person spoken about
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Give the two grammar numbers:
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singular and plural
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How many Latin tenses are there?
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six
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Name the six Latin tenses:
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present, imperfect, future, perfect, pluperfect, future perfect
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The stem vowel of the first conjugation is:
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a
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Give the names for the three forms of the English present tense.
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simple present, progressive present, emphatic present
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In English “I praise” is what tense:
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simple present tense
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In English “I am praising” is what tense:
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progressive present tense
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In English “I do praise” is what tense:
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emphatic present tense
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In Latin imperfect means:
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not finished
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The imperfect tense sign is:
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ba
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The imperfect tense is used to describe an:
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ongoing, repeated, habitual or interrupted action
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What English helping verbs translate the imperfect tense?
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were, was
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The two basic parts of a sentence are:
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the subject and the predicate
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The subject is:
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who or what the sentence is about
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The predicate tells:
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what the subject is or does
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What is Sentence Pattern 1?
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subject + verb
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What English helping verb translates the Latin future tense?
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will
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The three tenses that make up the Present System are:
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present, imperfect, future
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The present system is built on the:
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present stem
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What are principal parts? How many are there?
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The forms that provide the stems needed to conjugate a verb in all its tenses. There are usually four p.p.
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What is the name of the 2nd principal part?
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infinitive
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The infinitive ending for all 1st conjugation verbs is:
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are
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How do you find the present stem?
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drop the “re” from the infinitive
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The English infinitive is written with the particle:
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to
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The to be verb shows:
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existence and not action
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Give the English forms of the “to be” verb:
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am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been
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Give the regular endings for the principal parts of the 1st conjugation verbs.
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o, are, avi, atus
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What is Sentence Pattern 2?
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subject + verb + direct object
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Something that completes the action of the verb is a:
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complement
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What is the first complement in this text?
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the complementary infinitive
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In Latin grammar perfect means:
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finished
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The perfect tense describes what kind of action?
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a one-time action completed in the past
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The perfect tense is built on the:
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perfect stem
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How do you find the perfect stem?
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drop “i” from the 3rd principal part
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Give three translations for vocavi:
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I called, I have called, I did call
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What English helping verbs translate the perfect tense?
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have, has, did
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The pluperfect tense is built on the:
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perfect stem
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The pluperfect tense describes what kind of action?
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a past action completed prior to another past action
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What English helping verb translates the pluperfect tense?
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had
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The pluperfect tense endings are identical to:
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the imperfect tense of sum
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The future perfect tense is built on the:
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perfect stem
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The future perfect tense describes:
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an action in the future completed prior to another action in the future
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What English helping verbs translate the future perfect tense?
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will have
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The future perfect tense endings are identical to:
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the future tense of sum (except for 3rd person plural)
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The tenses of the Perfect Stem are:
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perfect, pluperfect, future perfect
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The tenses of the Perfect System are built on the:
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perfect stem
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Verb families are called:
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conjugations
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Noun families are called:
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declensions
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How many declensions are there? Name them.
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There are five: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th
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Give the four attributes of nouns:
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declension, gender, number, and case
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The three genders are:
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masculine, feminine, neuter
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Nouns that name male or female persons or animals have:
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natural gender
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Give three English examples of nouns that have natural gender:
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sister, brother, father, queen, king, uncle, etc.
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Nouns that name non-living things have what kind of gender:
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grammatical gender
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To what does the case of a noun refer?
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the job of a noun in a sentence
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Name the cases in order:
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nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative
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What is the subject case?
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nominative
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What is the direct object case?
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accusative
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What is the indirect object case?
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dative
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What is the possessive case?
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genitive
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What is the in/by/with/from case?
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ablative
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What is the to/for case?
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dative
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What is the “of” case?
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genitive
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The genitive singular of a 1st declension noun always ends in:
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ae
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1st declension nouns are usually what gender?
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feminine
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Three important exceptions to the 1st declension feminine rule are:
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poeta, nauta, agricola
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Latin does not have the English articles:
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a, an, the
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Give three translations for the Latin noun mensa:
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table, a table, the table
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The genitive singular of a 2nd declension noun always ends in:
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i
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Second declension “us” nouns are usually what gender:
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masculine gender
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Name the two subgroups of the 2nd declension, and give their gender:
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1) “us” nouns with masculine gender 2) “um” nouns with neuter gender
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Verbs have what endings:
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tense, personal endings
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Nouns have what endings:
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case endings
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Second declension “um” nouns are always what gender:
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neuter gender
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The declension a noun belongs to is determined by the:
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genitive singular
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The natural gender rule does what to all other gender rules?
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the natural gender rule trumps all other gender rules
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What is the neuter rule? (There are two parts)
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nominative and accusative endings are the same nominative and accusative plural ending is -a
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The subject and verb must agree in:
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person and number
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What is an adjective?
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An adjective modifies or describes a noun or pronoun
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In Latin an adjective must agree with its noun in:
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gender, number, case (but NOT declension)
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Do adjectives of quantity and quality usually precede or follow a noun?
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usually an adjective of “quantity” precedes a noun and an adjective of “quality” follows the noun.
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Counting numbers are called:
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cardinal
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Numbers which indicate the order of things in a series are called:
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ordinal
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What is Sentence Pattern #3?
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subject + linking verb + predicate adjective
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What is Sentence Pattern #4?
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subject + linking verb + predicate nominative
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The genitive singular of a 3rd declension noun always ends in:
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-is
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How can you know the gender of a 3rd declension noun?
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you have to memorize it
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Masculine and feminine nouns of the 3rd declension have:
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the same case endings
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How do you find the stem of a Latin noun?
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drop the genitive singular ending
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The usual word order for an English sentence is:
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subject – verb – direct object
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How many of the seven basic sentence patters have complements?
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six
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What are the three complements covered in this text?
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direct object, predicate adjective, predicate nominative
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What are the two kinds of direct objects covered in this text?
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1) complementary infinitive 2) direct object in the accusative case
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The usual word order for a Latin sentence is:
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subject – direct object – verb
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What kind of verb is never followed by a direct object?
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The verb sum, the “to be” verb
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The genitive singular of the 4th declension noun always ends in:
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“us”
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Fourth declension nouns are usually what gender?
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masculine gender (two common exceptions are: domus and manus)
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The genitive singular of the 5th declension is:
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ei
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Most 5th declension nouns are what gender?
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feminine gender (a common exception is dies)
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The stem vowel of the 2nd Conjugation is:
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“e”
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The infinitive ending for all 2nd Conjugation verbs is:
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-ere
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The regular endings for the principal parts of a 2nd conjugation verb are:
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-eo, -ere, -ui, -itus
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What is the gender triangle?
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draw on a separate piece of paper

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