First Aid NCMC ch 17-22

question

With an Unknown sudden illness, what should you give the victim to drink?
answer

Nothing
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six common signs of heart attack:
answer

Shortness of breath, Chest pain/pressure, sweating, nausea, pale skin, dizziness
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A victim has chest pain. How do you decide if it’s angina or heart attack?
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Angina is usually after exertion; if it lasts more than 10 minutes or other symptoms are present, then treat as a heart attack.
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First action for a heart attack victim is:
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Call 9-1-1
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Position a stroke victim such that:
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Fluids drain from the mouth
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T/F – You must know the specific cause of difficulty breathing to render first aid?
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False: call 9-1-1, place in position easiest to breath, assist with prescribed medication, monitor the victim
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To help someone breath more easily, help into what position?
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Let the victim find the position in which he or she can breath most easily
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What is the best thing a person with asthma can do when having an attack?
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Use his/her prescribed medicine
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Should you have a hyperventilation victim breath into a bag?
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No, may disrupt the balance of O2 / CO2 in the blood.
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When should you call 9-1-1 for a victim of hyperventilation?
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If breathing doesn’t return to normal after a few minutes
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When should you call 9-1-1 for a victim who faints?
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If victim doesn’t regain consciousness soon or faints repeatedly
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when a victim faints, what part of the body should you raise about 12 inches?
answer

The legs
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The first aid for seizures – first step:
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Prevent injury – move dangerous objects and put something flat and soft under the the head. remove glasses (Do not put anything in the victims mouth!)
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Some (seven) reasons to call 9-1-1 for a seizure victim includes:
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Lasts more than 5 min, no history of seizure, consecutive seizures, pregnancy, trouble breathing, slow recovery, medical ID bracelet indicates.
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What should you do for a young adult whose abdomen feels hard?
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Seek urgent medical care
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Five common signs/symptoms of low blood sugar:
answer

Dizziness, Hunger, Clumsiness, sweating, confusion
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You know a person is diabetic, but are unsure if blood sugar is too high or too low. What should you do?
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Give sugar, wait fifteen minutes for symptoms to clear. If not improving after fifteen minutes, call 9-1-1.
question

Six common signs of sudden illness:
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Feeling ill, dizzy, confused, weak, skin color changes (flushed or pale), sweating, breathing changes
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When should you call 9-1-1 for an illness that occurs suddenly and without explanation?
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Always!
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Most crucial aspect of first aid for a stroke victim:
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Call 9-1-1 immediately
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Low oxygen blood levels from breathing difficulty could cause:
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Dizziness or disorientation
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To help a person who is hyperventilating:
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ask the victim to breath slowly
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Which of the following can cause altered mental status: – Stroke, – Poisoning, – Head injury?
answer

All of the above
question

Five common signs of swallowed poison:
answer

Vomiting, Unresponsiveness, Nausea, Dizziness, Drowsiness, (VUNDD)
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One action you take for food poison that you do not take for swallowed poison:
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Push lots of fluids to drink
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First action for a victim of carbon monoxide poison
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Move the victim to fresh air
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You find a child unresponsive next to an open bottle of cleaning product. What actions do you take?
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Call 9-1-1, BLS, Recovery position
question

First step for contact dermatitis (Poison ivy)
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Wash with soap and water (try to prevent water from spreading the resin).
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When should someone with poison oak or ivy see a healthcare provider?
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When there is severe reaction, Swelling (face, eyes, genitals), or infection (Puss). PuSS – Puss, Severe, Swelling
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What can Hydrocortisone do for poison ivy?
answer

Reduce itching
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Where do most poisonings occur?
answer

In the home
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What group experiences the largest percentage of poisonings?
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Children under age 6
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Which of the following may be poisonous: – Cosmetics, – Vitamins with iron, – Arts and crafts supplies
answer

All of the above
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T/F – Poison can cause altered mental status?
answer

True
question

First response for a child who swallowed poison?
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Call the Poison Control Center (800-222-1222) or 9-1-1 for unresponsive victim
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A few hours after eating a victim feels ill. When should you seek medical help for this victim?
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When there is shaking/chills, dizziness, or skin is cold and clammy (any of the above).
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What position do you place an unresponsive victim who has been suspected of swallowing poison?
answer

Recovery position
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T/F – Carbon Monoxide may cause dizziness?
answer

True
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What kind of homeopathic remedy can you use for poison ivy?
answer

A paste of baking soda and water (thick enough it will stay on the affected area).
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Two most commonly abused drugs in the United States:
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Alcohol and Marijuana
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Substance abuse prevention efforts should focus on what age groups?
answer

Children and Adolescents
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Three actions to prevent the misuse of prescribed drugs:
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1. Read product information that comes with medication, 2. Keep meidcation in their original labeled containers 3. Ensure that a persom with diminished judgment cannot take too much
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Treating an intoxicated person who “passes out”
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1.Check for injury, 2. Place in recovery position, 3. Monitor/BLS, 4. Call 9-1-1 for irregular breathing, seizure, or comma
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How is alcohol similar to narcotic drugs in high doses?
answer

Both are depressants and can lead to impaired respiration or comma.
question

Four actions to take for a drug/medication overdose
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1. Call 9-1-1 or PCC, 2. Check for injuries, 3. Try to keep person awake, 4. Find out what the person took. C-CAT (Call, Check, Awake, Took)
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T/F Seizures can result from alcohol poisoning?
answer

True
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To assess an intoxicated victim’s injury, rely on what?
answer

Mainly, just visible signs of injury.
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Severe alcohol withdrawal may cause:
answer

Hallucinations!
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A man says he took too many “percs”. What should you do?
answer

Call the PCC for more information on how to treat him
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First aid for drug over-dose is typically the same as first aid for what?
answer

Poisoning.
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To minimize the risk of rabies from an animal bite:
answer

See a healthcare provider immediately
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Why are human bites serious medical conditions?
answer

The human mouth contains many bacteria and pathogens that are very infectious.
question

Three actions to take for a snakebite:
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Lay victim down, Bite area below the heart, call 9-1-1 (Do not suck the wound or apply a tourniquet). For coral snake only, apply an elastic bandage (not too tight) up the entire limb (to prevent lymph movement).
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For spider bites, when should you call 9-1-1?
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For all brown recluse bites, when the victim has trouble breathing
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A tick is best removed by using?
answer

Tweezers. Grab the tick at the head and steadily pull straight out (do not twist)
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A prominent sign of Lyme disease from a tick:
answer

A bulls-eye rash within a range of 3 – 30 days after a tick bite
question

A bee stinger can be removed from the skin by using a __________ ______________
answer

credit card
question

A person is stung by a bee. Her face is red, skin, eyes, and mouth look puffy, she seems short of breath. What four actions do you take?
answer

1. Call 9-1-1, 2. Ask about an epi-pen, 3. Monitor breathing, 4. Treat for shock
question

What can you put on a jellyfish sting to ease the pain?
answer

Vinegar or baking soda
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Which of the following is first aid for a snake bite: -Sucking the wound -Applying turniquet -Washing with soap and water -Applying a hot compress
answer

Washing with soap and water
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Why should you not try to remove a tick with a hot match or fire?
answer

It may cause the tick to regurgitate infectious material into the wound.
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What disease is the most important reason to prevent misquito bites in the united states?
answer

West Nile Virus
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When should 9-1-1 be called for a bee sting?
answer

When there is a known allergy
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T/F – rubbing frost bitten fingers is the best way to warm them?
answer

False – it may damage the skin
question

What color does frostbitten skin tend to be?
answer

White, gray, yellow, or blue-ish
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A man has frostbitten ears. Name three steps to take for him.
answer

Warm his ears with your hands (ensuring not to rub them), Protect his ears from being rubbed , Seek medical care (WPM / WaP’eM – Warm Protect Medical)
question

Does the temperature have to be below freezing for hypothermia to set in?
answer

No, it just has to be cold enough that the body cannot produce enough heat to compensate. Especially takes place for a victim in wet clothing
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A mildly hypothermic victim is brought to a ski lodge. Your treatment should include:
answer

Removing wet clothing and warming with a blanket
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In the wild, how can you treat hypothermia with typical camping materials?
answer

get victim into a tent, remove wet clothing and warm in a sleeping bag. offer the victim a warm drink.
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For abdominal heat cramps, what two actions can be taken?
answer

Rest in shade and drink a sports drink
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To treat heat cramps:
answer

Drink a sports drink or water
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Do you give salt tablets to a victim with heat exhaustion?
answer

NO! offer a sports drink
question

Heat exhaustion begins when a person in a hot environment is not getting enough ________
answer

Fluids
question

Three possible ways to cool a victim with heat exhaustion:
answer

Wet cloth on head, Sponge water on skin, Spray skin with water and cool with fan
question

Five steps to treat heat exhaustion:
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1. Get into cool/shade, 2. Loosen clothing, 3. Give sports drink/water, 4. Lay down and raise legs 8-12 inches, 5. Cool body with water.
question

T/F – For heat stroke, you can take a victim home if they feel better?
answer

False – always get medical care for a stroke
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When do you call 9-1-1 for a victim of heat stroke?
answer

Call 9-1-1 for all victims of heat stroke
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What is the behavior of a heat stroke victim
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Disoriented, Irrational, Dizzy, Confused, and may become Unresponsive (DID CU)
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Muscle contraction produces (a. Heat, B. Cold)
answer

Heat
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What groups of people are heat and cold emergencies more likely?
answer

Elderly, people with chronic diseases, Infants
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Protection first aid for frostbite includes
answer

Protecting area from rubbing and constrictive jewelry
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To help prevent hypothermia a person should stay ________
answer

dry
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Signs and symptoms of hypothermia include:
answer

Apathy and confussion
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first aid for severe hypothermia includes calling ______
answer

9-1-1
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What order do heat illnesses progress with activity in hot environment?
answer

Heat cramps –> Heat exhaustion –> Heat stroke
question

Normal responses to many injuries includes:
answer

Trembling/shakiness, Altered mental status, Fear/anxiety,
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Ten conditions that may result in altered mental status
answer

Respiratory emergencies, Poisoning, Seizure, Stroke, Drug overdose, Cardiac emergencies, Head injuries, Diabetic emergencies, High fever, Heat or Cold emergencies.
question

Five things you can do to help calm an emotional victim
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Reassure them help is on the way, Let them tell you what they think is wrong, Make eye contact, Tell what you plan to do, move calmly and/or slowly.
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Should you acknowledge that a person seems depressed?
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Yes, do not just pretend nothing is wrong
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If a person talks about suicide should you just shrug it off?
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No, talking about it is a major warning sign
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A behavioral emergency seems a bit threatening. Three steps:
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1. Do not enter scene if unsafe (encourage others to stay back too), 2. Call 9-1-1, 3.Talk to the person calmly and quietly. Try to divert the person from any violent action by keeping him/her talking.
question

If you suspect a child is being abused:
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Report it to the authorities
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Four common characteristics of domestic violence:
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Victim: loves their partner, feels guilty/blames themselves, has low self-esteem, depends emotionally or financially on their partner
question

Elder abuse includes what three things?
answer

Sexual abuse, Abandonment, Neglect
question

Six first aid actions for victim of rape:
answer

1. Be sensitive to emotion, 2. call 9-1-1, 3. Ensure victim privacy, 4. have first aider of same sex and/or family/friend, 5. give first aid till help arrives, 6. preserve evidence
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T/F – Altered mental status can occur from injuries that reduce oxygen levels
answer

True
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Why is it important to calm a victim of emotional distress?
answer

Stress has negative physical affects, cannot help an uncooperative person, Keeps victim from becoming violent
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Should you keep eye contact with a person who is irrational?
answer

Yes
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One thing to reassure a victim of depression:
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“There are programs available to help you deal with problems like this”
question

a parent accused of abusing a child will most likely __________
answer

deny it
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T/F – A reasonable suspicion of child abuse is grounds to report to authorities?
answer

True
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Suspected cases of child abuse should be reported by who?
answer

Those who ahve cause to suspect abuse or violence
question

One way to preserve evidence of rape is:
answer

asking the victim to not wash until examined by a healthcare provider.

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