First Aid Mnemonics

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Neutrophils Like Making Everything Better
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WBC differential from highest to lowest: Neutrophils (54-62%) Lymphocytes (25-33%) Monocytes (3-7%) Eosinophils (1-3%) Basophils (0-0.75%)
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Causes of eosinophilia: NAACP
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Neoplastic Asthma Allergic processes Collagen vascular diseases Parasites (invasive)
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Basophilic staining
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Basophilic – staining readily with basic stains
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MHC classes
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MHC x CD = 8 class II x CD4 = 8 class I x CD 8 = 8
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Basophilic stippling: BASte the ox TAiL
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thalassemias anemia of chronic disease lead poisoning
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teardrop cell: RBC “sheds a tear”
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RBC “sheds a tear” because it’s been forced out of its home in the bone marrow –> BM infiltration (myelofibrosis)
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target cells: “HALT” said the hunter to his target
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HbC disease Asplenia Liver disease Thalassemia
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Lead poisoning: LEAD
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Lead Lines on gingivae (Burton’s lines) and on metaphyses of long bones on x rays Encephalpathy and Erythrocyte basophilic stippling Abdomninal colic and sideroblastic Anemia Drops (wirst and foot drop) Dimercaprol and EDTA = 1st line treatment
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WARM weather is GGGreat
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warm agglutinin in autoimmune hemolytic anemia = IgG
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COLD ice cream – yuMMM
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cold agglutinin in autoimmune hemolytic anemia = IgM
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the 7 “P”‘s of acute intermittent porphyria
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affect enzyme = Porphobilinogen deaminase accumulated substrate = Porphobilinogen (+delta-ALA, uroporphyrin) Painful abdomen Port wine-colored urine Polyneuropathy Psychological disturbances Precipitated by drugs
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DIC causes: “STOP Making New Thrombi”
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Sepsis (gram-negative) Trauma Obstetric complications acute Pancreatitis Malignancy Nephrotic syndrome Transfusion
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Multiple Myeloma: CRAB
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hyperCalcemia Renal insufficiency Anemia Bone lytic lesions/Back pain
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the M’s of multiple myeloma
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Multiple Myeloma: Monoclonal M protein
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Philadelphia CreaML cheese
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Philadelphia chromosome (t9;22) associated with CML
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warfarin: “The EX-PresidenT went to WAR(farin)”
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EXtrinsic pathway –> increased PT
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Dactinomycin: “children act out”
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used to treat childhood tumors (Wilm’s tumor, Ewing’s sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma)
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Vinblastine Blasts bone marrow (suppression)
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tx: solid tumor, leukemias, lymphomas
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vincristine & vinblastine: “Microtubules are the vines of your cells”
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vincristine and vinblastine bind to tubulin in M phase & block polymerization of microtubules
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Lead Poisoning: “It SUCks to be a kid who eats lead”
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Succimer used for chelation for kids
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teardrop cells: the Bone marrow is crying because it’s fibrosed
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myelofibrosis
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Paclitaxel: “It is taxing to stay polymerized”
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hyperstabilizes polymerized microtubules in M phase
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Gram Stain Limitations: “These Rascals May Microscopically Lack Color”
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Treponema Rickettsia Mycobacteria Mycoplasma Legionella pneumophila Chlamydia
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Giemsa Stain: “Certain Bugs Really TRY my Patience”
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Chlamydia Borrelia Rickettsiae TRYpanosomes Plasmodium
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PAS (periodic acid-Schiff) stains: “PASs the SUGAR”
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stains glycogen and mucopolysaccharides
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special culture requirements: “to connect to Neisseria, please use your VPN client”
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Thayer Martin Media = Vancomycin Polymyxin Nystatin
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special culture: Bordet for Bordetella
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Bordet-Gengou agar for Bordetella pertussis
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special culture: “Sab’s a fun guy!”
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Sabouraud’s agar for Fungi
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obligate aerobes: “Nagging Pests Must Breathe”
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Nocardia Pseudomonas aeruginosa Mycobacterium tuberculosis Bacillus
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obligate anaerobes: “anaerobes Can’t Breathe Air”
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Clostridium Bacteroides Actinomyces
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obligate intracellular bugs: “Stay inside when it is Really Cold”
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Rickettsia Chlamydia
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facultative intracellular bugs: “Some Nasty Bugs May Live FacultativeLY”
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SSalmonella Neisseria Brucella Mycobacterium Listeria Francisella Legionella Yersinia pestis
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encapsulated bacteria: “Quellung = capsular “Swellung”
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positive quellung reaction – if encapsulated bug is present, capsule swells when specific anticapsular antisera are added
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encapsulated bugs: “SHiNE SKiS”
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streptococcus penumoniae Haemophilus influenzae type B Neisseria meningitidis Escherichia coli Salmonella Klebsiella pneumoniae group B Strep
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Catalase positive bugs: “you need PLACESS for your CATs”
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Pseudomonas Listeria Aspergillus Candida E. coli S. aureus Serratia
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urease positive bugs: “CHuck Norris hates PUNKSS”
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cryptococcus H. pylori Proteus Ureaplasma Nocardia Klebsiella S. epidermidis S. saprophyticus
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pigment producing bacteria: “ISRAEL has YELLOW SAND”
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actinomyces israeli – yellow “sulfur” granules
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pigment producing bacteria: “aureus = Latin for gold”
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s. aureus – yellow pigment
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pigment-producing bacteria: “AERUGula is GREEN”
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pseudomonas aeruginosa = blue-green pigment
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pigment producing bacteria: “red maraschino cherries”
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serratia marcescens – red pigment
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IgA protease: “SHiN”
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secreted by: S. pneumoniae H. influenze type B Neisseria
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ETEC toxins: “LABILE in the Air, STABLE on the Ground”
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heat-labiel toxin overactivates Adenylate cyclase Heat stable toxin overactivates guanylate cyclase
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ENDOTOXIN
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Edema Nitric Oxide DIC/Death Outer membrane TNF-alpha O-antigen eXtremely heat stable Il-1 Neutrophil chemotaxis
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transformation (bacterial genetics): “SHiN”
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s. pneumnoiae H. influenzae type B Neisseria
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lysogeny (specialized transduction): “ABCDE”
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shigA-like toxin Botulinum toxin Cholera toxin Diphtheria toxin Erythrogenic toxin of strep pyogenes
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STAPHylococci identification: “On the office’s STAPH retreat, there was NO StRESs”
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NOvobiocin: Saprophyticus = Resistent Epidermidis = Sensitive
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Streptococci identification: OVRPS
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Optochin: Viridians = Resistant Pneumoniae = Sensitive
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Streptococci Identification: B-BRAS
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Bacitracin: group B strep = Resistant group A strep = Sensitive
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“Staph makes catalase because they have more “staff””
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Staph = Catalase Positive
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Streptococcus Pneumoniae: “S. pneumoniae MOPS are Most OPtochin Sensitive”
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Strep pneumo = most common cause of: Meningitis Otitis media (in children) Pneumonia Sinusitis
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Viridans group streptococci: “Viridans group strep live in the mouth because they are not afraid OF-THE-CHIN”
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= op-to-chin resistant = normal flora of the oropharynx
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Streptococcus pyogenes (group A) – diagnosis of Rheumatic Fever = “J<3NES" criteria
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Joints – polyarthritis

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