First Aid Certification

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senses that can alert you to an emergency
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– sounds (screams, breaking glass, screeching tires) – unusual sights (empty medicine containers – unusual appearances or behaviors of others (difficulty breathing, clutching of the chest or throat, abnormal skin colors, slurred or confused speech)
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If the scene is not safe…
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call for medical help. (do not endanger your life or the life of bystanders)
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When approaching the victim…
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determine consciousness; if no response, call for help
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Why is it important to avoid moving the victim?
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victims have been injured more severely by improper movement
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information that EMS needs includes…
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– description of the situation – actions taken – exact location – telephone number – number of people involved – condition of the victim(s)
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What is triage?
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method of prioritizing treatment
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examples of life threatening emergencies
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– no breathing or difficulty breathing – no pulse – severe bleeding – persistent pain in the chest or abdomen – poisoning – head, neck, or spine injuries – open chest or abdominal wounds – severe burns
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sources of information to discover details of accident, illness, or injury
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– details from victim, others, or items present at the scene – medical ID such as jewelry, card, tattoo
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How do reassure the victim?
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use a confident, calm voice to help relieve the victim’s anxiety
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Should you discuss the victim’s condition with observers at the scene?
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No (maintain confidentiality and protect the victim’s right to privacy while providing treatment)
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While providing first aid to the victim…
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make every attempt to avoid further treatment to avoid further injury (provide only treatment you are qualified to provide)
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An open wound…
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has a break in the skin or mucous membrane
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A closed wound…
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has no break in the skin (the injury occurs to the underlying tissues)
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Providing first aid care for wounds must be directed at…
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– controlling bleeding – preventing infections
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abrasion
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scrape
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incision
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cut by a sharp object
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laceration
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tearing by excessive force; has jagged edges
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puncture
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caused by a sharp, pointed object
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avulsion
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tissue is torn or separated from the body
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amputation
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body part cut off
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arterial blood
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– usually spurts from a wound – heavy blood loss – bright red in color
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venous blood
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– slower – dark red – easier to control
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capillary blood
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– oozes from the wound – clots easily
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methods to controlling bleeding
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– direct pressure – elevation – pressure bandage – pressure points
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To control bleeding before medical help arrives…
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use a clean cloth, towel, or even your bare hand
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pressure point for brachial artery (arm)
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inside of upper arm
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pressure point for femoral artery (leg)
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groin
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To prevent infection while controlling bleeding for minor wounds…
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– wash hands before treating – put gloves on if available – wash wound with soap and water – rinse with cool water – use sterile gauze to blot wound dry
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signs of infection
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– swelling – heat – pain – fever – pus – red streaks
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If victim is bleeding…
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ask the patient when they last had a tetanus shot (they may require another one)
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How do you remove object embedded deep in the tissues?
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– if on the surface, remove it with sterile tweezers – if objects are deep, leave it and see a physician
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signs/symptoms of a closed wound
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– pain – tenderness – deformity – cold/clammy skin – rapid pulse – low blood pressure – uncontrolled restlessness – vomiting blood – blood in urine or feces
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first aid for closed wounds
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– get medical help ASAP – check breathing – avoid unnecessary movement of the victim – DO NOT give the victim fluids or foods – MONITOR FOR SHOCK
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At all times…
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remain calm while providing first aid. Obtain medical care as soon as possible
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fracture
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break in the bone
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dislocation
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the end of a bone is displaced from a joint or moved out of its normal position
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sprain
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injury to tissues surrounding a joint (involving ligaments and tendons)
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strain
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overstretching of a muscle
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closed fracture
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fracture with no external wound on the skin
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open (compound) fracture
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fracture with an open wound on the skin
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signs/symptoms of a fracture
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– deformities – limited motion – pain – victim hears a snap – victim feels a grating sensation – swelling and discoloration
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Treatment for fracture is directed at…
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– maintaining respirations – treating for shock – keeping the broken bone from moving – preventing further injury
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signs/symptoms of dislocation
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– deformity – limited movement – swelling and discoloration – pain – shortened affected extremity
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Movement of the dislocated part can lead to…
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additional injury to nerves, blood vessels, and other tissues in the area
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signs/symptoms of a sprain
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– swelling – pain – impaired motion – discoloration
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first aid for sprains
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– application of cold compresses (reduces swelling and pain) – elevation of the part – rest – elastic bandage
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Use warm application to treat…
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a strain to relax the muscles
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materials that can be used for splints include…
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– cardboard – newspapers – pillows – boards
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basic principles of splints
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– long enough to immobilize the joint above and below the injury – padded – tied in place – shouldn’t apply pressure over the injury – shouldn’t be too tight
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checking circulation of a limb
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– skin temp (should be warm) – skin color (pale or blueness indicates poor circulation) – note swelling – check for pain/tingling – check capillary refill for blanching
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if splint is too tight…
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immediately loosen the ties holding the splint
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A burn is an injury that can be caused by…
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a fire, heat, chemical agents, radiation, and/or electricity
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first-degree burn (superficial)
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– involves only the first layer of skin (sunburn, brief contact with hot objects)
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second-degree burn (partial-thickness)
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– causes injury to top layers of skin; involves both the dermis and epidermis – swelling occurs (severe sunburn, contact with boiling liquids)
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third- degree burn (full-thickness)
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– involves injury to all layers of the skin and underlying tissue – can be painless – life-threatening (exposure to fire/flames, electricity)
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first aid treatment for burns is directed at…
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– removing the source of heat – cooling the skin area – covering the burn – relieving pain – observing and treating for shock – preventing infection
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When should medical care be obtained?
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– more than 15% of the ADULT body is burned – more than 10% of a CHILD’s body is burned – burns affect face or respiratory tract – burns result from chemicals, explosions, or electricity
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To treat first and second-degree burns…
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– cool the area by flushing it with cool water – use dry, sterile gauze to blot the area dry – apply a dry, sterile dressing to prevent infection – elevate the affected part if possible – DO NOT break any blisters open
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To treat third-degree burns…
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– call for medical help immediately – cover with a sterile dressing – elevate the extremity – do not attempt to remove articles of clothing from the burn watch the victim closely until help arrives
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To treat eyes if they are burned by chemicals,
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– remove contact lenses if applicable – flush eyes with large amounts of water for 15-30 minutes – allow water to run to the outside of the eye
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Shock is frequently noted in victims with severe burns because…
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dehydration (loss of body fluids)
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When the body is over-exposed to heat…
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a chemical imbalance of water and salt occurs through perspiration
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heat cramps
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muscle pains/spasms that result from sale and water loss
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treatment for heat cramps
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– apply firm pressure on the muscle – encourage the victim to rest and move to a cooler area – give small sips of water or sports drink
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signs/symptoms of heat exhaustion
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– pale, clammy skin – profuse perspiration – tired, weak – headache – muscle cramps – nausea/vomiting – fainting
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first aid for heat exhaustion
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– loosen or remove clothing – apply cool, wet cloths – lie victim down and elevate feet slightly – give small sips of water
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heat stroke
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– body is not able to eliminate excess heat – body temp is 105° or higher
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difference between heat exhaustion and heat stroke
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body temp is elevated with heat stroke
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signs/symptoms of heat stroke
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– red, hot, dry skin – rapid pulse – loss of consciousness
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high body temperature can cause…
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convulsions and/or death in a short period of time
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first aid for heat stroke
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– cool victim quickly, place them in a tub of cool water – apply cold packs to wrists, ankles, and axillary and groin area – watch for signs of shock
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warn a victim of heat stroke to…
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– avoid warm or hot temperatures for several days after recovering from heat exposure – encourage the victim to drink sufficient amounts of water and have an adequate intake of salt
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poison control number
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(800) 222-1222
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poisoning be cause by…
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– swallowing various substances – inhaling poisonous gases – injecting substances – contacting the skin with poison
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treatment for poisoning will vary depending on the…
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– type of poison – injury involved – method of contact
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first thing to do when a victim has swallowed poison
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call the poison control center or a physician immediately [ (800)222-1222 ]
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types of information that should be given to the poison control center
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– what was taken – how much – the time in which the poisoning occurred
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if a conscious poison victim vomits…
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save a sample of it
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position an unconscious poison victim…
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on one side with their head slightly downward
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To induce vomiting…
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– syrup of ipecac, followed by a glass of water -OR- – tickle the back of the victim’s throat or administer warm salt water
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Activated charcoal is used after a poisoning victim vomits because…
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it counteracts the remaining poison by helping to absorb it
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Vomiting should not not be induced if the victim…
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– is unconscious – swallowed an acid or alkali – swallowed a petroleum product – is convulsing
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first step of treatment for a victim who has been poisoned by inhaling gas
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remove the victim immediately from the area before treating them
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To treat victims poisoned by chemicals splashing on the skin…
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use large amounts of water to wash the skin for at least 15-20 minutes
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Signs of an allergic reaction to an injected poison include…
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– redness and swelling at the site – itching – hives – pain – swelling of the throat – difficulty breathing – dizziness – change in the level of consciousness
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shock
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a clinical set of signs and symptoms that are associated with an inadequate supply of blood to body organs
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The two main organs affected by shock…
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brain and heart
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causes of shock
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– excessive loss of blood (hemorrhage) – dehydration (burns, vomiting, diarrhea) – excessive pain or infection – heart attack or stroke – poisoning – lack of oxygen – psychological trauma
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anaphylactic shock
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allergic reaction to a substance (food, insect bite or sting, medications)
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cardiogenic shock
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caused by damage to the heart muscle from heart attack or cardiac arrest
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hemorrhagic
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caused by severe bleeding or loss of blood plasma
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hypovolemic shock
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caused by a loss of body fluid from severe vomiting, diarrhea, or heat illness
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neurogenic shock
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caused by injury and trauma to the brain and/or spinal cord
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psychogenic
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caused by emotional distress such as anger, fear, or grief
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respiratory shock
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caused by trauma to respiratory tract; respiratory distress or arrest (chronic disease, choking)
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septic shock
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caused by acute infection
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signs/symptoms of shock
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– skin is pale or bluish-gray in color – skin is cool or cold to the touch – diaphoresis (excessive perspiration) – rapid, weak pulse – Respirations that are shallow, rapid, and sometimes irregular – blood pressure that is very low or not obtainable – general weakness – extreme restlessness – blurred vision
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goals of treatment for shock
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– reduce the effects or eliminate the cause – improve circulation – oxygen – maintain body temperature
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treatment for shock
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– get medical help as soon as possible – carefully position the victim based on the injury – cover the victim with blankets to help maintain body temperature but if they become overheated, remove them – avoid giving the victim anything to eat or drink
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positioning for shock
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– best position is flat on the back with legs and feet raised to improve circulation to the heart and brain – if the victim is vomiting or has bleeding injuries to the face/mouth, position them on their side to prevent choking or breathing problems – if the victim has a head (not neck) injury then the head should be slightly raised – if neck or spine injuries are suspected do not move them unless necessary for their safety
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Rule of Nines
Rule of Nines
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