Final Exam Review – Flashcards with Answers

question

Name the charge mass and role of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
answer

Proton: +, 1 AMU, # of protons = atomic number
Electron: -, 1 AMU, # of protons = # of electrons in a stable atom
Nuetron: neutral, neglected, separates protons and stabilizes nucleus
question

Name the groups of the p-table.
answer

Group A: Representative Elements
Group B: Transition Elements
Groups 1A-3A: Nonmetals are above stairs
Groups 4A- 7A: Metals
Group 8: Noble Gases
Below Stairs: Metaloids
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Ionic Bonds
answer

Metal + Non-metal = Ionic Compound
Cation (+) is ALWAYS first, Anion (-) is ALWAYS second
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Covalent Bonds
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Only between Non-metals
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In respect to atomic radius; the ______ the charge the ______ the radius.
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The GREATER the charge, the SMALLER the radius
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Naming non-metals
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Name FIRST as in p-table. Replace SECOND ending with -ide. When the first non-metal is NOT hydrogen…use mono, di, tri etc.
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Where are type 1 metals in the p-table?
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Groups 1A, 2A, and AL
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Naming Type 1 Metals
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Name FIRST as in p-table
Name SECOND with -ide ending
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Naming a metal and polyatomic ion
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Write metal as listed in p-table
Write ion as listed on chart
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Naming Type 2 Metals
answer

Name FIRST Metal as written in p-table.
Calculate charge of 1st metal and write it after in roman numerals.
Name SECOND with -ide ending.
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Naming Acids
answer

if ending = -ate; stem + -ic

if ending = -ide; add HYDRO to beginning then stem + -ous

if ending = -ite; stem = -ous

Add ACID to the end

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What is a mole?
answer

1 mole = atomic mass on ANY element
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1 mole = _________ atoms in ANY compound.
answer

6.022 x 10 ^ 23
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What are the steps in finding the Empirical Formula?
answer

1. Divide (% comp / atomic mass)
2. Divide all solutions by the SMALLEST solution yielded from step 1
3. If left with a fraction divide by multipliers.
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Multipliers
answer

0.5 multiply by 2!
0.33 or 0.66 multiply by 3! 0.25 or 0.75 multiply by 4!
0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 multiply by 5!
0.1 or 0.9 then ROUND!
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What is the solute and solvent in respect to a solution?
answer

Solute; the LOWER amount
Solvent; the HIGHER amount
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Define Concentration.
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The amount of SOLUTE dissolved in a solution
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Define Molarity.
answer

Molar Concentration
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To convert mL to L ____ by 1000
To convert kL to L ____ by 1000
answer

Divide
Multiply
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The limiting reagent always yields the ____amount.
answer

LESS
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1 ATM relates to _______.
What does 1 ATM = ?
answer

pressure
1 ATM = 760 torr
= 760 mm Hg
= 101.25 K pascal
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As volume ________, pressure ________.
answer

As volume DECREASES, pressure INCREASES.
question

When using Ideal Gas Law, what should the units be for:
PRESSURE
VOLUME
TEMPERATURE
answer

Pressure – ATM
Volume – Liters
Temperature – Kelvin
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What does kelvin = ?
answer

0 + 273
or 0 degree Celsius + 273
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What does Standard Temperature Pressure (STP) mean?
answer

Temperature = 273 Kelvin
Pressure = 1 ATM
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What is the molar volume of any gas at STP?
answer

22.4
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In a single displacement reaction the _____ active element replaces the _____ less active element.
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The MORE active element replaces the LESS active element.
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A single displacement reaction can ONLY occur if…
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“A” is more active than “B”
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In a single displacement reaction;
_____ always comes before ______.

______ are always positive, while _____ are always negative.

Any element by itself = ?

answer

METAL always comes before NON-METAL.
METALS are always positive, while NON-

METALS are always negative.

Any element by itself = 0.

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What signifies a Double Displacement Reaction?
answer

Formation of a solid.
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When you do a double displacement reaction swap (__,__) and (__,__).
answer

Swap (1,4) and (3,2).
question

Steps to a double displacement reaction:
1)Write ________ product.
2)Write all the _______.
3)Write the ________ equation by _______ solid and ________ charges from that solid.
4)Write _______ equation by ________ and writing ________.
5)Remove ________. Then your left with the final equation, the ________ equation.
answer

1) Write UNBALANCED product.
2) Write all CHARGES.
3) Write CHEMICAL equation by UNDERLINING solid & REMOVING it’s charges.
4) Write the IONIC equation by BALANCING & writing CHARGES.
5) Remove CHARGES. The final equation is the NET-IONIC equation.
question

A neutralization reaction is a _______ ______ reaction, that ______ yields a ______.
answer

DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT reaction that ALWAYS yields a LIQUID.
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A combustion reaction ALWAYS produces the ____ product.
What product does it produce?
answer

ALWAYS produces CO2 + H2O
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In a combustion reaction after balancing you have a fraction ______ the whole equation by the fractions ______.
answer

MULTIPLY the whole equation by the fractions DENOMINATOR.
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Define Ionization Energy.
answer

Energy REQUIRED to move an electron from 1 atom to another.
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As Ionization Energy ______ , ______ _____ _______.
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As Ionization Energy DECREASES, ATOMIC RADIUS DECREASES.
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Non-metals are located _____ the _____.
answer

ABOVE the STAIRS
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Transition metals have __ Valence shell(s); while Type 1 metals have __ valence shell(s).
answer

Transition metals have 2 valence shells.
Type 1 metals have 1 valence shell.
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Transition metals have __ Valence shell(s); while Type 1 metals have __ valence shell(s).
answer

Transition metals have 2 valence shells.
Type 1 metals have 1 valence shell.
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Metaloids…
answer

Resemble metals but are NON-METALS.
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Octet Rule
answer

Rule of 8 electrons.
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In order to become stable, METALS try to ______ valence electrons and become stable _____.
answer

LOOSE electrons and become stable CATIONS.
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In order to become stable, NON-METALS try to _____ valence electrons and become stable _____.
answer

GAIN electrons and become stable ANIONS.
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1)Sub-level S has ___ box(es)& __ electron(s)
2)Sub-level P has ___ box(es)& __ electron(s)
3)Sub-level D has ___ box(es)& __ electron(s)
4)Sub-level F has ___ box(es)& __ electron(s)
answer

S: 1 Box, 2 Electrons
P: 3 Boxes, 6 Electrons
D: 5 Boxed, 10 Electrons
F: 7 boxes, 14 Electrons
question

With respect to the sub-level box diagram what element MIGRATES?
answer

Cr
question

Sub-level f has _____ energy and appears in the _____ energy level.
answer

HIGH energy, appears in 6th level
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Principle Quantum #’s
What are they and where do they appear?
answer

1,2,3,4,5,6,7
Top of Boxes
question

Secondary Quantum #’s
What are they and where do they appear?
answer

S = 0
P = 1
D = 2
F = 3
Top of Boxes
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Magnetic Quantum #’s
What are they and where do they appear?
answer

-…0…+
#’s 1-7
They go under each box with the ZERO UNDER THE CENTER BOX
Negatives are on the left side of the 0, positives on the right
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Spin Quantum #’s
What are they and where do they appear?
answer

-1/2 and +1/2
If the last arrow is facing UP it is +1/2
If Last arrow is facing DOWN it is -1/2
question

Periodic Properties
Group(s) 1A, 2A, all B group, above stairs, below stairs, Group 7, and Group 8.
answer

1A: Alkaline Metals
2A: Alkaline Earth Metals
ALL B: Transition Metals
Above Stairs: Non-metals
Below Stairs: Metaloids
7: Halogens
8: Noble Gases
question

Atomic Radius Table
Start in ____ _____ corner, read _____ to _____
Top Right = _______ _____
_______ = Largest Radius
answer

Start at TOP RIGHT CORNER, read RIGHT to LEFT.
Top Right = SMALLEST RADIUS
BOTTOM LEFT = Largest Radius
question

On the product side of a Single Displacement Reaction for the compound, the charge of one becomes ______ of the other and vice versa.
answer

Small Coefficient

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