Final Exam – PSY 113

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The classic gate-control theory suggests that pain is experienced when small nerve fibers activate and open a neural gate in the ____
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spinal cord
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Opponent-process cells have been located in the ____
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thalamus.
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Information from the taste buds travels to an area of the ___
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temporal lobe.
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Touching side-by-side cold and pressure spots triggers a sense of _____
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wetness.
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Three steps that are basic to all sensory systems include the ________ of information to the brain.
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receiving, transforming, and delivering
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Which of the following best illustrates the impact of central nervous system activity in the absence of normal sensory input?
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tinnitus
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In response to a harmful stimulus, ________ initiate neural impulses leading to the sensation of pain.
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nociceptors
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Brightness constancy is most clearly facilitated by ____
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relative luminance
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The influence of schemas on our interpretations of ambiguous sensations best illustrates ____
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top-down processing.
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Mr. Logwood’s eyewitness perceptions of a car accident were influenced by his inborn ways of organizing sensory experiences, his learned schemas, and by other eyewitnesses’ reactions to the car accident. An integrated understanding of Mr. Logwood’s perceptions of the accident is most clearly provided by ____
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a biopsychosocial approach.
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After being asked to remember three consonants, participants in a study by Peterson and Peterson counted aloud backward by threes to prevent ____
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rehearsal
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The day after Kirsten was introduced to 13 people at a business luncheon, she could recall the names of only the first 4 people to whom she had been introduced. Her ineffective recall of these particular names best illustrates the benefits of ____
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flashbulb memory.
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The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of previously learned information is called ____
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retroactive interference
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The title of a song is on the tip of Gerard’s tongue, but he cannot recall it until someone mentions the songwriter’s name. Gerard’s initial inability to recall the title was most likely caused by ____
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retrieval failur
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Words, events, places, and emotions that trigger our memory of the past are called ____
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retrieval cues
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When memory researcher Elizabeth Loftus was an adolescent, her uncle incorrectly insisted that as a child she had found her own mother’s drowned body. Loftus herself later falsely recollected finding the body. This best illustrates ____
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the misinformation effect.
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Mood-congruent memory refers to the effect of emotional states on the process of ____
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retrieval.
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By shrinking the hippocampus, prolonged stress is most likely to inhibit the process of ____
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long-term memory formation.
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Which part of the brain plays a key role in forming and storing the implicit memories created by classical conditioning?
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cerebellum
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In the process of classifying objects, people are especially likely to make use of ____
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prototypes.
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After Miguel’s recent automobile accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebral cortex in Broca’s area. It is likely that Miguel will have difficulty ____
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.speaking fluently.
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People with opposing views of capital punishment reviewed mixed evidence regarding its effectiveness as a crime deterrent. As a result, their opposing views differed more strongly than ever. This best illustrates ____
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belief perseverance.
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The risks of smoking are more alarming when presented in terms of the number of smokers with lung cancer than the percentage of smokers with lung cancer. This illustrates the importance of ____
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framing.
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An impaired use of language is known as ____
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aphasia.
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A mental set is most likely to inhibit ____
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creativity.
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A televised image of a starving child had a greater impact on Mr. White’s perception of the extensiveness of world hunger than did a statistical chart summarizing the tremendous scope of the problem. This suggests that his assessment of the world hunger problem is influenced by ____
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the availability heuristic.
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Psychologists are most likely to question whether chimps have the capacity to ____
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use complex grammar.
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People are less upset when they miss getting an early payment discount than when they are asked to bear a late payment surcharge. This best illustrates the importance of ____
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framing.
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Consumers respond more positively to ground beef advertised as \”75 percent lean\” than to ground beef described as \”25 percent fat.\” This illustrates that consumer reactions are influenced by ____
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framing.
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People’s scores on the general intelligence factor are most highly correlated with their ability to solve ________ problems.
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novel
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Sorting children into \”gifted child\” education programs is most likely to be criticized for ____
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widening the achievement gap between higher- and lower-ability groups.
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Aptitude tests are to ________ as achievement tests are to ________.
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future performance; current competence
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Melinda completed the Computer Programming Aptitude Test when she applied for a position with Beta Electronics. Six months later, she took the same test when she applied for a position with another company. The fact that her scores were almost identical on the two occasions suggests that the test has a high degree of ____
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reliability.
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Boys are most likely to outperform girls in a ____
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chess tournament
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When completing a verbal aptitude test, members of an ethnic minority group are particularly likely to perform below their true ability levels if they believe that the test ____
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is biased against members of their own ethnic group.
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In the early twentieth century, the U.S. government developed intelligence tests to evaluate newly arriving immigrants. Poor test scores among immigrants who were not of Anglo-Saxon heritage were attributed by some psychologists of that day to ____
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innate mental inferiority.
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Who would have been most enthusiastic about the value of a single intelligence test score as an index of an individual’s mental capacities?
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Spearman
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Although Nicole scored well above average on an academic aptitude test, she frequently loses her temper and needlessly antagonizes even her best friends. Her behavior best illustrates a low level of ____
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emotional intelligence.
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Boys outnumber girls at the ________ levels of verbal fluency and at the ________ levels of mathematical problem-solving ability.
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low; high
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A biological influence on homosexuality is most clearly seen from evidence of ____
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sexual relations between same-sex partners in several hundred different animal species.
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Many sexually active American adolescents fail to avoid pregnancy because ____
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they have mistaken ideas about effective birth control methods.
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If given a chance to express their own opinions during a decision-making process, people will respond more positively to the decision. This illustrates ____
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voice effect
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It is characteristic of bears to hibernate. This behavior is an example of ____
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an instinct.
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With respect to sex research and human values, the text suggests that ____
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sex research and education should be accompanied by open consideration of sexual values.
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The great person theory of leadership suggested that all great leaders ____
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share certain traits.
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Motivating workers to identify with and commit themselves to a group mission best illustrates ____
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transformational leadership.
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In a study of 3500 British bank and university staff, men were ________ likely to be overweight than were women, and men were ________ likely to perceive themselves as overweight than were women.
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more; less
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Flow is characterized by a ________ awareness of self and a ________ awareness of the passing of time
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diminished; diminished
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Psychologists have used four perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These include an emphasis on instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and ____
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drive reduction.
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Which of the following is Not one of the Stages of Change ____
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Method
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When her son fails to arrive home as expected, Elena fears he has been in an accident. Both her heart and respiration rate remain elevated until she sees him come safely through the door. Her body soon returns to normal due to the action of her ________ nervous system.
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central
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Chiana and her husband both want to feel and express greater warmth and affection for each other. They would be advised to spend time looking intently at one another’s ____
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eyes.
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An understanding of how stress affects our resistance to disease is the central focus of the field of ____
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psychoneuroimmunology.
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Compared with those who are unhappy, happy people make decisions ________ easily and cooperate with others ________ easily
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more; more
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In terms of ability to recognize others’ facial expressions of emotion ____
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introverts do better than extraverts and women do better than men.
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Unlike the low-road brain pathway, the high road for emotional responses extends through the ____
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cortex.
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Which of the following BEST explains why stress heightens vulnerability to bacterial and viral infections?
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Stress hormones suppress the production of lymphocytes.
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Our most rapid and automatic emotional responses may result from the routing of sensory input through the thalamus directly to the ____
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amygdala.
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After experiencing the stress of losing her job, Colleen suffered an increased incidence of cold and flu infections. Her increased illness is best attributed to reduced levels of ____
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lymphocytes.
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After being physically aroused by his daily three-mile run, Martin finds that he experiences stronger resentment if his wife asks for an unexpected favor and more intense romantic feelings if she kisses him. Martin’s experience can best be explained by the ____
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two-factor theory.
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Dr. Zytowics wants to assess the extent to which a client is suffering from depression, social withdrawal, and other symptoms of an emotional disorder. Which personality inventory would be most helpful for this purpose?
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MMPI
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Janine is repulsed by the thought of watching a pornographic video. Freud would have attributed these feelings to Janine’s ____
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superego.
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A characteristic pattern of behavior or tendency to act and feel in a certain way is called a ____
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trait
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Freud referred to the largely conscious \”executive\” part of the personality as the ____
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ego.
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Resisting the temptation to eat chocolate chip cookies led research participants to subsequently give up sooner than normal on efforts to complete a tedious task. This illustrated that self-control weakens following ____
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an exertion of energy.
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An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting is his or her ____
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personality.
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The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classifies people according to personality types identified by ____
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Carl Jung.
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If we are nervous about our personal appearance after adopting a new hairstyle, we are likely to _____the extent to which others notice our nervousness and we are likely to _____the extent to which they notice our new hairstyle.
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overestimate; overestimate
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Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic ____
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personality traits.
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Which theorist emphasized that an individual’s personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathic?
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Carl Rogers
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Which perspective would help us to understand the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory?
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neuroscience
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Cognitive neuroscience studies relationships between ____
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thought processes and brain functions.
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Different accounts of the same behavior that together give us a more complete understanding represent different ____
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levels of analysis.
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Innate ability is to learned skill as ________ is to ______
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nature; nurture
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Edward Titchener is to structuralism as William James is to ________.
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functionalism
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Dr. Caleigh conducts research on the relationship between adults’ language skills and their capacity to solve mathematical problems. Dr. Caleigh is most likely a _________ psychologist.
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cognitive
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The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a ____
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psychiatrist.
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Behaviorists dismissed the value of ____
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ntrospection.
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Which measure of central tendency is used to calculate the average of your school grades?
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mean
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A statement describing the exact procedures for measuring an anticipated experimental outcome is known as a(n) ____
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operational definition.
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Which of the following methods is most helpful for clarifying cause-effect relationships?
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the experiment
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Mike Crampton’s stockbroker has informed him that he has suffered substantial investment losses. When Mike tells his wife, she angrily responds, \”I could have told you that your investment plan would fail!\” Her comment best illustrates ____
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hindsight bias.
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As the size of a representative sample increases, the ________ of that sample is most likely to decrease.
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standard deviation
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During the past year, Zara and Ivan each read 2 books, but George read 9, Ali read 12, and Marsha read 25. The median number of books read by these individuals was ____
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9.
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If participants in the experiment group of a drug treatment study are much younger than participants in the control group, the age of the research participants is a ____
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standard deviation.
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If the points on a scatterplot are clustered in a pattern that extends from the upper left to the lower right, this would suggest that the two variables depicted are ____
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negatively correlated.
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The scientific attitude requires an open-minded humility because it involves a willingness to ____
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recognize the errors in our own ideas.
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Some neurons enable you to grasp objects by relaying outgoing messages to the muscles in your arms and hands. These neurons are called ____
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motor neurons.
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The part of the brainstem that helps to coordinate movements is called the ____
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pons.
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A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus is called a(n) ____
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reflex.
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The amygdala consists of emotion-linked neural clusters in the ____
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limbic system.
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The benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in ____
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children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed.
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Addictive disorders may stem from malfunctioning reward centers in the ____
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.limbic system.
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James Olds and Peter Milner located reward centers in the brain structure known as the ____
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hypothalamus.
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Using a brain-computer interface, some paralyzed people may be able to move a robotic limb simply by thinking about moving it. This best illustrates ____
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cognitive neural prosthetics.
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With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which ____
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positively charged ions are pumped back outside a neural membrane.
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Which part of your brain receives information that you are moving your legs?
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sensory cortex
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Conscious information processing is LEAST likely to be required for the automatic physical survival functions regulated by the ____
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brainstem.
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Female children are more likely to be labeled ìtomboysî if they were exposed to excess ________ during their prenatal development.
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testosterone
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People living in a culture that promotes collectivism are more likely than those in individualist cultures to report experiencing ____
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family loyalty.
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Lacking any exposure to language before adolescence, a person will never master any language due to the ________ of unemployed neural connections.
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pruning
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Professor Assad suggested that a cautious attitude toward sexual encounters has proven to be more reproductively advantageous to women than to men because the birth process is more time-consuming for women than for men. This suggestion best illustrates the logic of a(n) ________ theory of sexual behavior.
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evolutionary
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Compared with identical twins, fraternal twins are ________ similar in neuroticism and ________ similar in risk of divorcing
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less; less
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Identifying specific DNA sequences associated with the traits of anger and anxiety best illustrates a potential benefit of ____
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molecular behavior genetics.
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remature infants who are regularly touched and massaged are more likely than their unstimulated counterparts to show signs of ____
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rapid weight gain.
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People have always responded so positively to Alyssa’s good looks that she has developed a socially confident and outgoing personality. This best illustrates ____
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the interaction of nature and nurture
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Chromosomes are contained within ____
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brain cells.sperm cells.blood cells.all of these types of cells.
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When asked to recall the one or two most important events over the last half century, older adults tend to name events that occurred when they were between ________ years of age.
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10 and 30
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If children cannot grasp the principle of conservation, they are unable to ____
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deal with the discipline of toilet training, see things from the point of view of another person, recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shape, and retain earlier schemas when confronted by new experiences.
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Juanita suffers from a painful back condition. Smoking marijuana would reduce her pain, but she thinks it would be wrong because it is prohibited by the laws of her state. Juanita is demonstrating Kohlberg’s ________ level of morality.
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conventional
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Four months after having been exposed to a vibrating, honking device placed on its mother’s abdomen, a fetus demonstrate ____
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habituation.
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In considering day-care opportunities for their four children, Mr. and Mrs. Taylor should be most concerned about whether the experience will influence ____
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secure attachment in their 6-month-old daughter, Julia.
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Developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and ________ changes throughout the human life span.
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social
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An ongoing study of 1100 children in 10 American cities has found that those who had spent the most time in day-care facilities had ____
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slightly advanced thinking and language skills and an increased rate of aggressiveness.
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Most 20-year-olds outperform most 70-year-olds on video games due to age-related differences in ____
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information-processing speed.
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Persistent exclusion from peer social relationships is most likely to increase teens’ risk for ____
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depression.
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One study of 4 1/2- to 6-year-old children in 10 American cities found that the children’s rate of aggressiveness was influenced more by ________ than by the amount of time they spent in day-care programs.
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– children’s temperaments – parents’ care giving sensitivity – family’s economic and educational levels
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Aging cells may die without being replaced due to the shortening of ____
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telomeres.
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Learning that some responses, but not others, will be reinforced is called ____
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discrimination.
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When grocery shopping with his mother, 4-year-old Hakim sometimes throws temper tantrums if his mother refuses his requests for a particular snack food. Parent-training experts would suggest that his mother should ____
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continue shopping while ignoring Hakim’s tantrums.
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A child who is punished for swearing at home but reinforced for swearing on the school playground is most likely to demonstrate a patterned habit of swearing that is indicative of ____
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discrimination.
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The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves ____
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extrinsic motivation.
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Asking women for dates is most likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
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variable-ratio
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Mr. Schneider frequently tells his children that it is important to wash their hands before meals, but he rarely does so himself. Experiments suggest that his children will learn to ____
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preach the virtues of cleanliness but not practice cleanliness.
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Watching the night sky for shooting stars is likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
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variable-interval
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Sandy finds it harder to frown when watching her brother smile than when seeing him frown. Scientists are currently debating whether this can be attributed to the activation of ____
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mirror neurons.
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A stimulus that acquires reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer is called a ________ reinforcer.
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conditioned
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The reappearance, after a time lapse, of an extinguished CR is called ____
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spontaneous recovery.
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According to B. F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by ____
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external influences.
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Operant response rates tend to be _____when linked to a ratio schedule rather than an interval schedule. Operant response rates tend to be _____consistent when linked to a variable schedule rather than a fixed schedule.
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higher; more

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