Final Exam Business Ethics Chapters 1 – 12

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In the Regan/Bush eras, the major focus of the business world was on
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self-regulation rather than regulation by government
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Business ethics as a field, has passed through which of the following states?
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Theological discussion to recognition of social issues to a field of study
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The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Outlawed
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Bribery of officials in other countries
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Principles Are
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Specific and pervasive boundaries for behavior that are universal and absolute
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Which of the following is not one of the benefits of being ethical and socially responsible in business
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A high degree of employee dissent
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Ethical culture is defined as
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Acceptable behavior as defined by the company and industry
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Which of the following is not cited as an example of a global collaborative effort to establish standards of business conduct?
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United States Sentencing Commission
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Which of the following was not a provision of the Sarbanes Oxley Act?
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It outlawed bribery of officials in other countries
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Which of the following is not something a firm might do to encourage organizational ethics and compliance?
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Ignoring potential ethical issues
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One of the major ethical issues President Obama’s administration focused on was
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health care and consumer protection
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Which of the following is not one of the rights spelled out by John F. Kennedy in his “Consumers” Bill of Rights?
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The right to be ethical
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Most organizations with strong ethical climates usually focus on the core value of placing _____ interests first.
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customers’
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Which represented a far-reaching change to organizational control and accounting systems, making securities fraud a criminal offense?
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Sarbanes-Oxley Act
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Social Responsibility is
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An organization’s obligation to maximize its positive effects and minimize its negative effects on stakeholders
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The study of business ethics is important to better understand all of the following except
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That business ethics is entirely an extension of an individual’s own personal ethics
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_____ is essential in building long-term relationships between businesses and consumers
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Trust
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Which of the following was developed in the 1980’s to guide corporate support for ethical conduct by establishing a method for discussing best practices?
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Defense Industry Initiative on Business Ethics and Conduct
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Investors are concerned about business ethics because they know that misconduct can
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lower stock value and prices
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The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act
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Was designed to make the financial services industry officers
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Employees feel less pressure to compromise ethically, observe less misconduct, are more satisfied with their organizations, and feel more valued when
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they see honesty, respect, and trust applied in the workplace
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The degree to which a firm understands and addresses stakeholder demands can be referred to as
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A stakeholder orientation
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Board members being linked to more than one company is an example of
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Interlocking directorate
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The ________ model is founded in classic economic precepts
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Shareholder
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A stakeholder group that is absolutely necessary for a firm’s survival is defined as
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primary
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Which of the following is not a method typically employed by firms when researching relevant stakeholder groups?
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Guessing
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When unethical acts are discovered in a firm, in most instances
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there was knowing cooperation or complicity from within the company
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Accountability, oversight, and control all fall under the definition and implementation of corporate
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governance
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A Firm that makes use of a _____ recognizes other stakeholders beyond investors, employees, and suppliers, and explicitly acknowledges the two-way dialog that exists between a firm’s internal and external environments.
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stakeholder interaction model
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In corporate governance, is the process of auditing and improving organizational decisions and actions
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control
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Which of the following do not typically engage in transactions with a company and thus are not essential for its survival?
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secondary stakeholders
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Stakeholders’ power over businesses stems from their
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ability to withdraw or withhold resources
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Why do critics argue that high compensation for boards of directors is a bad thing?
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It could cause conflicts of interest between the directors and the organization
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The first of the three activities that are associated with the stakeholder orientation is the
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organization-wide generation of data
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what is the first step in implementing a stakeholder perspective in an organization?
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Assessing the corporate culture
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Which of the following industries tends to generate a high level of trust from consumers and stakeholders?
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technology
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Minimizing the use of energy and reducing emissions and waste are issues of importance to which stakeholder?
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Environmental groups
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One policy to address the issue of executive pay was implemented by J.P. Morgan, it stated that __________
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Managers should earn no more than twenty times the pay of other employees
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Shareholders provide resources to an organization that are critical to long term success. Which of the following does the book suggest that suppliers offer?
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Material resources and/or intangible knowledge
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Which of the following is not associated with the stakeholder interaction model?
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Identifies the mass media, special interest groups, competitors, and trade associations as primary stakeholders
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The specific steps for implementing the stakeholder perspective do not include which of the following?
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Identifying and gaining government feedback
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_____ involves tricking individuals into revealing their passwords or other valuable corporate information.
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Social engineering
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_____ are used to obtain or retain business and are not generally considered illegal in the U.S.
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Facilitation payments
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Optimization is defined as
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a trade-off between equity and efficiency.
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Accountants must abide by a strict code of ethics that defines their responsibilities to
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their clients and the public interest.
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A company can be sued for discrimination if it
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uses age as a hiring or firing criterion.
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_____ is defined as any purposeful communication that deceives, manipulates, or conceals facts in order to create a false impression.
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Fraud
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Ethical issues in business typically arise because of conflicts between individuals’ personal moral philosophies and values and the
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values and attitudes of the organization in which they work and the society in which they live.
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Which of the following statements is most correct?
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Affirmative action programs involve efforts to recruit, hire, train, and promote qualified individuals from groups that have traditionally been discriminated against on the basis of race, gender, or other characteristics.
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The _____ makes it illegal for individuals, firms, or third parties doing business in American markets to “make payments to foreign government officials to assist in obtaining or retaining business.”
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U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA)
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What type of fraudulent activity could involve a consumer staging an accident to seek damages?
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Duplicity
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_____ is an important element of virtue and means being whole, sound, and in unimpaired condition.
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Integrity
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The first step toward understanding business ethics is to
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develop ethical-issue awareness.
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Concerns involving copyright infringement on books, movies and music, and other illegally produced goods relate to which type of ethical issue?
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Intellectual property rights
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Among retail stores, _____ is a larger problem than customer shoplifting.
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internal employee theft
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Prior to the financial meltdown, bond ratings agencies were accused of having ______________ because they were paid by the organizations that they rated. The organizations would shop around for the agency that gave them the best rating.
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conflicts of interest
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Which of the following is not a question you need to ask when you suspect that workplace bullying has occurred?
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Is your boss treating you well and compensating you adequately?
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Which of the following is not a consequence of ethical misconduct?
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Increased sales
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What type of fraud involves intentional deception on the part of an individual or group in order to derive an unfair economic advantage over an organization?
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Consumer
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Conflicts of interest exist when employees must choose whether to
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advance their own personal interests, those of the organization, or those of some other group.
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In marketing communications, lying causes predicaments for companies because it destroys
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trust.
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Which is not one of the four sources of criminal and civil laws?
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Judicial law
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Companies that _____ will most likely be found in violation of procompetitive legislation.
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establish monopolies
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Which of the following groups is not a group that receives special legal protections?
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The highly educated
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An ethical organizational culture creates an environment in which to structure behavior that is then evaluated by stakeholders. The key elements of an organizational culture include all of the following except
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employee compensation
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Who provides information to managers, investors, tax authorities, and other stakeholders who make resource allocation decisions for corporations?
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Accountants
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Laws and regulations change over time; however, in the United States the thrust of most business legislation can be summed up as
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any practice is permitted that does not substantially reduce competition and harm consumers or society.
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The _____ regulates tobacco, dietary supplements, vaccines, veterinary drugs, medical devices, cosmetics, products that give off radiation, and biological products.
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The Food and Drug Administration
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Donation of computer equipment to schools by Toshiba would be associated with _____ responsibilities.
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voluntary
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Passed by Congress in 1991, the _____ created incentives for organizations to develop and implement ethical compliance programs.
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Federal Sentencing Guidelines for Organizations
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Part of the reason why credit ratings firms did not catch major problems prior to the global financial meltdown of 2008 was because they were paid by the firms that they rank, which creates
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a conflict of interest.
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Which of the following is not an aspect of the institutionalization of social responsibility?
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Familial responsibilities
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Anticompetitive strategies that focus on weakening or destroying a competitor have spurred antitrust legislation and include all of the following except
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free samples.
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Which of the following acts can be classified as procompetitive legislation?
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Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
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The primary objective of U.S. antitrust laws is to
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distinguish competitive strategies that enhance consumer welfare from those that reduce it.
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is the synergistic and mutually beneficial use of an organization’s core competencies and resources to deal with key stakeholders so as to bring about organizational and societal benefits.
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Strategic philanthropy
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The _____ was established after the latest financial crisis, in response to a situation that caused many consumers to lose their homes.
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Consumer Financial Protection Agency
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_____ responsibilities relate to a business’s contributions to stakeholders.
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Voluntary
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The _____ is an independent agency within the Federal Reserve System that “regulate[s] the offering and provision of consumer financial products or services under the Federal consumer financial laws.”
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Consumer Financial Protection Agency
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he Sarbanes-Oxley Act created the _____ to oversee the accounting firms that audit public corporations and to establish rules and standards for auditing.
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Public Company Accounting Oversight Board
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_____ focus(es) on developing sound organizational practices and integrity for financial and nonfinancial performance measures, rather than on an individual’s morals.
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Core practices
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The _____ can be defined as a set of values, norms, and artifacts, including ways of solving problems shared by members of an organization.
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corporate culture
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An ethical corporate culture needs _____ along with _____ to establish an ethics program and monitor the complex ethical decisions being made by employees .
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shared values; proper oversight
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High levels of _________ create a higher probability that firms cut corners because margins are usually low.
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Competition
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_____ have been found to decrease unethical practices and increase positive work behavior.
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Good personal values
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Research concerning nationality and the ability to make ethical decisions
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is hard to interpret in a business context because of cultural differences.
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_____ involves subordinates simply following the directives of a superior without question. It demonstrates the influence that significant others can exert in the workplace.
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Obedience to authority
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All of the following are true with regards to organizational factors except
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Employees approach ethical issues on the basis of what they learned from others in the
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For people who begin the value shift that leads to unethical decisions, which of the following is not a usual justification to reduce and eliminate guilt?
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This is in keeping with my personal morals and the code of conduct, so it is okay.
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Values have all the following characteristics except
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Widely accepted
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The ethical decision making process in business includes all of the following except
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Making ethical decisions
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Normative business ethics takes into account the _______ realities outside the legal realm in the form of industry standards.
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Political
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Which of the following is not an individual factor that affects business ethics?
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Significant others
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The thought experiment used by John Rawls that examined how individuals would formulate principles if they did not know what their future position in society would be is called
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Equality principle
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Which of the following is the first step in the ethical decision making process?
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Recognizing that an issue requires an individual or work group to make a choice that ultimately will be judged by stakeholders as right or wrong
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Which of the following is not an issue that helps in business ethics evaluations and decisions?
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Personal guilt
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Which of the following is not considered a significant other group in the workplace?
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Spouses
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_____ culture involves values and norms that prescribe a wide range of behavior for organizational members, while ______ culture reflects the integrity of decisions made and is a function of many factors, including corporate policies, top management’s leadership on ethical issues, the influence of coworkers, and the opportunity for unethical behavior.
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Corporate, ethical
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______ is the ability to perceive whether a situation or decision has an ethical dimension.
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Ethical awareness
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According to the ethical decision-making framework, the absence of punishment provides a(n) _____ for unethical behavior.
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opportunity
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Codes, rules, and compliance are essential in organizations. However, an organization built on _____ is more likely to develop a high integrity corporate culture.
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informal relationships
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_____ argues that ethical behavior involves not only adhering to conventional moral standards but also considering what a mature person with a “good” moral character would deem appropriate.
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Virtue ethics
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_____ believe that no one thing is intrinsically good.
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Pluralists
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Kant’s categorical imperative and the Golden Rule are examples of which moral philosophy?
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Deontology
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A central problem with virtue ethics is
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that it emphasizes people’s differences, not similarities.
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Which moral perspective defines ethical behavior subjectively from the unique experiences of individuals and groups?
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The relativist perspective
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A person who offers a facilitation payment in order to secure a contract that will keep her company from going bankrupt and laying off hundreds of employees may be a(n)
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utilitarian.
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Which is not considered a white collar crime?
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Mugging someone
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An individual who defines what is right by considering his/her duty to society, not just to other specific people, is in which of Kohlberg’s stages of cognitive moral development?
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Social system and conscience maintenance
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An individual who believes that an action is ethical because others within his or her company and industry regularly engage in the activity is probably a(n)
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relativist.
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Which is the last of Kohlberg’s stages of cognitive moral development?
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Universal ethical principles
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An individual who emphasizes others rather than himself or herself in making decisions is in which of the following of Kohlberg’s stages of development?
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Mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and conformity (3rd stage)
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Moral philosophy refers to
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the principles or rules that people use to decide what is right and wrong.
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Through time an act can come to be viewed as unethical under which of the following philosophies and perspectives?
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The relativist perspective
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_____ typically focuses on the end result of actions and happiness created by them, whereas _____ emphasizes the means and motives by which actions are justified.
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A goodness theory; an obligation theory
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___ deals with the issue of what individuals feel they are due based on their rights and performance in the workplace, and therefore is more likely to be based on deontological moral philosophies than on teleological or utilitarian ones.
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Justice
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_____ are person-specific, whereas _____ are based on decisions made by groups or when carrying out tasks to meet business objectives.
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Moral philosophies; business ethics
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Which moral philosophy evaluates the morality of an action on the basis of principles or rules designed to promote the greatest overall utility rather than by examining situations individually?
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Rule utilitarianism
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When a person defines right and wrong on the basis of legal contracts, he or she is using which of Kohlberg’s stages of development?
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Prior rights, social contract, or utility (5th stage)
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Eric views animal research in the pharmaceutical industry as a way to improve drugs that will benefit mankind. Which moral philosophy most closely represents his viewpoint?
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Utilitarianism
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Which moral philosophy evaluates the morality of an action on the basis of the equity, fairness, and impartiality of the action, with rules serving as guidelines in the decision-making process?
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Act deontology
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Both individual ethics and organizational ethics have an impact on an employee’s
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ethical intention.
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Over the years, scholars have developed more than 100 definitions of culture. According to the text, all have the following common elements:
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Culture is shared, relatively stable, and is formed over a long period of time.
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_____ bring together the functional expertise of employees from several different areas of the organization on a single project.
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Teams
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The 2010 passage of the Dodd-Frank Act proposed additional monetary incentives for whistle-blowers. A primary concern about these new incentives is
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whistle-blowers might be tempted to report to the SEC with their reports and not report the misconduct to the company’s internal compliance program.
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of an ethical corporate culture?
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Management conducts itself in a way that is not consistent with the code of conduct.
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When developing an ethical culture, there has to be a(n) _____ element because every organization has employees that will try to take advantage if there is an opportunity for misconduct.
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compliance
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In order for whistle-blowing to be effective,
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it requires that the individual have adequate knowledge of wrongdoing that could damage society.
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Management’s sense of the organization’s culture
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may be quite different from employees’ perceptions.
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Expert power usually stems from
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a superior’s credibility with his or her subordinates.
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Although both structures can create opportunities for unethical conduct, which organizational structure tends to be more ethical?
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Centralized
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Associating with others who are unethical and who have the opportunity to act unethically can lead to a learning process known as
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differential association.
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Individuals, often from the same department, who band together for purposes that may or may not be relevant to the organization are called
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informal groups.
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The _____ leader demands instantaneous obedience and focuses on punishing wrong behavior, achievement, initiative, and self-control.
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coercive
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Which of the following cultures combines high levels of concern for people and performance?
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Integrative culture
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An organization that delegates decision-making authority as far down the chain of command as possible and has relatively few formal rules is
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decentralized.
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Which of the following statements about corporate culture is false?
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The values and ethical beliefs that actually guide the firm’s employees tend not to be the same ones that management states as defining the firm’s culture.
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To motivate employees, an organization offers _____ to _____ employees to work toward organizational objectives.
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incentives; encourage
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Which of the following statements about group norms is false?
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Group norms never conflict with the overall organization’s culture.
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The apathetic organizational culture exhibits
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minimal concern for people and performance.
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The Sarbanes-Oxley Act
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has institutionalized internal whistle-blowing.
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One of the main reasons employees do not report observed misconduct is
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fear of retaliation.
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The ultimate “stick” associated with the FSGO is fines or probation, which involves on-site observation by consultants, monitoring of the company’s ethical compliance efforts, and
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reporting to the U.S. Sentencing Commission on the company’s progress in avoiding misconduct.
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Which of the following statements about training is false?
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It can dictate personal ethics on the job.
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To ensure that an ethics program addresses the needs of the average employee, it should include all of the following except
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lengthy legal documents.
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Which of the following is the most comprehensive?
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Code of ethics
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serve as a central contact point where critical comments, dilemmas, and advice can be assigned to the person most appropriate for handling a specific case.
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Hotlines
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Which of the following is not an advantage of having a comprehensive code of conduct?
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To help employees fight for satisfactory levels of compensation and benefits.
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Organizational _____ can contribute to diminished employee trust and increased employee turnover.
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misconduct
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In the long run, a(n) ______ orientation may be better for companies, perhaps because it increases employees’ awareness of ethics issues at work.
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values
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_____ are formal statements that describe what an organization expects of its employees in terms of ethical behavior.
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Codes of conduct
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A(n) _____ orientation creates order by requiring that employees identify with and commit to specific required conduct, whereas a(n) _____ orientation strives to develop shared standards.
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compliance; values
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Which of the following statements about codes of conduct is false?
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They guarantee an ethical business climate.
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With regard to ethics, training and communication initiatives should reflect
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the unique characteristics of an organization.
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Because top managers may be more insensitive to ethical issues due to their focus on financial performance, the FSGO guidelines suggest that ethics officers report to the _____ instead.
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board of directors
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Which of the following is an advantage of a values-based ethics program over a compliance-based one?
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Employees learn to make decisions based on values such as fairness, compassion, respect, and transparency.
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Aurico is a company that offers ethics hotline maintenance and monitoring services for organizations. Which component of the Federal Sentencing Guidelines for Organizations compliance program does this service help organizations to satisfy?
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Systems for monitoring, auditing, and reporting misconduct
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Most executives feel that which of the following is the primary reason for much of the unchecked misconduct in business?
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Inadequate ethics and compliance programs
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Which of the following legislation has increased the responsibilities on ethics officers and boards of directors to monitor financial reporting?
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Sarbanes-Oxley Act
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Which of the following strives to create order by requiring that employees identify with and commit to specific required conduct?
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Compliance orientation
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The individual responsible for implementing disciplinary action for violation of a firm’s ethics standards is usually the
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ethics officer.
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Which of the following statements about ethics audits is false?
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Social audits and ethics audits perform basically the same function, so organizations can use them interchangeably.
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While social reports often discuss issues related to a firm’s performance in the four dimensions of social responsibility, as well as to specific social responsibility and ethical issues, ethics audits have a narrower focus on assessing and reporting on a firm’s performance in terms of
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ethical and legal conduct.
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During which of the following steps of the ethics auditing process does an organization identify the tools or methods for measuring progress in improving employees’ ethical decisions and conduct?
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Collect and analyze relevant information
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Which of the following is probably the best way for a manager to provide good ethics leadership?
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Set a good example
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The process of verifying the results of an audit should involve standard procedures that control the _____ of the information.
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reliability and validity
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Which of the following is not a technique for collecting evidence during the ethics audit?
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Publishing the results of the audit
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The word _____ implies a balanced organization that makes ethical financial decisions and also is ethical in more subjective matters of corporate culture.
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integrity
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What should be the final step in the ethics auditing process?
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Report the findings
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During which step of the auditing process should a firm examine all documents that make explicit commitments to ethical, legal, or social responsibility?
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Review organizational mission, goals, values, and policies.
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Which of the following does not have a significant impact on the success of an ethics program?
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The size of the company
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Which of the following is a possible unintended consequence of an organization’s focusing more on ethics planning than on implementation?
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Unethical conduct is viewed as acceptable behavior.
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During the data-collection phase of the audit, the primary objective is to generate a variety of opinions about how the company is perceived and whether it is
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fulfilling stakeholders’ expectations.
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When The Gap posts the results of its ethics audit on its web site, it is engaged in which of the following steps of the ethics auditing process?
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Report the results
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Which of the following is not a benefit of ethics auditing?
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It can harm relationships with stakeholders.
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At which stage of the ethics auditing process would a hospital conduct focus groups with management, doctors, nurses, related health professionals, support staff, and patients?
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Collect and analyze relevant information
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The concept of ethics auditing emerged from the movement to audit and report on companies’ broader _____ initiatives.
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social responsibility
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While ideally the board of directors financial audit committee conducts ethics audits, in most firms they are conducted by
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managers or ethics officers.
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Which of the following is not a measure of ethical climate?
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Collective skill
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What should be the first step in the auditing process?
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Secure the commitment of top executives and directors
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What are the three Triple Bottom Line factors incorporated into the Global Reporting Initiative framework?
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Economic, social, and environmental indicators
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What is a major role of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)?
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It makes short-term loans to member countries that have deficits and provides foreign currencies for its members.
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_ involves transactions across national boundaries. It is a practice that brings together people who have different cultures, values, laws, and ethical standards.
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Global business
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Which of the following is not a key area of global ethical risk, as outlined by the Eurasia Group?
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Unequal levels of child labor laws
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These values were developed by a reverend and the UN Secretary General. They express support for universal human rights.
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The Global Sullivan Principles
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Which of the following is not an article in the UN Human Rights Declaration?
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The right to electricity and running water
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Increasing the wealth gap between nations and misusing and misallocating scarce resources are ethical issue accusations related to
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multinational corporations.
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What is the purpose of the UN Global Compact?
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To promote human rights, sustainability, and eradicate corruption
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Who argued during the 1930s that the state could stimulate economic growth and improve stability in the private sector?
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John Maynard Keynes
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Which of the following is not a criticism of or charge against multinational corporations (MNCs)?
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They pay excessively high taxes everywhere
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Which of the following organizations emerged from the Bretton Woods agreement of 1944, where a group of international leaders decided that the primary responsibility for the regulation of monetary relationships among national economies should rest in an extra-national body?
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International Monetary Fund
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An unconscious reference to one’s own cultural values, experiences, and knowledge is referred to as the
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self-reference criterion.
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Which two developing countries are expected to generate some of the largest increases in consumption in the future?
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China and India
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The _____ formed in 1995 and administers its own trade agreements, facilitates future trade negotiations, settles trade disputes, and monitors the trade policies of member nations
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World Trade Organization
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What is the AACSB?
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An international organization that promotes a set of principles promoting the teaching of responsible management in business schools
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_____ assumes that humans may not act rationally because of genetics, learned behavior, and rules of thumb.
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Behavioral economics
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Which of the following is a measure taken by governments to curtail MNC practices that create ethical issues?
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Imposing export taxes to force MNCs to share more of their profits
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The practice of charging high prices for products sold in home markets while selling the same products in foreign markets at low prices, which do not cover the costs of exporting, is known as
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dumping.
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When in Rome, do as the Romans do, or you must adapt to the cultural practices of the country in which you are operating are rationalizations businesspeople sometimes offer for straying from their own ethical values when doing business abroad. This practice is called
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cultural relativism.
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_____ assume(s) that a market, through its own inherent mechanisms, will keep commerce in equilibrium.
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Laissez-faire economics
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_____ is a term used by Adam Smith to explain the inherent mechanisms at work in free market systems that keep commerce in equilibrium. It is also known as the “invisible hand.”
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Laissez-fair
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Leaders having a(n) __________ conflict management style are highly assertive and not very cooperative.
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Competing
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_____ and reporting are two major dimensions of ethical communication.
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Transparency
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Which of the following is not a habit of ethical leaders?
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They are primarily concerned with themselves.
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When a group is more likely to move toward a more extreme position than the group members might have done individually, this is referred to as
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Group polarization
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This occurs when there are two or more positions on an ethical decision.
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Ethical conflicts
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Which of the following leadership types has a strong influence on coworker support and building an ethical culture through increasing employee commitment and fostering motivation?
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Transformational leaders
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____________ are a primary influence on employee’s ethical behavior because they are role models for the organization’s values.
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Leaders
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Which of the following types of leaders attempts to create employee satisfaction through bartering or negotiating for desired behaviors or level of performance?
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Transactional leaders
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Leaders whose decisions and actions are contrary to the firm’s values send a signal
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that the firm’s values are trivial or irrelevant.
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The acronym RADAR stands for
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Recognize, Avoid, Detect, Answer, & Recover
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Gossip, manipulation, playing favorites, and taking credit for another’s work are all examples commonly associated with
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Organizational politics
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Leaders with a(n) ________ conflict management style desire to meet the needs of stakeholders and strongly adhere to organizational values and principles.
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Avoiding
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The ___________ leader can create a negative climate because of the high standards that he or she sets. This style works best for attaining quick results from highly motivated individuals who value achievement and take initiative.
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pacesetting
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Many managers are reluctant to engage in this step of the RADAR model because they fear doing so will uncover questionable conduct that could put the firm in an unfavorable light.
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detect
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A fundamental problem in traditional personal character development is that specific vales are used to teach about a philosophy, which may be inappropriate where cultural diversity and privacy must be respected. A solution is
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to teach individuals intellectual skills that address the complexities of ethical issues in business.
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Which leadership type values people, their emotions, and their needs and relies on friendship and trust to promote flexibility, innovation, and risk taking?
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Affiliative leadership
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All of these are true about feedback except
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Most companies recognize the need for organizational leaders to get feedback from their employees.
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This occurs when leaders and followers share the same vision, ethical expectations, and objectives for the company.
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Leader-follower congruence
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These leaders are characterized as having superficial charm, no conscience, grandiose self-worth, little or no empathy, and enjoy flouting rules.
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Psychopathic leaders
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What is not a necessity for strong ethical leaders to make good decisions?
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The ability to coerce subordinates
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The Clean Air Act:
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Established national air quality standards
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Stakeholder assessment is an important part of a _____________ approach to environmental issues.
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high-commitment
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Although limiting urban sprawl creates disadvantages for __________, many businesses can benefit from urban renewal movements that reduce sprawl.
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car and oil companies
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All of these are examples of social responsibility concerns, except:
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Product price
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Through _________________ , it is possible to quantify the trade-offs to determine whether to accept or reject environmentally-related activities and programs.
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risk management
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One of the biggest factors in land pollution is the dumping of waste into landfills. ______________ consumers are by far the world’s biggest wasters.
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American
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The first Earth Day, increasing stakeholder awareness of environmental concerns and the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency brought ______________ to the forefront.
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sustainability
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The world’s forests are being destroyed at a rate of nearly 50,000 square miles annually. The reasons for this wide scale destruction are varied and include all except
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The soil is great for farming
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The Clean Water Act makes it illegal for anyone to discharge any pollutant from a point source directly into navigable waters without a .
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permit
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Which option includes the assessment and improvement of business strategies, economic sectors, work practices, technologies, and lifestyles while maintaining the natural environment?
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Sustainability
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________________ can cause markedly shorter life spans, along with chronic respiratory problems in humans and animals.
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Air pollution
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Organizations highly committed to environmental responsibility may conduct an audit of their efforts and report the results to all interested ___________.
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stakeholders
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Critics of nuclear power are concerned about all of the following, except:
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Reduced emissions
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Wind power holds great promise for the United States because of the _____________, and experts believe wind energy could meet as much as 20 percent of the nation’s energy needs.
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Rocky Mountains
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In the United States, ____________ provides only 7% of total output but provides 19% of total electricity production worldwide, making it the largest form of renewable energy.
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hydroelectric power
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Many businesses responded to sustainability by adopting a triple-bottom line approach; taking into consideration social and environmental performance variables in addition to ____________.
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economic performance
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A _________________ business attempts to avoid dealing with environmental issues and hopes nothing bad happens or no one ever finds out about an environmental accident or abuse.
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low-commitment
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The _____________ focuses on reducing pollution through cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use.
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Pollution Prevention Act
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The Kyoto Protocol created in 1997 is an international treaty meant to curb global
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greenhouse gas emissions
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Geothermal energy provides ______________ and is a more dependable energy source than some other forms of alternative energy.
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a constant source of heat

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