Fin Chaps

question

If you bought a share of stock, what would you expect to receive, when would you expect to receive it, and would you be certain that your expectations would be met?
answer

When you purchase a stock, you expect to receive dividends plus capital gains. Not all stocks pay dividends immediately, but those corporations that do, typically pay dividends quarterly. Capital gains (losses) are received when the stock is sold. Stocks are risky, so you would not be certain that your expectations would be met—as you would if you had purchased a U.S. Treasury security, which offers a guaranteed payment every 6 months plus repayment of the purchase price when the security matures.
question

If most investors expect the same cash flows from Companies A and B but are more confident that A’s cash flows will be closer to their expected value, which company should have the higher stock price?
answer

If investors are more confident that Company A’s cash flows will be closer to their expected value than Company B’s cash flows, then investors will drive the stock price up for Company A. Consequently, Company A will have a higher stock price than Company B
question

What is a firm’s intrinsic value? Its current stock price? Is the sock’s \”true long-run value\” more closely related to its intrinsic value or to its current price?
answer

A firm’s intrinsic value is an estimate of a stock’s \”true\” value based on accurate risk and return data. It can be estimated but not measured precisely. A stock’s current price is its market price—the value based on perceived but possibly incorrect information as seen by the marginal investor. From these definitions, you can see that a stock’s \”true long-run value\” is more closely related to its intrinsic value rather than its current price.
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What are some actions that stockholders can take to ensure that management’s and stockholders’ interests are aligned?
answer

Useful motivational tools that will aid in aligning stockholders’ and management’s interests include: (1) reasonable compensation packages, (2) direct intervention by shareholders, including firing managers who don’t perform well, and (3) the threat of takeover. The compensation package should be sufficient to attract and retain able managers but not go beyond what is needed. Also, compensation packages should be structured so that managers are rewarded on the basis of the stock’s performance over the long run, not the stock’s price on an option exercise date. This means that options (or direct stock awards) should be phased in over a number of years so managers will have an incentive to keep the stock price high over time. Since intrinsic value is not observable, compensation must be based on the stock’s market price—but the price used should be an average over time rather than on a specific date. Stockholders can intervene directly with managers. Today, the majority of stock is owned by institutional investors and these institutional money managers have the clout to exercise considerable influence over firms’ operations. First, they can talk with managers and make suggestions about how the business should be run. In effect, these institutional investors act as lobbyists for the body of stockholders. Second, any shareholder who has owned $2,000 of a company’s stock for one year can sponsor a proposal that must be voted on at the annual stockholders’ meeting, even if management opposes the proposal. Although shareholder-sponsored proposals are non-binding, the results of such votes are clearly heard by top management. If a firm’s stock is undervalued, then corporate raiders will see it to be a bargain and will attempt to capture the firm in a hostile takeover. If the raid is successful, the target’s executives will almost certainly be fired. This situation gives managers a strong incentive to take actions to maximize their stock’s price.
question

Is an initial public offering an example of a primary or secondary market transaction? Explain
answer

A primary market is the market in which corporations raise capital by issuing new securities. An initial public offering is a stock issue in which privately held firms go public. Therefore, an IPO would be an example of a primary market transaction.
question

Indicate whether the following instruments are examples of money market or capital market securities. a. U.S. Treasury bills b. Long-term corporate bonds c. Common stocks d. Preferred stocks e. Dealer commercial pape
answer

A money market transaction occurs in the financial market in which funds are borrowed or loaned for short periods (less than one year). A capital market transaction occurs in the financial market in which stocks and intermediate—or long-term debt (one year or longer)—are issued. a. A U.S. Treasury bill is an example of a money market transaction. b. Long-term corporate bonds are examples of capital market transactions. c. Common stocks are examples of capital market transactions. d. Preferred stocks are examples of capital market transactions. e. Dealer commercial paper is an example of a money market transaction.
question

What would happen to the U.S. standard of living if people lost faith in the safety of the financial institutions? Explain
answer

It would be difficult for firms to raise capital. Thus, capital investment would slow down, unemployment would rise, the output of goods and services would fall, and, in general, our standard of living would decline

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