Please enter something

Feminist and Social Contract Theory

question

Lawrence Kohlberg
answer

theory of six stages of moral development
question

Jean Piaget
answer

four stages of childhood cognitive deveolpment (sensory motor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations)
question

Sigmund Freud
answer

stages of psychosexual development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital)
question

Carol Gilligan
answer

student of Kohlberg; recognized that girls assess ethical dilemmas differently from boys. feminine approach was not adequately evaluated on Kohlberg’s scale; the feminine approach emphasizes relationships, community, caring, and bonding with family, friends, and others from their communities
question

the Social Contract
answer

a model that philosophers have used to justify the state and adherence to law and social rules (answers \”why should I obey?\” and \”what makes authority legitimate?\”
question

consent-based theories
answer

define and legitimate the nature and extent of political authority
question

Rousseau, Kant, Rawls, and Scanlon
answer

philosophers who use Social Contract as a criterion for determining whether a law or act of government is just or unjust, by reflecting on if we can assume the consent of the governed
question

the state of nature
answer

the human condition prior to organized society
question

perfect, total freedom
answer

before there was a social collective with rules and authority, humans existed in a state of
question

Thomas Hobbes
answer

contends that none of us want to live in perfect freedom
question

equality of need
answer

we all need the same things for our survival and must fend for ourselves in a world characterized by scarcity and competition
question

Hobbes
answer

believes that people are driven by self-interest; also believes in psychological and ethical egoism and natural law
question

John Locke and Rousseau
answer

see total liberty as a great good and see harmony where Hobbes sees war; Rousseau argues that we are actually better, healthier, and saner in the state of nature and extols the \”noble savage,\”
question

noble savage
answer

corrupted by private property, inequality, social class differences, schooling, and the trappings of civilized society
question

John Rawls
answer

uses the social contract model in A Theory of Justice; begins with what he terms the \”original position\”
question

original position
answer

where people are under the \”veil of ignorance\”
question

veil of ignorance
answer

people don’t know if they are smart or stupid, energetic or lazy, rich or poor, male or female- and must rationally work out the best fairest set of social arrangements
question

impartiality
answer

to get us to think beyond our personal, individualistic self-interest, and instead focus on our collective self interest (the common good)
question

altruism
answer

assertions of \”moral facts\”