Feminist and Social Contract Theory

Flashcard maker : Jason Westley
Lawrence Kohlberg
theory of six stages of moral development
Jean Piaget
four stages of childhood cognitive deveolpment (sensory motor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations)
Sigmund Freud
stages of psychosexual development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital)
Carol Gilligan
student of Kohlberg; recognized that girls assess ethical dilemmas differently from boys. feminine approach was not adequately evaluated on Kohlberg’s scale; the feminine approach emphasizes relationships, community, caring, and bonding with family, friends, and others from their communities
the Social Contract
a model that philosophers have used to justify the state and adherence to law and social rules (answers \”why should I obey?\” and \”what makes authority legitimate?\”
consent-based theories
define and legitimate the nature and extent of political authority
Rousseau, Kant, Rawls, and Scanlon
philosophers who use Social Contract as a criterion for determining whether a law or act of government is just or unjust, by reflecting on if we can assume the consent of the governed
the state of nature
the human condition prior to organized society
perfect, total freedom
before there was a social collective with rules and authority, humans existed in a state of
Thomas Hobbes
contends that none of us want to live in perfect freedom
equality of need
we all need the same things for our survival and must fend for ourselves in a world characterized by scarcity and competition
Hobbes
believes that people are driven by self-interest; also believes in psychological and ethical egoism and natural law
John Locke and Rousseau
see total liberty as a great good and see harmony where Hobbes sees war; Rousseau argues that we are actually better, healthier, and saner in the state of nature and extols the \”noble savage,\”
noble savage
corrupted by private property, inequality, social class differences, schooling, and the trappings of civilized society
John Rawls
uses the social contract model in A Theory of Justice; begins with what he terms the \”original position\”
original position
where people are under the \”veil of ignorance\”
veil of ignorance
people don’t know if they are smart or stupid, energetic or lazy, rich or poor, male or female- and must rationally work out the best fairest set of social arrangements
impartiality
to get us to think beyond our personal, individualistic self-interest, and instead focus on our collective self interest (the common good)
altruism
assertions of \”moral facts\”

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