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FAD 2230 chapter 12 divorce

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divorce rates
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-50% for first marriage -65% for second marriages
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how are divorce rates calculated?
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-number of divorces per year -ratio of current marriages to current divorces -lifetime records of marriage and divorce (accurate)
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crude divorce rate
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sample of 1,000 people. problem because it depends what community you sample, and can count double
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refined divorce rate
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-best method -ask 1,000 women age 15-44 how many times they have been divorced
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economic interdependence
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-factor that binds marriages together -divorce is expensive so people will stay together if they don’t have the money; may not want a different house, car, etc -also legal, social, moral constraints -binding strength of some factors has lessened; ex women less economically dependent
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spouse’s relationship
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-factor that binds a marriage together -may reflect back and project that it will get better
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economic factors of divorce
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-wives in the labor forces has independence effect -income effect
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high expectations of marriage
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-expectation of romance, respect, communication, time spent together -colonial wives didn’t tell husbands to come off farm and spend time with them
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changed nature of marriage
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-used to be in colonial times about survival and business -now more about romance and relationships
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intergenerational transmission of divorce
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-idea that divorce can be passed along through generations -divorced parents can pass on negative behaviors to children -child can see parents divorce and survive, see that they turn out ok so not worried about divorcing themselves
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other factors associated with divorce
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-remarried mates are more likely to divorce -cohabitation before marriae increases chances of divorce -premarital pregnancy may increase the risk of divorce in a subsequent marriage -remaining child free is associated with higher divorce chance -race and ethnicity are differentially associated with chances of divorce
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compared to marrieds, divorced people:
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-have lower levels of life satisfaction -more negative general mood -poorer physical health -more depressed -somewhat more inclined to suicide -those in unhappy marriages tend to be more depressed than divorced individuals
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emotional divorce
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aspect where you pull away from your partner; alienating words or actions, criticizing, fightin
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legal divorce
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-contact attorneys -simplest part of divorce because it has an ending date
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community divorce
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change churches, friends, gyms, inlaws
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psychic divorce
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moving away from ‘we’ and toward ‘I’; happens before the legal divorce
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economic divorce
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corresponds to legal but can happen prior to; stow away money
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economic consequences of divorce for men and women
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-women are the losers of the economics -men and women’s unequal qages; women make 76 cents for every dollar a man does -equitable division of property in divorce -women don’t have access to retired men’s account
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when do men lose economically in a divorce?
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-if they earn less than 80% of the family’s income -if they have to pay child support -could remarry a women who has primary custody of kids- having 2 sets of kids -if earnings are 50-50, man will lose out in a divorce
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life stress perspective
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-divorce is stressful for children -may have to move, give up dog, change schools, switch back and forth between houses
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parental loss perspective
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-children had access to both parents, same house, same time while they were married -not this way anymore after divorce -with mom, can’t see dad; vise versa -may feel like they have to choose
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parental adjustment perspective
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-parents of children go through their own struggles of divorce -may affect the way parents parent their children -ex depression, partying, dating
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economic hardship perspective
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-children used to certain vacations each year, no longer after divorce -out to eat/movies on weekends -income split, can’t afford same things
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interparental conflict perspective
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-conflict before, during, after divorce affects the way children see their parents -parents fight through their children
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why do people divorce?
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-income -degree of similarity between spouses -couples ages -age at marriage -nonmarital childbearing -sex of children -race and ethnicity -education
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americans’ view on divorce today
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saying that it should be harder or remain the same to get a divorce, fewer want it to be made easier to obtain
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marital endurance ethic
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perspective that marriage is full of prelims and if you can endure them, you will find yourself in a better place
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marital work ethic
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marriage takes work and it will be hard; not only have to survive prelims but have to work at them; counseling, seminars, family meetings, date nights
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personal happiness ethic
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sometimes people can survive a bad marriage because they disconnect a little bit and choose to be a happy person in the marriage even if they don’t really love the other person. appreciate marriage and parter, wait for they partner to be ready to work on the marriage
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problems for children from divorce
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-fighting in front of children -fighting through children -conflicting loyalty -children’s knowledge of divorce issues; need to be able to love parents freely and equally
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optimistic view on outcome for children
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-study of 1,400 stable and dissolved marriages and their children for 30 years: -25% of the children of divorce had long term social, emotional, or psychological problems compared to 10% of those whose parents had not divorced -75-80% cope reasonably well