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Exceptional children 1-6 – Flashcards with Answers

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Which of the following is NOT included in the term “exceptional children”?
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children with addicted mothers
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Julia was diagnosed with bone cancer at the age of six. It was necessary for doctors to amputate her right leg below the knee. According to current terminology, Julia is
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Impared
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Carlos is a high school student who uses a wheelchair. He participates in advanced placement math and science classes and does well in other subjects. He feels awkward in PE because he is unable to fully participate in sports such as basketball. According to current terminology, Carlos is
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Handicap
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Which of the following statements about handicaps is NOT true
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Handicaps are usually evident at birth or shortly after birth
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Which of the following statements about gender and special education is true?
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Twice as many boys receive special education services.
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What percentage of the school-age population ages 6-17 consists of students with disabilities in special education?
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12%
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Which of the following is the largest disability category in special education?
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learning disabilities
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Which of the following reflects the change in the number of students with autism over the past 10 years?
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There are ten times as many students
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Which of the following reflects the change in the number of students with autism over the past 10 years?
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There are ten times as many students
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In a nationwide study, what percentage of students with disabilities was affected by an additional or secondary disability?
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40%
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Travis is a third grade student with an intellectual disability. He has just been placed in Mrs. Kinard’s third grade class. Students in his class are learning their multiplication facts. Travis is eager to participate in class but instead of allowing Travis to do the same activity as the other students, Mrs. Kinard gives him a coloring worksheet that she obtained from a colleague who teaches kindergarten. Which of the disadvantages of labeling is exemplified by her actions?
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The label has caused her to have lower expectations.
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Prior to the 1970’s
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students with disabilities could not enroll in public schools
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PARC v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1972) granted a free appropriate public education to
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students who were previously deemed unable to benefit from instruction
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Which of the following is not required by the Individuals with Disabilities Act?
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a free appropriate education for students who are gifted and talented
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Which principle of IDEA states that no child with a disability can be excluded from a free appropriate public education?
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zero reject
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Hector and his family came to the United States from Cuba last year. Hector speaks only Spanish and seems unable to learn English despite extended help from an ELL teacher. He is failing all subjects in second grade except for Art and P.E. He was recently evaluated for the possibility of an intellectual disability. The school psychologist administered an intelligence test in Spanish. Scores indicate that Hector has significant cognitive delays. Based on the findings, the IEP team is recommending that Hector receive special education services as a student with an intellectual disability. Did Hector receive a nondiscriminatory evaluation as required by IDEA?
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No; only one test was administered
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Which of the following is true regarding a free appropriate public education (FAPE) under IDEA?
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Students are entitled to an individualized education program.
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All of the following are examples of related services except
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transportation to scheduled doctor visits
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According to the least restrictive environment (LRE) principle of IDEA, which of the following is NOT true?
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IEP teams should first consider the option of self-contained class placement for
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All of the following are procedural safeguards granted by IDEA except
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attorney fees for all parents in due process hearings
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P. L. 99-457 extended the services provided to school-aged children with disabilities and required states to serve children ages
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3-5
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Early intervention services
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are prescribed and implemented according to an individualized family service plan (IFSP)
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Amelia is a student with autism who does not speak. Instead she types what she wants to say into a device that converts the text to speech. The device helps Amelia to express her desires and needs. This is an example of
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assistive technology
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Mrs. Epstein is a middle school science teacher. She is trying to build fluency with science vocabulary so she has constructed a deck of cards with the vocabulary words on one side and the definitions of the words on the other side. Students take turns defining as many words as they can in one minute. What fluency building activity is Mrs. Epstein using?
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SAFMEDS
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According to current research, which of the following is NOT an outcome associated with fluency?
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improved social relationships
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Mrs. Epstein is a middle school science teacher. She is trying to build fluency with science vocabulary so she has constructed a deck of cards with the vocabulary words on one side and the definitions of the words on the other side. Students take turns defining as many words as they can in one minute. What fluency building activity is Mrs. Epstein using?
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SAFMEDS
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Which of the following court cases sought extended school year services for students with disabilities who regressed during usual school breaks?
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Stuart v. Nappi (1978)
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Which of the following court rulings declared that school districts could not be compelled to provide costly related services if a student with a disability made adequate progress in general education without those services?
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Board of Education of the Central School District v. Rowley Hendrick Hudson
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According to the IDEA amendments of 1997 a manifestation determination hearing must be conducted
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when a student with a disability has been suspended in excess of 10 days
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Programs for students who are gifted and talented
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Isaac is a student with a disability who belongs to a neighborhood gang. He is involved in an argument with another student in math class. Later that night, Isaac attends a school sponsored football game. Other students report that Isaac has a gun and is threatening to shoot the student he argued with earlier. Isaac is removed from the football game by authorities. Members of the IEP team decide to place Isaac at an alternative school for 45 days. Were Isaac’s rights violated
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No; schools have the right to remove students who bring weapons to school to an interim alternative placement
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In what way is IDEA and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 alike?
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They both require placement in the most integrated setting possible.
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Which of the following is NOT defined as a major life activity in the Americans with Disabilities Act?
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enjoying leisure time
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The ultimate goal of No Child Left Behind is
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that all children will be proficient in all subject matter by 2014.
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No Child Left Behind places special emphasis on determining what educational programs and practices
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have clearly demonstrated effectiveness through research.
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Which of the following is a characteristic of primary prevention
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It is designed to reduce the number of new cases of disabilities.
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Maurice has cerebral palsy and is physically unable to speak. His teacher helps him to learn to use a communication board. What type of intervention is this?
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compensatory
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Ms. Frost gives oral reading fluency tests every week to all her first graders. The lowest performing students receive special reading tutoring until they are reading at a minimally acceptable level. What type of intervention is this
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remedial
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Which is NOT a defining feature of special education?
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individualized goals are always aligned to state standards
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) All of the following are features of special education curriculum except
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individualized goals are always aligned to state standards
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The first public school special education classes in the United States were for
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children with visual impairments
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Which of the following changed all references to mental retardation in federal statutes to intellectual disabilities?
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Rosa’s Law
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All of the following are criteria for a diagnosis of intellectual disability except
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concurrent sensory disabilities
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An intellectual disability is usually defined by an IQ that falls at or below
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70
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The difference between the AAIDD and the IDEA definitions of intellectual disabilities is
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the effect on educational performance is mentioned only in the IDEA definition
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Which of the following is not one of the 5 factors influencing human functioning as depicted in the AAIDD theoretical model?
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academic success
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Caleb is a student who needs limited supports to function at school and in the community. Based on this knowledge, which of the following is most likely to represent his level of intellectual disability?
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moderate
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Which of the following statements about IQ tests is NOT true?
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IQ test scores tend to be static.
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IQ tests are useful for all of the following purposes except
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determining objectives for an IEP
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Which of the following best represents a deficit in adaptive behavior
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Twelve-year-old Chandler cannot cross the street without assistance.
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Which of the following adaptive behavior assessments includes questions about adaptive and maladaptive behaviors
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ABS-S2
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A person’s adaptive behavior is usually assessed by
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Early researchers suggested that students with intellectual disabilities have ability similar to people without disabilities in
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long-term memory retention
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Many students with mild intellectual disabilities are NOT identified until
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second or third grade
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Tony is a typically developing student in preschool. He learned to discriminate between a circle and a triangle in 3 trials. His classmate, Jay, has an intellectual disability. How many trials might Jay require to perform the same task?
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30
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Which of the following statements about attention and students with intellectual disabilities is most accurate?
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They are slower to attend to relevant features of a task
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Which of the following exemplifies learned helplessness?
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Darla has studied for a spelling test but she refuses to write any of the words the teacher dictates.
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Which of the following is NOT true of learned helplessness and outer-directedness?
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They are an inherent characteristic of intellectual disabilities.
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Carlos is a student with an intellectual disability. Mrs. Busby, his teacher, just saw him copying from Jasmine’s paper rather than attempt a writing assignment on his own. How can she help Carlos be more independent?
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She should allow Carlos to choose a topic to write about
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Which of the following is the best example of self-determination
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Gina asks to ride the bus to town with her cousin so she can learn to use public transportation.
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Social deficits displayed by students with intellectual disabilities include all of the following except
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inability to recall names
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Which of the following statements about challenging behaviors and students with intellectual disabilities is true?
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Students with severe intellectual disabilities generally display more challenging behaviors.
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The difference in the prevalence rates of intellectual disabilities is largely due to
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differences in criteria used for identification
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The two most common genetic causes of intellectual disabilities are
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Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome
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During the 2009-2010 school-year, what percentage of school-aged children received special education services under the disability category of intellectual disabilities
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7.8%
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Marvin is a second grade student with a moderate intellectual disability. His teachers claim that his gnome costume for Halloween was perfect for him. They say that he is always happy and that he never meets a stranger. Recently his teacher had to stop him from leaving the classroom with a man who had come to fix the computer. Marvin displays characteristics of a person with
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Williams syndrome
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All of the following are environmental causes of intellectual disabilities except
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diseases or syndromes
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Which of the following is a maternal screening test that can identify pregnancies at risk for a congenital disability?
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maternal serum (AFP) alpha-fetoprotein
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A new test for genetic abnormalities that can be done as early as 5 weeks into the pregnancy is done by
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detecting fetal DNA and RNA in the mother’s bloodstream
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Which of the following causes of intellectual disabilities can be combated with education and training
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lead poisoning
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Who was the first person to develop methods for educating people with intellectual disabilities?
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Jean Itard
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Which of the following statements about functional academic skills is true?
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They are the skills that are most useful parts of the subject.
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Which question is critical for teachers in determining which skills to include in a functional curriculum?
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Will it be needed when the student is 21?
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Which of the following statements about self-determination is least accurate?
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Self-determination cannot be taught to students in elementary school.
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Which of the following students would NOT need training in recruiting teacher attention?
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a student who asks appropriate subject-oriented questions
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Breaking down complex skills into smaller subskills or steps to make learning easier is known as
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task analysis
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Which of the following students would be identified as having difficulty with generalization of learning?
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Billy can tie his sneakers but not his dress shoes.
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During the practice stage of learning, feedback for students with intellectual disabilities should
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emphasize the correct rate of skill performance
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Which of the following strategies is least likely to promote successful inclusion for students with intellectual disabilities?
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common recess time
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How Mrs. Morales spends time each day teaching her first grade students how letters and combinations of letters represent small segments of speech called phonemes is known as
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phonemic awareness
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An instructional strategy that incorporates students’ familiarity with technology to teach needed skills in a variety of settings is
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In what year was the category of learning disabilities first included in IDEA?
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1975
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Which of the following students would NOT qualify as learning disabled according to the federal definition?
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Blake, a student with cerebral palsy
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The most common way to identify a severe discrepancy between expected and actual achievement is
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comparing student scores on IQ tests with scores on an achievement test
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What is a drawback to using a discrepancy approach to identifying children with learning disabilities?
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It is a wait and fail approach.
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One advantage of the response to intervention approach to identifying students with learning disabilities is
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it results in early identification and prevention
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The NJCLD definition of learning disabilities is different from the IDEA definition in that
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social difficulties are recognized as a learning disability
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Which of the following terms is considered obsolete by the NJCLD?
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perceptual impairments
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Most students with learning disabilities have problems with
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reading
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All of the following are basic psychological processes except
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behavior
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Carter is having difficulty learning to read. Although he is in third grade, his teacher says that he does not seem to have a conscious understanding that language is made up of sounds. Carter has a deficit in
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phonological awareness
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Children who are unsuccessful with interventions that work for other struggling readers have difficulty with both
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phonological awareness and visual naming speed
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Which of the following statements about explicit instruction is NOT accurate?
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It makes the student responsible for learning throughout the process.
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Mrs. O’Cain asks Travis to identify the middle sound in the word hit. Which phonemic awareness skill does this task involve?
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isolating sounds
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Mrs. Fonzi just attended a workshop on explicit instruction. She is trying to make her lessons more explicit. Her lesson focuses on rhyming words. What would be the first step in making the lesson more explicit?
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modeling examples of rhyming words and explaining why they rhyme
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Which of the following statements about math skills and students with learning disabilities is NOT accurate?
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Students with learning disabilities are fluent in recalling number facts
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Which of the following is NOT identified, by the author of your textbook , as likely to improve the math performance of students with learning disabilities?
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discovery learning
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Which of the following is NOT true regarding students with learning disabilities and written language?
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They spend a large amount of time planning their writing
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Current research on behavior problems and students with learning disabilities indicates that
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they engage in more risk-taking behaviors
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What is the defining characteristic of students with learning disabilities?
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specific and significant achievement deficits in spite of adequate intelligence
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What percentage of school-aged students with disabilities have learning disabilities?
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42.3 %
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Which of the four suspected causes of learning disabilities is the least credible today?
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biochemical imbalance
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An environmental agent suspected as a cause of learning disabilities is
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poverty
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Larry scored below basic level on a statewide achievement test; however, his teacher has evidence that he has made small incremental improvements in both reading fluency and comprehension this year. Which type of assessment is likely to provide this evidence?
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curriculum-based measurement
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One of the major concerns about using RTI to identify those in need of special education is that
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interventions are not implemented with fidelity in many classrooms
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Criterion-referenced tests are most useful for
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determining what skills a student has learned
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Which of the following is a criterion-referenced test commonly used by special educators?
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Brigance Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills
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Mr. Carson is a middle school science teacher in an inclusive classroom. He wants all of his students to be successful, so he plans and sequences instruction to show the commonalities and differences between old and new knowledge. Which principle of effective instructional design does this exemplify?
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primed background knowledge
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Which of the following is NOT true of content enhancement?
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It may increase the complexity of the curriculum
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Mrs. Cooper prepares handouts for her students with learning disabilities to help them understand her lecture. The handouts contain an outline of lecture content and include spaces for writing key facts, concepts, or relationships. This is an example of
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guided notes
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Special educators can help students with learning disabilities succeed in general education classes by
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teaching them behaviors that general educators value
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Studies on educational placement and its effect on the self-concept of students with learning disabilities concluded that
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placement did not have a major influence on self-concept
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) Mr. Romano teaches his students to think of the acronym HOMES to remember the names of the five great lakes. What type of mnemonic device is this?
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a letter strategy
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On average, how many students does a resource teacher serve?
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20
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Which of the following is NOT a typical responsibility of a resource teacher?
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writing lesson plans for general educators who teach students with learning disabilities
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Which of the following service options for students with learning disabilities is the most restrictive?
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separate classroom
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Neuroimaging research has indicated that students with dyslexia have differences in the brain structure or functioning in the
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left temporal lobe
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Which of the following is an example of curricula that includes explicit instruction?
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Reading Mastery
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Which of the following statements about DIBELS is NOT accurate?
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It is a summative evaluation.
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A special form of direct daily measurement in which instructional decisions are based on changes in the frequency of student performance is known as
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CBM
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Why is it difficult to develop a clear definition of emotional disabilities?
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Norms for appropriate behavior differ across cultures.
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Which of the following student behaviors best fits the IDEA definition of emotional disturbance?
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Grace has been depressed and withdrawn for 7 months.
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Which of the following is NOT a condition required to qualify for an emotional disturbance?
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visibility
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All of the following factors contribute to the vagueness of the definition of emotional disturbance except
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inclusion of five different problems as qualifications
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Which of the following conditions is excluded from the IDEA definition of emotional disturbance?
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social maladjustment
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What is one advantage of the definition of emotional disturbance proposed by the CCBD?
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It increases the chance of early identification and intervention
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Which of the following is NOT an example of a student with an internalizing behavior?
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Seven-year-old Sophie is often out of her seat during reading.
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Which of the following statements is true regarding gender and emotional disabilities?
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Boys are more likely to have externalizing disorders than girls.
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Which of the following statements is true regarding students who display antisocial behaviors at an early age?
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They are likely to engage in delinquent behavior in adolescence
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Current research on academic achievement and students with emotional disabilities indicates that
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C) they are less likely to pass grade-level competency exams
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What is the kingpin in the behavior of students with emotional disabilities?
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All of the following are causes of emotional disabilities except
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Children with emotional and behavior problems are more likely to come from homes in which
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Which of these statements about the identification of students with emotional and behavior disorders is most accurate?
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The number of students receiving special education services for emotional disabilities
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What are the two major categories of suspected causes of emotional and behavioral disorders?
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Mrs. Abraham teaches second grade. She is concerned about Sammy’s behavior. He is unable to read grade-level text. He disrupts class during reading by cursing and screaming when he is asked to read. Which of the following strategies would be most likely to improve Sammy’s behavior?
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Which of the following statements regarding risk factors and emotional and behavior problems is true?
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Screening tests for emotional and behavior disorders
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Which of the following assessments for emotional and behavior disorders is a strengths-based assessment?
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All of the following are measurable dimensions of behavior except
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Behavior intervention plans are required for students with disabilities
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Curriculum for students with emotional disabilities should focus on
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Which of the following teachers is likely to have the fewest students with emotional and behavior disorders in class?
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Mrs. Byrd is a middle school English teacher. She has just learned that Carla, a new student in her class, has an emotional disability. She wants to keep confrontations and classroom disruptions at a minimum. Mrs. Byrd should
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Mr. Shaffer is a high school history teacher. He is very concerned about Rafael, one of his students. Rafael exhibits aggressive behavior in class, and episodes are becoming more frequent. Mr. Shaffer has decided to conduct a functional behavior assessment to determine why Raphael is so aggressive. He meets with Rafael’s parents and two of his teachers to determine which situations provoke aggressive behavior and solicit suggestions for keeping Rafael calm. Mr. Shaffer is conducting a/an
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All of the following skills are critical for success in general education
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Which of the following social skills programs includes curriculum materials for children and adolescents?
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Reasons for infrequent use of praise include all of the following except
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Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports
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In school districts where SWPBS have been implemented, what percentage of students with require Tier 2 intervention?
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Which of the following is the most accurate regarding teachers’ use of praise?
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Which of the following statements about self-management is most accurate?
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Which of the following is a proactive management strategy?
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What is the first challenge that teachers of students with behavior disorders face when they try to use a group process to modify behaviors
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Mrs. Gardner is using a peer support strategy to motivate her students to behave more appropriately. Students have been asked to watch their classmates and catch them being good. Mrs. Gardner praises students who have noticed positive behavior. Which of the following strategies is she using?
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Monica’s teacher has taught her to use a self-management strategy to control her blurting out in class. Her teacher has agreed to let her have extra time in the listening center if she has fewer than 5 blurt outs during morning work. Monica has been instructed to color the circle on her chart green if she has met the goal. On Thursday after morning work, Monica holds up a green circle and smiles at her teacher. The form of self-management described in this scenario is
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Teachers who use mystery motivators correctly
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Teachers who exhibit differential acceptance for students with emotional and behavior problems
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The reason that a large proportion of students with emotional disabilities are served in more restrictive settings is
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Exceptional children
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differ from the norm in learning and/or behavior
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Which of the following statements about parental participation and shared decision making is NOT true?
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Parents and students prevail when there is a disagreement between the school and the family.
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Programs for students who are gifted and talented
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are chronically underfunded.
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Which of the following adaptive behavior assessments includes questions about adaptive and maladaptive behaviors?
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ABS-S2
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An instructional strategy that incorporates students’ familiarity with technology to teach needed skills in a variety of settings is
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iPod video modeling