Exam I – Flashcard

question
Which of the following is NOT LIKELY to characterize the approach of toxicology? A. Laboratory studies of the role of xenobiotics in carcinogens B. Studies of disease occurrence in populations according to person variables C. In vitro studies D. In vivo studies E. They all characterize the toxicologic approach
answer
B. Studies of disease occurrence in populations according to person variables
question
What are the three "P's" that are the principal determinants of health worldwide? Choose all that apply. A. Pollution B. Population C. Property D. Poverty E. Parasites
answer
A. Pollution, B. Population, D. Poverty
question
List three objectives relative to environmental health of the Healthy People 2020 program.
answer
toxic and hazardous substances, infrastructure and surveillance, air and water quality
question
Why do children in comparison with adults represent a group that is especially vulnerable to environmental hazards? Choose the INCORRECT answer. A. Their immune systems are still developing B. They are developing more rapidly C. They may be exposed more often to toxicants in the soil D. They metabolize environmental chemicals more efficiently E. They may inadvertently ingest toxic substances
answer
D. They metabolize environmental chemicals more efficiently
question
The epidemiologic risk transition is characterized by a: A. Population compromised of predominantly young individuals B. Growing burden of chronic, degenerative diseases C. Rapid increase in population D. High mortality rates E. None of the above
answer
B. Growing burden of chronic, degenerative diseases
question
Stage 2 of the demographic transition demonstrates: A. Drop in mortality rates; high fertility rates B. Fertility and mortality rates are high C. Dropping fertility rates; more even age and sex distributions D. Increasing mortality rates; dropping mortality rates E. None of the above
answer
A. Drop in mortality rates; high fertility rates
question
The effects of rapid growth of the world's populate include: A. Urbanization B. Overtaxing carrying capacity C. Food insecurity D. Loss of biodiversity E. All of the above
answer
E. All of the above
question
Environmental health compromises those aspects of human health that are determined by: A. Physical factors B. Biological factors C. Social factors D. Psychosocial factors E. All of the above
answer
E. All of the above
question
Which of the following statements is UNTRUE about ecosystems? A. Human beings are not considered to be a part of ecosystems B. An ecosystem is a dynamic complex of plant, animal and microorganism communities C. A temporary pond in a hollow tree can be an ecosystem D. Many ecosystems are being degraded E. All of these are untrue
answer
A. Human beings are not considered to be a part of ecosystems
question
On Airs, Waters and Places was significant because: A. Identified an environmental cause of cancer B. Described safe and unsafe working environments C. Described the toxic properties of sulfur and zinc D. Emphasized the role of the environment in people's health E. None of the above
answer
D. Emphasized the role of the environment in people's health
question
True/False: A contemporary environmental issue is the release of greenhouse gases and their possible contribution to climate change.
answer
True
question
The contributions of epidemiology to environmental health include: A. Concern with populations B. Use of observational data C. Methodology for study designs D. Descriptive and analytic studies E. All of the above
answer
E. All of the above
question
What are the two classes of epidemiologic studies?
answer
analytic, descriptive
question
How to the two classes of epidemiologic studies differ?
answer
Analytic studies focus on hypotheses and the control groups while descriptive studies look for associations between variables and the outcome
question
Environmental health science is concerned with agent, host and environmental factors in disease (epidemiologic triangle). What statement below is true about the triangle? A. Agent factors can include particles, toxic chemicals and pesticides B. The environment is the domain in which disease-causeing agents may exist C. The host is the person who affords the lodgment of an infectious agent D. Disease causality include three major factors: agent, host and environment E. All of the above are true
answer
E. All of the above are true
question
Define prevalence in terms of disease frequency.
answer
the cases of a disease in a population
question
Sir Percival Pott, who wrote Chirurgical Observations Relative to...: A. Was the father of modern biostatistics B. Established postulates for transmission of infectious disease C. Was an English anesthesiologist who used natural experiments D. Argued that the environment was associated with disease such as malaria E. Was a London surgeon who identified an environmental cause of cancer
answer
E. Was a London surgeon who identified an environmental cause of cancer
question
Define incidence in terms of disease frequency.
answer
the new cases of a disease that happen in a population at risk within a specific time frame
question
Identify the historical figure who was kong the first to expound on the role of environmental factors causing diseases: A. Sir Percival Pott B. John Snow C. Hippocrates D. Charles Miller III E. Socrates
answer
C. Hippocrates
question
How do you calculate case fatality rate?
answer
(number of deaths from a disease/total number of cases of the same disease) x 100
question
Which of the following statements is UNTRUE about case-control studies? A. Exposure to a factor is determined retrospectively B. They are a type of longitudinal design C. The measure of association is the odds ratio D. Exposure levels may be difficult to quantify precisely E. They can examine many potential exposures
answer
B. They are a type of longitudinal design
question
Which of the following statements is TRUE about cohort studies? A. Subjects are classified to their exposure B. They are a type of longitudinal design C. They may be either prospective or retrospective D. The measure of association is most often the relative risk E. All of the above
answer
E. All of the above
question
Hill's criteria of causality include: A. Strength B. Consistency C. Clarity D. A & B E. A, B, C
answer
D. A & B
question
The limitations of environmental epidemiology include the fact that: A. Accurate assessment of exposure is difficult B. Environmentally associated diseases often have low incidence and prevalence C. Long latency periods often occur between initial exposures and disease outcomes D. The effects of exposures are often non-specific E. All of the above
answer
E. All of the above
question
True/False: An ecologic epidemiological study is one that examines a group as the unit of analysis.
answer
True
question
True/False: An odds ratio greater than 1 means that there is a positive association between the disease outcome and the exposure.
answer
True
question
True/False: A relative risk less than 1 means that there is no association between exposure and outcome.
answer
False
question
Define bias in environmental epidemiology.
answer
Systematic deviation of results or inferences from the truth
question
Strength of environmental epidemiology.
answer
can address a large population
question
Weakness of environmental epidemiology.
answer
lack of specificity of exposures
question
The poisonous substance in the skin of frogs in the genus Dendrobates (poison dart frogs) is an example of: A. Toxicant B. Toxin C. Anthropogenic form of poison D. Synthetic xenobiotic E. None of the above
answer
B. Toxin
question
The existence of dose-response relationships may be used to establish the following kinds of information: A. Causal association between a toxicant and biological effects B. Minimum dosage(s) needed to produce a biological effect C. Interactions between xenobiotics in producing biological effects D. All of the above E. A & B
answer
D. All of the above
question
The concentration and toxicity of a chemical in the body are affected by: A. Route of entry into the body B. Received dose of the chemical C. Duration of exposure D. Individual sensitivity E. All of the above
answer
E. All of the above
question
Of the following routes of exposure, which two are the most common? A. Intravenous B. Ingestion C. Intracranial D. Intramuscular E. Inhalation
answer
B. Ingestion, E. Inhalation
question
Chronic exposures are those that last for: A. Less than 24 hours and occur once B. Less than 24 hours and occur more than once C. One month or less D. One to three months E. More than three months
answer
E. More than three months
question
Exposure assessment refers to the question of: A. What are the health effects that this agent can cause? B. What is the relationship between dose and occurrence of health effects in humans? C. What exposures are currently experiences to anticipated under different conditions? D. What is the estimated occurrence of the adverse effect in a given population? E. None of the above
answer
C. What exposures are currently experiences to anticipated under different conditions?
question
Risk characterization refers to the question of: A. What are the health effects that this agent can cause? B. What is the relationship between dose and occurrence of health effects in humans? C. What exposures are currently experiences to anticipated under different conditions? D. What is the estimated occurrence of the adverse effect in a given population? E. None of the above
answer
D. What is the estimated occurrence of the adverse effect in a given population?
question
What type of interaction between two chemicals produces an effect that is EQUAL to their individual effects taken together? A. Additive B. Synergistic C. Potentiative D. Coalitive E. Antagonistic
answer
A. Additive
question
What type of interaction between two chemicals produces an effect that is LESS than their individual effects taken together? A. Additive B. Synergistic C. Potentiative D. Coalitive E. Antagonistic
answer
E. Antagonistic
question
An example of in vitro testing for toxicology is: A. Experiments with normal volunteers B. Experiments with volunteers who have had unintentional exposures C. Studies of animals exposed to toxins D. Dose-response assessments in human populations E. Experiments with cells derived from human source
answer
E. Experiments with cells derived from human source
question
The concept of environmental justice specifies that: A. Immigrants can receive higher exposures to pesticides if their economic welfare is improved B. Industries can bypass environmental regulations in order to preserve their economic interests C. All people must receive fair treatment in the enforcement of environmental laws D. Decision-makers do not need to seek out the involvement of community members E. All of the above
answer
C. All people must receive fair treatment in the enforcement of environmental laws
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question
Which of the following is NOT LIKELY to characterize the approach of toxicology? A. Laboratory studies of the role of xenobiotics in carcinogens B. Studies of disease occurrence in populations according to person variables C. In vitro studies D. In vivo studies E. They all characterize the toxicologic approach
answer
B. Studies of disease occurrence in populations according to person variables
question
What are the three "P's" that are the principal determinants of health worldwide? Choose all that apply. A. Pollution B. Population C. Property D. Poverty E. Parasites
answer
A. Pollution, B. Population, D. Poverty
question
List three objectives relative to environmental health of the Healthy People 2020 program.
answer
toxic and hazardous substances, infrastructure and surveillance, air and water quality
question
Why do children in comparison with adults represent a group that is especially vulnerable to environmental hazards? Choose the INCORRECT answer. A. Their immune systems are still developing B. They are developing more rapidly C. They may be exposed more often to toxicants in the soil D. They metabolize environmental chemicals more efficiently E. They may inadvertently ingest toxic substances
answer
D. They metabolize environmental chemicals more efficiently
question
The epidemiologic risk transition is characterized by a: A. Population compromised of predominantly young individuals B. Growing burden of chronic, degenerative diseases C. Rapid increase in population D. High mortality rates E. None of the above
answer
B. Growing burden of chronic, degenerative diseases
question
Stage 2 of the demographic transition demonstrates: A. Drop in mortality rates; high fertility rates B. Fertility and mortality rates are high C. Dropping fertility rates; more even age and sex distributions D. Increasing mortality rates; dropping mortality rates E. None of the above
answer
A. Drop in mortality rates; high fertility rates
question
The effects of rapid growth of the world's populate include: A. Urbanization B. Overtaxing carrying capacity C. Food insecurity D. Loss of biodiversity E. All of the above
answer
E. All of the above
question
Environmental health compromises those aspects of human health that are determined by: A. Physical factors B. Biological factors C. Social factors D. Psychosocial factors E. All of the above
answer
E. All of the above
question
Which of the following statements is UNTRUE about ecosystems? A. Human beings are not considered to be a part of ecosystems B. An ecosystem is a dynamic complex of plant, animal and microorganism communities C. A temporary pond in a hollow tree can be an ecosystem D. Many ecosystems are being degraded E. All of these are untrue
answer
A. Human beings are not considered to be a part of ecosystems
question
On Airs, Waters and Places was significant because: A. Identified an environmental cause of cancer B. Described safe and unsafe working environments C. Described the toxic properties of sulfur and zinc D. Emphasized the role of the environment in people's health E. None of the above
answer
D. Emphasized the role of the environment in people's health
question
True/False: A contemporary environmental issue is the release of greenhouse gases and their possible contribution to climate change.
answer
True
question
The contributions of epidemiology to environmental health include: A. Concern with populations B. Use of observational data C. Methodology for study designs D. Descriptive and analytic studies E. All of the above
answer
E. All of the above
question
What are the two classes of epidemiologic studies?
answer
analytic, descriptive
question
How to the two classes of epidemiologic studies differ?
answer
Analytic studies focus on hypotheses and the control groups while descriptive studies look for associations between variables and the outcome
question
Environmental health science is concerned with agent, host and environmental factors in disease (epidemiologic triangle). What statement below is true about the triangle? A. Agent factors can include particles, toxic chemicals and pesticides B. The environment is the domain in which disease-causeing agents may exist C. The host is the person who affords the lodgment of an infectious agent D. Disease causality include three major factors: agent, host and environment E. All of the above are true
answer
E. All of the above are true
question
Define prevalence in terms of disease frequency.
answer
the cases of a disease in a population
question
Sir Percival Pott, who wrote Chirurgical Observations Relative to...: A. Was the father of modern biostatistics B. Established postulates for transmission of infectious disease C. Was an English anesthesiologist who used natural experiments D. Argued that the environment was associated with disease such as malaria E. Was a London surgeon who identified an environmental cause of cancer
answer
E. Was a London surgeon who identified an environmental cause of cancer
question
Define incidence in terms of disease frequency.
answer
the new cases of a disease that happen in a population at risk within a specific time frame
question
Identify the historical figure who was kong the first to expound on the role of environmental factors causing diseases: A. Sir Percival Pott B. John Snow C. Hippocrates D. Charles Miller III E. Socrates
answer
C. Hippocrates
question
How do you calculate case fatality rate?
answer
(number of deaths from a disease/total number of cases of the same disease) x 100
question
Which of the following statements is UNTRUE about case-control studies? A. Exposure to a factor is determined retrospectively B. They are a type of longitudinal design C. The measure of association is the odds ratio D. Exposure levels may be difficult to quantify precisely E. They can examine many potential exposures
answer
B. They are a type of longitudinal design
question
Which of the following statements is TRUE about cohort studies? A. Subjects are classified to their exposure B. They are a type of longitudinal design C. They may be either prospective or retrospective D. The measure of association is most often the relative risk E. All of the above
answer
E. All of the above
question
Hill's criteria of causality include: A. Strength B. Consistency C. Clarity D. A & B E. A, B, C
answer
D. A & B
question
The limitations of environmental epidemiology include the fact that: A. Accurate assessment of exposure is difficult B. Environmentally associated diseases often have low incidence and prevalence C. Long latency periods often occur between initial exposures and disease outcomes D. The effects of exposures are often non-specific E. All of the above
answer
E. All of the above
question
True/False: An ecologic epidemiological study is one that examines a group as the unit of analysis.
answer
True
question
True/False: An odds ratio greater than 1 means that there is a positive association between the disease outcome and the exposure.
answer
True
question
True/False: A relative risk less than 1 means that there is no association between exposure and outcome.
answer
False
question
Define bias in environmental epidemiology.
answer
Systematic deviation of results or inferences from the truth
question
Strength of environmental epidemiology.
answer
can address a large population
question
Weakness of environmental epidemiology.
answer
lack of specificity of exposures
question
The poisonous substance in the skin of frogs in the genus Dendrobates (poison dart frogs) is an example of: A. Toxicant B. Toxin C. Anthropogenic form of poison D. Synthetic xenobiotic E. None of the above
answer
B. Toxin
question
The existence of dose-response relationships may be used to establish the following kinds of information: A. Causal association between a toxicant and biological effects B. Minimum dosage(s) needed to produce a biological effect C. Interactions between xenobiotics in producing biological effects D. All of the above E. A & B
answer
D. All of the above
question
The concentration and toxicity of a chemical in the body are affected by: A. Route of entry into the body B. Received dose of the chemical C. Duration of exposure D. Individual sensitivity E. All of the above
answer
E. All of the above
question
Of the following routes of exposure, which two are the most common? A. Intravenous B. Ingestion C. Intracranial D. Intramuscular E. Inhalation
answer
B. Ingestion, E. Inhalation
question
Chronic exposures are those that last for: A. Less than 24 hours and occur once B. Less than 24 hours and occur more than once C. One month or less D. One to three months E. More than three months
answer
E. More than three months
question
Exposure assessment refers to the question of: A. What are the health effects that this agent can cause? B. What is the relationship between dose and occurrence of health effects in humans? C. What exposures are currently experiences to anticipated under different conditions? D. What is the estimated occurrence of the adverse effect in a given population? E. None of the above
answer
C. What exposures are currently experiences to anticipated under different conditions?
question
Risk characterization refers to the question of: A. What are the health effects that this agent can cause? B. What is the relationship between dose and occurrence of health effects in humans? C. What exposures are currently experiences to anticipated under different conditions? D. What is the estimated occurrence of the adverse effect in a given population? E. None of the above
answer
D. What is the estimated occurrence of the adverse effect in a given population?
question
What type of interaction between two chemicals produces an effect that is EQUAL to their individual effects taken together? A. Additive B. Synergistic C. Potentiative D. Coalitive E. Antagonistic
answer
A. Additive
question
What type of interaction between two chemicals produces an effect that is LESS than their individual effects taken together? A. Additive B. Synergistic C. Potentiative D. Coalitive E. Antagonistic
answer
E. Antagonistic
question
An example of in vitro testing for toxicology is: A. Experiments with normal volunteers B. Experiments with volunteers who have had unintentional exposures C. Studies of animals exposed to toxins D. Dose-response assessments in human populations E. Experiments with cells derived from human source
answer
E. Experiments with cells derived from human source
question
The concept of environmental justice specifies that: A. Immigrants can receive higher exposures to pesticides if their economic welfare is improved B. Industries can bypass environmental regulations in order to preserve their economic interests C. All people must receive fair treatment in the enforcement of environmental laws D. Decision-makers do not need to seek out the involvement of community members E. All of the above
answer
C. All people must receive fair treatment in the enforcement of environmental laws