Exam 3 – Flashcard Answers

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one purpose of the inflammatory process is to
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prevent infection of the injured tissue
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which bacterium grows in the intestine after prolonged antibiotic therapy
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C. difficile
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what causes the edema that occurs during the inflammatory process
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endothelial cell contraction
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what process causes heat and redness that occur during the inflammation process
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vosidilation
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the ________ system is a plasma protein system that forms a fibrinous network at an inflamed site to prevent spread of infection to adjacent tissues and keep microorganisms and foreign bodies at the site of greatest activity
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coagulation
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which component of the plasma protein system tags pathogenetic microorganisms for destruction by neutrophils and macrophages
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complement cascade
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which of the following is a vascular effect of histamine released from mast cells
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vasodilatation
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What is the function of the complement cascade called opsination
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it is the tagging of microorganisms for destruction by neutrophils and macrophages
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what effect does the chemotactic factor have on the inflammation process
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it directs leukocytes to the inflamed area
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when histamine binds to the 2(H2) receptor, inflammation is
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inhibited
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which chemical mediators induce pain during the inflammatory response
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prostaglandins and bradykinin
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when looking at WBC differentials, nurses know that individuals have early, acute inflammatory reactions when they notice elevations of what leukocytes
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neutrophils
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the predominant phagocytic cells in the later stages of the inflammatory response are
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macrophages
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TNF is secreted from
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macrophages
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which manifestation of the immune system is systemic
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fever + leukocytosis
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what occurs during the process of repair after tissue damage
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destroyed tissue is replaced by non-functioning tissue
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the role of fibroblasts during reconstructive (or proliferative) phase wound healing is to
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synthesize and secret collagen and the connective tissue proteins
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a keloid is the result of which functional wound healing process
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collagen matrix assembly
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which solution is best to use when cleaning a wound that is healing by epithelialization
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normal saline
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many adults have impaired inflammation and wound healing because of an
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underlying chronic disorder
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the primary characteristic that differentiates the immune response from other protective mechanisms is that it is
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specific to the antigen that initiates it
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b lymphocytes mature and undergo changes that commit them to becoming b cells in the
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bone marrow
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which type of immunity is produced by an individual after either natural exposure to the antigen or after immunization against the antigen
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active acquired
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what type of immunity is produced when an immunoglobulin crosses the placenta
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passive acquired
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the most important determinant of immunogenicity is the antigens
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foreignness
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which immunoglobulin is present in blood, saliva, breast milk and respiratory secretions
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IgA
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which antibody indicates a typical primary immune response
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IgM
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if a person has very low _____, that individual is more susceptible to infections of the mucous membranes
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IgA
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which is an example of endogenous antigen
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cancer cells
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when a person is exposed to most antigens, how long does it take before the antibody can be detected in circulation
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6 days
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which t cells controls or limits the immune response to protect that host’s own tissues against an autoimmune response
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regulatory t cells
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increased age may cause which changes in lymphocyte function
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increased production of antibodies against self-antigen
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the hypersensitivity reaction that occurs after a person who is allergic to bee stings is stung by a bee is called
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anaphylaxis
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common hay fever is expressed through a reaction that is mediated by
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IgE
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in a type II hypersensitivity reaction, when mismatched blood is administered causing an ABO incompatibility the erythrocytes are destroyed by
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complement-mediated cell lysis
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what is the mechanism for type III hypersensitivity reaction
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antibodies bind to soluble antigens that were released into body fluids and the immune complexes are deposited in the tissues
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what is the mechanism for type IV hypersensitivity reaction
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cytotoxic t lymphocytes or lymphokine-producing Th1 cells attack and destroy cellular targets directly
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what disease involves the deposition of circulating immune complexes containing an antibody against host DNA, resulting in tissue damage
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system lupus
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how does tissue damage occur in acute rejection after an organ transplant
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the cells release cytokines that active infiltrating macrophages and cytotoxic t cells directly attack the endothelial cells of the transplanted tissue
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which blood cell carries that carbohydrate antigens for blood types
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erythrocytes
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which component of the immune system is deficient in people with infections caused by viruses, fungi or yeast
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t cells
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what is the first stage of the infection process
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colonization
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for which microorganism is the skin the cite of reproduction
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bacteria and fungi
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considering the effects of nutritional deficiencies on the immune system, severe deficits in calories and protein lead to deficiencies in the formation of what immune cells
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t cells
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once they have penetrated the first line of defense, which microorganisms do neutrophils actively attack, engulf and destroy by phagocytosis.
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bacteria
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once they have penetrated the first line of defense, which microorganisms do natural killer (NK) cells actively attack
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viruses
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one systemic manifestation of an acute inflammatory response is fever that in produced by
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endogenous pyrogens acting directly on the hypothalamus
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lack of permanent immunity against a virus is die to
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antigenic shift of the same virus that is not recognized at a later time by the immune system as foreign
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if a patient has an inadequate immune response, which would be the most likely consequence
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impaired tissue healing and repair
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brochnospasm associated with hypersensitivity reactions is a result of
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histamine release
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antibodies do no participate in which type of hypersensitivity reaction
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IV
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a person complains of a general feeling of malaise but does not have signs specific to disease, is experiencing what stage os infection
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prodromal

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