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Exam 2 (Vocab)

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animism
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Tendency to attribute life to objects that are not alive.
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autobiographical memory
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Memory of specific events in one’s life.
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central executive
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In Baddeley’s model, element of working memory that controls the processing of information.
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centration
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In Piaget’s theory, the tendency of preoperational children to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others.
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conservation
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Piaget’s term for awareness that two objects that are equal according to a certain measure remain equal in the face of perceptual alteration so long as nothing has been added to or taken away from either object.
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decenter
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In Piaget’s terminology, to think simultaneously about several aspects of a situation.
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egocentrism
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Piaget’s term for inability to consider another person’s point of view; a characteristic of young children’s thought.
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emergent literacy
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Preschoolers’ development of skills, knowledge, and attitudes that underlie reading and writing.
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encoding
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Process by which information is prepared for long-term storage and later retrieval.
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Enuresis
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Repeated urination in clothing or in bed.
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episodic memory
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Long-term memory of specific experiences or events, linked to time and place.
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executive function
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Conscious control of thoughts, emotions, and actions to accomplish goals or solve problems.
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fast mapping
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Process by which a child absorbs the meaning of a new word after hearing it once or twice in conversation.
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fine motor skills
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Physical skills that involve the small muscles and eye-hand coordination.
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generic memory
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Memory that produces scripts of familiar routines to guide behavior.
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gross motor skills
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Physical skills that involve the large muscles.
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handedness
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Preference for using a particular hand.
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irreversibility
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Piaget’s term for a preoperational child’s failure to understand that an operation can go in two or more directions.
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long-term memory
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Storage of virtually unlimited capacity that holds information for long periods.
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pragmatics
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(1) The practical knowledge needed to use language for communicative purposes. (2) Set of linguistic rules that govern the use of language for communication.
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preoperational stage
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In Piaget’s theory, the second major stage of cognitive development, in which symbolic thought expands but children cannot yet use logic.
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private speech
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Talking aloud to oneself with no intent to communicate with others.
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recall
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Ability to reproduce material from memory.
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recognition
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Ability to identify a previously encountered stimulus.
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retrieval
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Process by which information is accessed or recalled from memory storage.
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scaffolding
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Temporary support to help a child master a task.
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script
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General remembered outline of a familiar, repeated event, used to guide behavior.
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sensory memory
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Initial, brief, temporary storage of sensory information.
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social interaction model
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Model, based on Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, which proposes that children construct autobiographical memories through conversation with adults about shared events.
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social speech
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Speech intended to be understood by a listener.
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storage
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Retention of information in memory for future use.
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symbolic function
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Piaget’s term for ability to use mental representations (words, numbers, or images) to which a child has attached meaning.
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systems of action
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Increasingly complex combinations of motor skills, which permit a wider or more precise range of movement and more control of the environment.
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theory of mind
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Awareness and understanding of mental processes.
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transduction
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Piaget’s term for a preoperational child’s tendency to mentally link particular phenomena, whether or not there is logically a causal relationship.
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working memory
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Short-term storage of information being actively processed.
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zone of proximal development (ZPD)
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Vygotsky’s term for the difference between what a child can do alone and what the child can do with help.
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altruism
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Behavior intended to help others out of inner concern and without expectation of external reward; may involve selfdenial or self-sacrifice.
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authoritarian parenting
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In Baumrind’s terminology, parenting style emphasizing control and obedience.
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authoritative parenting
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In Baumrind’s terminology, parenting style blending respect for a child’s individuality with an effort to instill social values.
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constructive play
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Play involving use of objects or materials to make something.
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corporal punishment
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Use of physical force with the intention of causing pain but not injury so as to correct or control behavior.
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discipline
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Methods of molding children’s character and of teaching them to exercise self-control and engage in acceptable behavior.
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dramatic play
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Play involving imaginary people or situations; also called pretend play, fantasy play, or imaginative play.
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formal games with rules
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Organized games with known procedures and penalties.
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functional play
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Play involving repetitive large muscular movements.
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gender constancy
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Awareness that one will always be male or female; also called sexcategory constancy.
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gender identity
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Awareness, developed in early childhood, that one is male or female.
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gender roles
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Behaviors, interests, attitudes, skills, and traits that a culture considers appropriate for each sex; differ for males and females.
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gender segregation
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Tendency to select playmates of one’s own gender.
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gender stereotypes
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Preconceived generalizations about male or female role behavior.
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gender-schema theory
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Theory, proposed by Bem, that children socialize themselves in their gender roles by developing a mentally organized network of information about what it means to be male or female in a particular culture.
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gender-typing
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Socialization process by which children, at an early age, learn appropriate gender roles.
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ideal self
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Theself one would like to be.
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identification
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In Freudian theory, the process by which a young child adopts characteristics, beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviors of the parent of the same sex.
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inductive techniques
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Disciplinary techniques designed to induce desirable behavior by appealing to a child’s sense of reason and fairness.
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initiative versus guilt
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Erikson’s third stage in psychosocial development, in which children balance the urge to pursue goals with reservations about doing so.
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instrumental aggression
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Aggressive behavior used as a means of achieving a goal.
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overt (direct) aggression
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Aggression that is openly directed at its target.
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permissive parenting
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In Baumrind’s terminology, parenting style emphasizing self-expression and self-regulation.
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power assertion
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Disciplinary strategy designed to discourage undesirable behavior through physical or verbal enforcement of parental control.
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prosocial behavior
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Any voluntary behavior intended to help others.
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real self
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The self one actually is.
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relational (social or indirect) aggression
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Aggression aimed at damaging or interfering with another person’s relationships, reputation, or psychological wellbeing.
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representational mappings
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In neo-Piagetian terminology, second stage in development of self-definition, in which a child makes logical connections between aspects of the self but still sees these characteristics in all-ornothing terms.
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self-concept
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Sense of self; descriptive and evaluative mental picture of one’s abilities and traits.
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self-definition
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Cluster of characteristics used to describe oneself.
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self-esteem
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The judgment a person makes about his or her self-worth.
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single representations
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In neo-Piagetian terminology, first stage in development of self-definition, in which children describe themselves in terms of individual, unconnected characteristics and in all-or-nothing terms.
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social cognitive theory
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Albert Bandura’s expansion of social learning theory; holds that children learn gender roles through socialization.
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theory of sexual selection
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Darwin’s theory that gender roles developed in response to men’s and women’s differing reproductive needs.
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withdrawal of love
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Disciplinary strategy that involves ignoring, isolating, or showing dislike for a child.
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acceleration programs
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Programs for educating the gifted that move them through the curriculum at an unusually rapid pace.
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attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
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Syndrome characterized by persistent inattention and distractibility, impulsivity, low tolerance for frustration, and inappropriate overactivity.
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bilingual education
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System of teaching non-English-speaking children in their native language while they learn English, and later switching to all-English instruction.
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body image
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Descriptive and evaluative beliefs about one’s appearance.
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class inclusion
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Understanding of the relationship between a whole and its parts.
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componential element
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Sternberg’s term for the analytic aspect of intelligence.
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concrete operations
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Third stage of Piagetian cognitive development (approximately ages 7 to 12), during which children develop logical but not abstract thinking.
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contextual element
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Sternberg’s term for the practical aspect of intelligence.
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convergent thinking
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Thinking aimed at finding the one right answer to a problem.
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creativity
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Ability to see situations in a new way, to produce innovations, or to discern previously unidentified problems and find novel solutions.
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cultural bias
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Tendency of intelligence tests to include items calling for knowledge or skills more familiar or meaningful to some cultural groups than to others.
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decoding
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Process of phonetic analysis by which a printed word is converted to spoken form before retrieval from long-term memory.
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deductive reasoning
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Type of logical reasoning that moves from a general premise about a class to a conclusion about a particular member or members of the class.
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divergent thinking
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Thinking that produces a variety of fresh, diverse possibilities.
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dyslexia
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Developmental disorder in which reading achievement is substantially lower than predicted by IQ or age.
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elaboration
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Mnemonic strategy of making mental associations involving items to be remembered.
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English-immersion approach
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Approach to teaching English as a second language in which instruction is presented only in English.
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enrichment programs
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Programs for educating the gifted that broaden and deepen knowledge and skills through extra activities, projects, field trips, or mentoring.
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executive function
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Conscious control of thoughts, emotions, and actions to accomplish goals or solve problems.
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experiential element
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Sternberg’s term for the insightful or creative aspect of intelligence.
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external memory aids
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Mnemonic strategies using something outside the person.
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inductive reasoning
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Type of logical reasoning that moves from particular observations about members of a class to a general conclusion about that class.
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intellectual disability
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Significantly subnormal cognitive functioning. Also referred to as cognitive disability or mental retardation.
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learning disabilities (LDs)
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Disorders that interfere with specific aspects of learning and school achievement.
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metacognition
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Awareness of a person’s own mental processes.
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metamemory
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Understanding of processes of memory.
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organization
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(1) Piaget’s term for the creation of categories or systems of knowledge. (2) Mnemonic strategy of categorizing material to be remembered.
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phonetic (code-emphasis) approach
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Approach to teaching reading that emphasizes decoding of unfamiliar words.
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pragmatics
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(1) The practical knowledge needed to use language for communicative purposes. (2) Set of linguistic rules that govern the use of language for communication.
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rehearsal
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Mnemonic strategy to keep an item in working memory through conscious repetition.
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rough-and-tumble play
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Vigorous play involving wrestling, hitting, and chasing, often accompanied by laughing and screaming.
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seriation
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Ability to order items along a dimension.
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social capital
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Family and community resources on which a person can draw.
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transitive inference
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Understanding the relationship between two objects by knowing the relationship of each to a third object.
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theory of multiple intelligences
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Gardner’s theory that each person has several distinct forms of intelligence.
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triarchic theory of intelligence
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Sternberg’s theory describing three elements of intelligence: componential, experiential, and contextual.
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two-way (dual-language) learning
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Approach to second-language education in which English speakers and non-Englishspeakers learn together in their own and each other’s languages.
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tacit knowledge
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Sternberg’s term for information that is not formally taught or openly expressed but is necessary to get ahead.
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visually based retrieval
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Process of retrieving the sound of a printed word when seeing the word as a whole.
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whole-language approach
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Approach to teaching reading that emphasizes visual retrieval and use of contextual clues.
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art therapy
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Therapeutic approach that allows a person to express troubled feelings without words, using a variety of art materials and media.
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behavior therapy
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Therapeutic approach using principles of learning theory to encourage desired behaviors or eliminate undesired ones; also called behavior modification.
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bullying
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Aggression deliberately and persistently directed against a particular target, or victim, typically one who is weak, vulnerable, and defenseless.
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childhood depression
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Mood disorder characterized by such symptoms as a prolonged sense of friendlessness, inability to have fun or concentrate, fatigue, extreme activity or apathy, feelings of worthlessness, weight change, physical complaints, and thoughts of death or suicide.
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conduct disorder (CD)
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Repetitive, persistent pattern of aggressive, antisocial behavior violating societal norms or the rights of others.
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coregulation
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Transitional stage in the control of behavior in which parents exercise general supervision and children exercise moment-to-moment self-regulation.
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drug therapy
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Administration of drugs to treat emotional disorders.
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externalizing behaviors
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Behaviors by which a child acts out emotional difficulties; for example, aggression or hostility.
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family therapy
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Psychological treatment in which a therapist sees the whole family together to analyze patterns of family functioning.
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generalized anxiety disorder
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Anxiety not focused on any single target.
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hostile attribution bias
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Tendency to perceive others as trying to hurt one and to strike out in retaliation or self-defense.
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individual psychotherapy
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Psychological treatment in which a therapist sees a troubled person one-on-one.
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industry versus inferiority
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Erikson’s fourth stage of psychosocial development, in which children must learn the productive skills their culture requires or else face feelings of inferiority.
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internalizing behaviors
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Behaviors by which emotional problems are turned inward; for example, anxiety or depression.
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obsessive-compulsive ?disorder (OCD)
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Anxiety aroused by repetitive, intrusive thoughts, images, or impulses, often leading to compulsive ritual behaviors.
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oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)
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Pattern of behavior, persisting into middle childhood, marked by negativity, hostility, and defiance.
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play therapy
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Therapeutic approach that uses play to help a child cope with emotional distress.
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prejudice
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Unfavorable attitude toward members of certain groups outside one’s own, especially racial or ethnic groups.
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protective factors
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(1) Influences that reduce the impact of potentially negative influences and tend to predict positive outcomes. (2) Influences that reduce the impact of early stress and tend to predict positive outcomes.
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representational systems
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In neo-Piagetian terminology, the third stage in development of self-definition, characterized by breadth, balance, and the integration and assessment of various aspects of the self.
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resilient children
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Children who weather adverse circumstances, function well despite challenges or threats, or bounce back from traumatic events.
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separation anxiety disorder
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Condition involving excessive, prolonged anxiety concerning separation from home or from people to whom a person is attached.
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virtue of purpose
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the courage to envision and pursue goals without fear of punishment (Erikson)
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Virtually-based retrieval
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memorizing words and retrieving them
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The “Hurried” Child
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A condition in which parents over-schedule their children’s lives, push them hard for academic success, and expect them to behave and react as miniature adults