Exam #2- History

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The White Man’s Burden
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-1899 -Rudyard Kipling was a leading exponent of British imperialism -poem encouraged American men to join their British counterparts in the global imperial project -used to justify expansion and annexation -colonizers must colonize the savages -describes imperialism as a burden because it was the duty of higher civilizations to uplift inferior nations
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The Strenuous Life
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-1899 -Theodore Roosevelt -urged Americans to embrace a “strenuous life,” one that includes an active role for the US in international affairs
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The Hawaiian Memorial
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-1897 -Hawaiian political groups sent the following petition (memorial) to the US government as a formal request to remove the provisional government of the Hawaiian islands, which they viewed as illegitimate –
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The March of the Flag
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-1898 -Albert Beveridge, who was campaigning to be US senator of India, gave this speech to support the annexation of Spain’s former colonies -during this time, the US still occupied the Philippines -he was a supporter of American imperial policies
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Anti-Imperialism Letter
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-1899 -written by a woman to the local newspaper who had begun to stop supporting the American imperial aspirations -what began as a conflict to free the philippines from spanish control quickly became a struggle to subdue the filipino rebels intent on establishing their own government -scolds women for calling themselves “DAR” but not acting in loving ways and being silent
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Trial Testimony from the Abrams Case
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-1918 -Mollie Steimer, who was the youngest defendant in the Abrams case, who emigrated from Russia. She worked in a factory, and this monotonous life led her to join Frayhayt and anarchist movement -At the proceedings, she offered the following explanation of anarchism -said no group shall be governed by another and everyone should have an equal opportunity to establish themselves -believed in the abolition of all government and the organization of society on a voluntary, cooperative basis without recourse to force or compulsion.
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Workers- Wake Up!
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-1918 -was a pamphlet the Frayhayt distributed that criticized President Wilson -the prosecution translated it into english in a way that made it seem more threatening and dramatic -calls out to the workers that they must not side with the government, for their actions will hurt their own people -their reply must be to strike
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Abrams v. US Dissent
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-1919 (Abrams case and the Red Scare) -Oliver wendell Holmes originally thought that there needed to be a “clear and present danger” but in the Abrams case, he didn’t see there was one, and thought that the gov’t needed a much tougher standard to restrict speech -thought the defendants were deprived of their Constitutional rights and were merely victims of the Red Scare that suppressed radical activity after WWI
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Abrams Case
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in 1919, 5 russians were charged with violating the Espionage and Sedition Acts (made it illegal to speak out against the gov’t; made it illegal to write/say anything critical of America’s involvement in the war) passed during WWI; part of the Frayhayt anarchist group that printed 2 leaflets that criticized President Wilson and the US military intervention against Russia’s gov’t; said that workers should strike against Wilson’s policy; Supreme Court upheld the verdict that they violated these acts
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People need freedom of speech, even during wartime
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-1919 -Zechariah Chafee Jr. -said that the sentences of the Abrams case were too sever, and that the defendants were only guilty of advocating against US interference in the affairs of another nation, NOT inciting antiwar violence -Chaffee argued for the importance of protecting freedom of speech during wartime, and if the Espionage acts exceed the limits of the 1st amendment, it’s unconstitutional -said speech can only be censored when the words give rise to unlawful action
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Man who didnt like the Reds and said we need to get rid of them and their crime
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-1920 -A. Mitchell Palmer, leader of the Palmer Raids (raids against suspected communists that arrested more than 6,000 people, many who were later released) -said that anarchism was bad, the reds were criminal aliens, and the American gov’t must prevent crime
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Plea from one of the Scottsboro 9
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-1930s -Andy Wright -was tried, convicted, and sentenced to death; he was framed and not given a fair trial
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Letter to Eleanor Roosevelt who didnt like the direct relief programs
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-Minnie Hardin -1930s
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recommended using the atomic bomb
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-1945 -scientific advisory panel of the Manhattan Project said that they thought we should use the atomic bomb against Japan because a demonstration wouldn’t end the war, but we need to save American lives instead
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scientists who didn’t think that we should drop the bomb, but instead use alternative methods
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-1945 -70 scientists working on the Manhattan project petitioned to Truman to not drop the bomb -said it would then open the door to this warfare, and it would be our fault -said we must tell Japan what we are going to do and they must have the chance to surrender & Truman must consider the petition before he drops the bomb
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press release on the first atomic bomb “little boy” on Hiroshima before Nagasaki
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-1945 -press release from President Harry Truman about what the bomb was, what its power is, and why it was used against Japan
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the survey that said Japan would surrender
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-1946 -taken by President Truman to see the effectiveness of the atomic bomb -concluded that the use of the atomic bombs was unnecessary because Japan would have surrendered without them in the fall of 1945 -said that they had unconditional surrender
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Priest who observed the damaged cities and dying people
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-1945 -Father Siemes, German priest living in Japan who was an eyewitness -described the thousands of wounded people with burns
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Talked about the Iron Curtain and how *****
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-late 1940s when the soviets were in an armed conflict (cold war) with the US -Winston Churchill condemned Soviet policies in Europe
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We need to be peaceful in the Cold War
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****
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Testimony before HUAC that said he didnt think that communism is able to spread through motion picture
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-1940s -Ronald Reagan, president of the Screen Actors Guild at the time of HUAC investigations -said that hes proud of his industry and that the Screen Actors Guild has no part in communism -says using democracy is the best way to prevent communism
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reluctant testimony before HUAC, would not speak and said his rights were being violated
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-1947 -testimony before HUAC by John Howard Lawson, part of the Hollywood 10 who was imprisoned and black listed for refusing to answer HUACs questions -said that the bill of rights was being violated, and he answered all questions he needed to -it was a violation of his personal rights
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said that she would tell HUAC everything about herself, but no one else
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-1952 -Lillian Hellman, was a playwright devoted to leftist causes who had to testify before HUAC -said that she would use her 5th amendment right in the hearing unless the chairman of HUAC would allow her to not talk about others -“raised in old-fashioned american tradition” where they don’t harm their neighbor
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reflections on the HUAC
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-2000 -Arthur Miller (wrote the Crucible) looked back on HUAC and how it created paranoia and hysteria -defendants were mute -like a witch hunt in America that captured a significant part of the American imagination and its power demanded respect
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said that personal sin is the reason for all the bad things happening in the world in the mid 1900s
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-1958 -Billy Graham, famous preacher of his generation, said that personal sin was the root to all the problems (war, race, crime) and unhappiness in the nation -Jesus is the only resolution -these problems are only symptoms of a larger problem

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